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Admission college essay help zuckerberg

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ap bio enzyme essay Teacher Sourcebook for help zuckerberg, Science Teaching. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and in the time butterflies essay dede, describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the admission help zuckerberg hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and in the time of the butterflies, discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of college, reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is citation essay a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell? 1. A difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is seen in admission the organization of their genetic material. a) DISCUSS the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Phd Dissertation! b) CONTRAST the following activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. - Replicaton of DNA. - Transcription or translation.

4. Scientists seeking to determine which molecule is responsible for the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next knew that the. (1) copy itself precisely. (2) be stable but able to be changed. (3) be complex enough to determine the organism's phenotype. EXPLAIN how DNA meets each of the three criteria stated above. Select ONE of the criteria stated above and DESCRIBE experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y). segment above. Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and admission college help, went to completion. II.

DNA digested with only enzyme Y. III. Butterflies Essay Dede! DNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combined. Admission Help Zuckerberg! IV. Undigested DNA. (1) The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes. (2) The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for enzyme Y. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the research for dissertation three that you have chosen, explain how the college help process of phd dissertation defense, recognition occurs and college essay zuckerberg, give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. In The Time Essay! Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachments of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending with the admission college help zuckerberg release of the essay dede polypeptide from the ribosome. Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process. Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and college help zuckerberg, replication of DNA.

Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation. Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of. messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein synthesis in. Describe the production and processing of a protein that will be exported from a. eukaryotic cell. Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA. template and end with the release of the protein at the plasma membrane. Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning. DNA. Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence. for the chemical nature of the gene. a. Hershey and Chase - bacteriophage replication. b. Griffith and Avery - bacterial transformation. c. Meselson and Stahl - DNA replication in bacteria. A portion of a specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets: TAC GAA CTT CGG TCC. This DNA sequence codes for the following short polypeptide: methionine - leucine - glutamic acid - proline - arginine. Essay! a) Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide. b) What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides?

What would be the effect of a substitution in one of the nucleotides? In relation to the chemical nature of the gene, describe: a. the chemical structure of the gene. b. the college help zuckerberg replication (self-copying) of the gene. c. Citation Essay! gene mutations, including chromosomal aberrations. Proteins are composed of amino acid subunits which form stable. a. Describe how the genetic instructions coded in DNA are translated into the. primary structure (sequence of amino acid subunits) of a protein molecule. b. Explain how interactions among the individual amino acid subunits influence. the transformation of the molecule into its three-dimensional structure and. how they stabilize it. Zuckerberg! Describe protein synthesis in terms of molecular structures of the. nucleic acids and using a specific example, explain how a new phenotypic. characteristic may result from a change in DNA. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and phd dissertation slides, nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. Admission College Essay Help! c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Challenge! Discuss the college essay help levels of structural organization within proteins which are responsible for specific molecular interaction. The formation of Watson-Crick complementary base pairs between single. strands of molecules of nucleic acids occurs in at least three separate reactions. Discuss each of these reactions from the following points of view: a. the ethics essay type of nucleic acids involved.

b. the college essay help role of each nucleic acid in the duplication of cellular. Biologists and biochemists have made outstanding progress within the past. quarter century in elucidating principles and structures which govern the. activities of research methodology, living matter. College Essay Help Zuckerberg! These areas of progress include the structure. and code of the defense DNA molecule. Discuss this development and its impact on. College Help! biological thought and progress. Your answer should include: b. the names of the dickinson essay most prominent investigators involved. c. the nature of its impact on biology.

Discuss the admission college role of each of the following in novel writing prompts protein synthesis: a. soluble or transfer RNA. b. messenger RNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. College Help! b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. Novel! Discuss the gene, with regard to structure, duplication, mutation, and. nature of action. 4. Essay Help Zuckerberg! The diagram above shows the succession of citation essay, communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on college help, ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of dickinson essay, a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour.

The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to admission college zuckerberg 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the dickinson essay cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels.

Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of admission college essay, recognition occurs and give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. Challenge! e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of essay zuckerberg, THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the dickinson essay cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of admission college essay zuckerberg, abnormal regulation. 2006B RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. Dickinson Essay! 1. Sexual reproduction requires that half of the chromosomes in a zygote come from one parent and admission college help, the other half from the second parent. a) DESCRIBE the process by which a germ cell's complement of chromosomes is halved in citation essay the formation of gametes. b) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce asexually. DESCRIBE the mode of college essay help zuckerberg, asexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of asexual reproduction. c) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce sexually. DESCRIBE the mode of sexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of dickinson essay, sexual reproduction. 1. Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. Admission Essay Zuckerberg! a ) EXPLAIN how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis. b) Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. IDENTIFY ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder?

DESCRIBE how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. c) Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process. Of The Butterflies Essay Dede! DESCRIBE parthenogenesis or cloning and COMPARE the genomes of the offspring with those of the parents. Admission College Essay Help Zuckerberg! 2008 Q1 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. (a) Describe THREE types of phd dissertation, chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. (b) Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following. • Regulation of enzyme activity. 2002 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. Structure related to admission essay function is one of the unifying themes in biology. This relationship between structure and function is novel writing prompts evident in the macromolecules in living systems. For THREE of the FIVE in the following list, describe the structure of the molecule and explain how that structure aids in its function. a. Starch and glycogen as energy storage molecules. b. Cellulose and chitin as structural molecules.

d. phospholipids and their role in cell membranes. e. DNA and admission essay help, its role in determining characteristics in organisms. Citation Essay! Proteins and admission college essay help, nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. Phd Dissertation Defense! a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. Zuckerberg! For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of. structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss. the levels of structural organization within proteins which are. responsible for specific molecular interactions. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its:

a. chemical nature and phd dissertation defense, physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. 1.During an investigation of a freshwater lake, an AP Biology student discovers a previously unknown microscopic organism. Further study shows that the unicellular organism is eukaryotic. (a) Identify FOUR organelles that should be present in the eukaryotic organism and describe the function of each organelle. (b) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotes. However, prokaryotes must perform many of the same functions as eukaryotes.

For THREE of the organelles identified in part (a), explain how prokaryotic cells carry out the associated functions. College Essay Help Zuckerberg! (c) According to the endosymbiotic theory, some organelles are believed to have evolved through a symbiotic relationship between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Research Methodology! Describe THREE observations that support the endosymbiotic theory. 2006 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Respones. 1. A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presences of membrane –bound organelles in eukaryotes. a) DESCRIBE the structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus. Admission Zuckerberg! b) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound organelles in common. DESCRIBE the function of TWO of the following and DISCUSS how each differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. c) EXPLAIN the citation essay endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells and DISCUSS an example of evidence supporting this theory. 2002 Q4 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses.

4. Admission Help Zuckerberg! The following experiment was designed to test whether different concentration gradients affect the rate of diffusion. In this experiment, four solutions (0%, NaCl, 1% NaCl, 5% NaCl, and 10% NaCl) were tested under indentical conditions. Fifteen milliliters (mL) of essay, 0% NaCl were put. a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is permeable to Na+, Cl-, and waer. The same was done for each NaCl solution. Each bag was submerged in a. separate beaker containing 300 mL of distilled water.

The concentration of NaCl in mg/mL in the water outside each bag was measured in college essay 40-second intervals. The results from the methodology 5% bag are shown in the table below. a) On the axes provided, GRAPH the data for essay zuckerberg, the 5% NaCl solution. b) Using the same set of axes, DRAW and LABEL three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for the 0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, and. and 10% NaCl solutions. EXPLAIN your predictions. Of The Butterflies Essay! c) Farmlands located near coastal regions are being threatened by encroaching seawater seeping into the soil. Admission Essay Zuckerberg! In terms of water movement into or out of. Prompts! plant cells, EXPLAIN why seawater could decrease crop production. Include a discussion of water potential in your answer. Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four types of admission essay help, cellular transport. For each of the three transport types you choose, a) describe the transport process and explain how the organization of cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules. Phd Dissertation! across the membrane. b) explain the significance of each type of transport to admission college a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples.) True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females.

All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and challenge essay, the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the admission college help F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from citation essay cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above.

True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. Essay Help! True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females.

All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. Citation Essay! (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the admission data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 1. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth. Select three properties of water and. a) for writing, each property, identify and define the property and explain it in college help zuckerberg terms of the physical/chemical nature of phd dissertation slides, water. b) for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms.

2. Ecological succession describes the pattern of changes in communities over time. The graph below shows changes in help zuckerberg plant diversity following the abandonment of an citation essay agricultural field in a temperate biome. (a) Discuss the admission college essay zuckerberg differences in plant diversity shown in the graph and explain how the changes affect the animal species composition between years 0 and 120. (b) Identify TWO biotic and TWO abiotic factors and discuss how each could influence the pattern of ecological succession. (c) Design a controlled experiment to determine how the diversity of plant species in a newly abandoned field would be affected by large herbivores. Citation Essay! 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the help cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the dickinson essay mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 2. Help! An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and dickinson essay, 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube.

The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the admission essay zuckerberg rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the writing concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an admission college zuckerberg enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme.

True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in ethics challenge the table below. College! True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the in the time of the butterflies F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. Admission College Essay Help Zuckerberg! Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III?

Explain how the ethics challenge essay data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and college essay help zuckerberg, discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in dickinson essay Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the admission college stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. Dickinson Essay! (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the admission college zuckerberg immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 3. Citation Essay! A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from admission college help part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell?

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The Origins of admission zuckerberg World War I: Assessing the Historiography. Spurred by modern warfare’s advanced technology, World War I proved to be an unprecedented display of death and devastation. From the rubble and smoky haze of the defense, war’s aftermath emerged the equally unprecedented practice of seeking out and admission help punishing those deemed responsible. Of The. Confused and traumatized by the horrors of the Great War, Europeans demanded an college essay help zuckerberg, explanation, triggering—for the research methodology for dissertation, first time in history—a large-scale campaign waged by governments, politicians, journalists, novelists and scholars to ascribe blame to the guiltiest nation. This debate, debuting at essay zuckerberg the war’s start and ever intensifying with no end in sight, has resulted in what historian Christopher Clark describes as “an historical literature of unparalleled size, sophistication, and moral intensity.” [1] The pervasive and enduring discussion of entangling alliances and fierce international competition provides modern leaders with a case study in decision making. John F. Kennedy, for example, requested that his cabinet read Barbara Tuchman’s famous analysis of WWI, The Guns of August, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, while President Jimmy Carter has written about the value of considering the essay, war’s origins when confronting today’s international crises. [2] In the past century, a variety of hypotheses regarding responsibility has been presented and admission college essay certain schools have fallen in ethics challenge essay, and out of esteem. The debate—originally centered on essay help zuckerberg, Germany’s alleged war-guilt—eventually drifted towards notions of collective culpability, giving rise in the1930s to the conviction that no single nation was to blame, only armaments, alliances, failed diplomacy and dickinson essay imperialistic capitalism. [3] But this school has its inherent problems. The position relies on the examination of broad forces and trends (like imperialism) at college help zuckerberg the expense of the actions of in the time essay dede individuals. Its followers fail to take into account the admission college essay, unique nature of each of the great powers and the distinct ways in which nations pursued the very types of policies they criticize. The debate gradually subsided throughout the 1940s and 50s.

That is, until West German historian Fritz Fischer’s explosive work in the 1960s inspired new scholarship, portraying WWI as a conscious German design for either power or distraction from its growing social unrest. [4] Like other schools, these polemics have their merits, but they fail to fully answer the dickinson essay, war-guilt question. Fischer and his followers give the Second Reich too much credit for its ability to be efficient and organized. In fact, the Kaiserreich was particularly disorganized. College Essay Help Zuckerberg. Germany’s rootless policy and ill-defined ambitions would have been significant obstacles to any strategic planning and execution of war. More recent scholarship tends to examine individual countries. The British, French, and Russians have all been indicted, to varying degrees, for their isolation of Germany. Dickinson Essay. Austria-Hungary has been blamed countless times for essay, its methods in dealing with Serbia. If the vast historiography has reached any consensus, it is that no country can be completely absolved of novel prompts guilt. The tendency of the German nation, however, after 1890, to act with negligence and a lack of focus in admission essay help zuckerberg, its misguided efforts to grapple with domestic turmoil and navigate the European system, resulted in a dangerously unpredictable, alienating policy, setting the stage for general conflagration in ethics, 1914. The encyclopedic discussion and dissection of the war, and college essay Germany’s role in particular, exposes a certain ambivalence in phd dissertation, the Second Reich’s politics.

Germany is regularly found at the root of many of the causes of conflict that are examined in WWI literature and admission college essay help the war’s extensive historiography—a historiography with as compelling a story as the war’s origins itself. According to novel prompts historian Dennis Showalter, “The understanding of the First World War is connected more than that of any other modern conflict with the war’s historiography” because its written history developed as soon as fighting did. At the onset of war in August 1914, “color books,” named for each country’s uniquely hued cover, were written for “domestic and international consumption” in admission, an attempt to rally support at home and sympathy abroad. [5] The Belgian Grey Book , the Austrian Red Book , the French Yellow Book , the Russian Black Book and the German White Book were edited collections of highly selective and dubious (half of the ethics essay, Deutsches Weissbuch ’s thirty documents are believed to be forgeries) political papers released by the state in order to prove the college zuckerberg, defensive, and therefore justifiable, nature of the respective government’s decision to fight. [6] Efforts continued in September as a German government-sponsored committee wrote a defense of its country entitled Truth about Germany: Facts about the War . In England, six Oxford historians were charged with a similar task, producing Why We Are at War: Great Britain’s Case, a highly critical account of the Second Reich’s alleged militarism and expansionist aims. [7] In May 1919, Germany published a second White Book, Deutschland Shuldig? ( Germany Guilty? ), as a means of in the time dede preempting the coming Treaty of admission college zuckerberg Versailles. [8] The Treaty, signed June 28, 1919, dispensed harsh punishment to the war’s losers, forcing Germany to reduce its military, cede significant territory and novel pay reparations. The conditions of the agreement were justified by a clause, Article 231, which expressly blamed Germany for essay, the twentieth century’s great disaster. Horrified by the financial and moral implications of this “war-guilt clause” (a French idea), Germany worked with alacrity to disprove the charges, granting unprecedented access to sources and archives to patriotic, nationalistic—and often government-funded—historians, encouraging pro-German work and investigations into the “war-guilt lie.” [9] In 1921, the novel writing, Weimar Republic created the college essay, War Guilt Section. This government body consisted of one branch dedicated to disseminating literature to trade unions and various clubs and another concerned with scholarly research in Germany’s defense. [10] By 1930, this mass propaganda distribution center had 1,700 to 2,000 organizations working to prompts undermine the legitimacy of the admission college essay help zuckerberg, treaty as well as its own academic journal, Die Kriegsschuldfrage . [11] Historians Albrecht Menolelssohn-Bartholdy, Johannes Lepsius and Friedrich Thimme were asked to create a definitive defense and collection of German documents, leading to the controversial, forty-volume Die Grosse Politik der Europaischen Kabinette , published over the course of 1922 to 1927. As German government official and industrialist Walter Ratheneau told the research for dissertation, Reichstag on June 13, 1922, the book was intended to absolve Germany morally, once and for all. [12]

Fearing the prospect of a WWI historiography dictated by Germany, Europe responded. Britain, France and the newly-formed Soviet Union were quick to counter with their own edited accounts of the war, strategically placing blame where they saw fit. [13] London released British Documents on the Origins of the college zuckerberg, War 1898-1914 , an official collection ordered by Foreign Secretary Ramsay MacDonald, in installments from 1926 to 1938 as an answer to Die Grosse Politik. In France, Raymond Poincare, president during the war, originally resisted any publications for fear they might undermine the presumption of German war guilt. Citation Essay. Nonetheless, he eventually begged the high-ranking diplomat, Maurice Paleologue (who preferred a posthumous publication) to release documents, recognizing that the debate would carry on with or without France. The Ministry of Public Instruction, the government body responsible for historical inquiry into the war, created the journal, Revue d’histoire de la guerre mondiale , and published its own definitive collection, Documents diplomatiques francais 1871-1914 , in essay help, 1936. [14] Russian WWI historiography has a unique origin. The Bolshevik Party came to power in November 1917 with an dickinson essay, ostensible commitment to abolishing secret diplomacy. College Help Zuckerberg. [15] In keeping with that promise, the Soviet government vowed to release war-relevant documents, which were ultimately published through scattered sources and in an unfinished three-volume work. [16] The Soviets were also equally dedicated to, as historian Niall Ferguson says, portraying the war as “an imperialist self-immolation scene,” thus incriminating the tsarist regime. Research. [17] A brainchild of the state, the journal Krasnyi Arkhiv , which published 106 issues from 1922 to 1941, focused on exposing the previous capitalistic, imperialistic government. [18] In an attempt to legitimize the revolution, the Soviet Union, unlike other nations, strategically selected documents in hopes of implicating its own country in the war’s origins. The harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles sparked non-state sponsored debate as well. A school of admission help zuckerberg thought emerged in the 1920s that questioned the extreme notion of Germany’s sole responsibility and hoped to citation essay eradicate the war-guilt clause and massive reparations. These “revisionists” sought to find a more moderate truth, while some even proposed the idea of Triple Entente, specifically British, French and Russian, culpability.

Naturally, these ideas took the essay, strongest hold in Germany. A pioneer in revisionism, German historian Max Montgelas came to the defense of his country in writing, The Case for essay help, the Central Powers , making claims that Germany and Austria-Hungary had only intended to maintain the status quo. In The Of The Dede. Instead, he argues, it was the Franco-Russian alliance that harbored belligerent goals, specifically the reclaiming of college essay Alsace-Lorraine and the Straights that connected the Black and Mediterranean Sea. Dickinson Essay. [19] Writing in 1927 at Leipzig University, historian Erich Brandenburg admitted his country’s possible “short-sightedness,” but insisted vehemently that Germany had never intended to incite a war. Essay Zuckerberg. [20] Outside of Germany there were very few European scholars calling for the revision of Article 231, though British historians G. In The Time Of The. P. Gooch and Edmund D. Morel and essay French historian George Demartial did argue against their profession’s complacency and advocated for truth over citation essay patriotism. [21] It was in fact the United States that became the biggest target for war-guilt propaganda. The German Foreign Ministry corresponded with American Senator Robert L. Owen, requesting a review of the war-guilt clause. This partnership engendered overseas discussion, prompting a speech before the U.S. Senate on December 18, 1923 in which Senator Owen made appeals on Germany’s behalf. [22]

Many American scholars, like Harry Elmer Barnes, came to college help accept the writing, revisionist philosophy. His work, The Genesis of the help, World War: An Introduction to the Problem of dickinson essay War Guilt is an angry critique of the admission essay zuckerberg, historiographical status quo and a fierce condemnation of the Versailles Treaty. Phd Dissertation Slides. In his 1926 treatise, he contends that Germany had every right to assemble a navy or expand its empire in admission college essay help, the twentieth century just as all European powers had. In fact, Poincare and writing Russian diplomat Alexander Izvolsky were incendiary figures from the start, looking to convert Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Sazonov to their “war party.” [23] Another respected American historian, Sidney Bradshaw Fay, published Origins of the World War in 1928, which, while not an outright indictment of the Entente, supports much of what Barnes argues. [24] The German government went to great lengths to encourage this kind of zuckerberg American revisionism, regularly inviting Fay to contribute to phd dissertation defense its historical journal, and purchasing 250 copies of his book to admission college be issued to diplomats. The War Guilt Section provided Barnes with research material, propagated his writings, funded visits to phd dissertation slides Berlin, Munich and college essay help zuckerberg Vienna and translated his book into of the dede, German and French to admission college essay help be distributed overseas. Methodology For Dissertation. [25] The revisionists inevitably spawned the anti-revisionists, a group whose work was highly censored in the Weimar Republic. Zuckerberg. The scholarship of Bernadotte Schmitt, a professor of modern history at the University of Chicago, was never translated into German. [26] His study, The Origins of the research methodology, First World War , upheld traditional views depicting Austria-Hungary as the instigator of admission college essay help war and Germany as its all-important ally and supporter. [27] Prominent French scholar, Pierre Renouvin, a professor of contemporary history at the Sorbonne, published The Immediate Origins of the War in 1927 and was one of the first historians to directly respond to and criticize the phd dissertation slides, revisionists. Admission Essay Help. [28] Also from the Sorbonne, Professor Camille Bloch wrote in defense of the Versailles verdict in 1935 in The Causes of the World War, claiming that the German Kaiser and Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg had intended violent conflict in hopes of capitalizing on France’s and ethics Russia’s unpreparedness. [29] The debate’s extreme, polarizing nature waned as the end of the admission help, 1920s and beginning of the 1930s gave rise to a new, more palatable view.

A belief in shared culpability and a sort of dickinson essay fortuitous stumbling into conflict gained in admission college help zuckerberg, popularity as nations tried to put the tensions of the First World War behind them. The rise of Marxism and a general criticism of the post-industrialized society worked in concert with a more liberal Europe’s attempt to heal itself after the war, leading to the creation of a new school of thought based on a collective responsibility. WWI was deemed by many a “war that no one wanted”—a “failure of systems rather than a product of decisions.” [30] Failed diplomacy, the arms race and the entangling alliances that dominated the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were seen as chief causes for fighting’s outbreak. [31] The release of many famous wartime memoirs reinforced this idea. Bethmann-Hollweg’s and ethics challenge British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey’s accounts, published between 1919 and admission essay help 1921, and in dickinson essay, 1925, respectively, are descriptions of the impossible positions in which politicians found themselves in July 1914. First Lord of the Admiralty at the start of the war, Winston Churchill’s The World Crisis , published between 1923 and 1931, as well as the admission college help, memoirs of Prime Minister David Lloyd George (1933), depict the world struggle as an inevitable phenomenon beyond anyone’s control. [32] This change in ethics challenge, historiography offered a chance to improve international relations—a development even more desirable after World War II. With the international community of scholars moving towards a consensus of collective accountability, French and German historians met in 1951 in college essay help zuckerberg, Paris and Mainz to time of the essay dede eliminate one-sided textbooks and admission college zuckerberg create an agreed-upon, uniform, historical curriculum. [33] The conclusions of the ethics, French, led by college help zuckerberg, Renouvin, and the Germans, under the leadership of historian Gerhard Ritter, marked a shift toward moderation on both sides: the portions of the report regarding WWI describe the Franco-Russian pact as merely a natural product of the alliance system and any German aggression as the manifestation of very legitimate fears of encirclement. [34] Even those who preserved the creed of German guilt in the post-WWII era did so in a much more moderate way. Italian historian Luigi Albertini’s three-volume treatise, Le origini della guerra del 1914, published in Milan between 1942 and 1943, asserts that Germany urged Austria-Hungary to strike against Serbia in 1914, but not with the intent to ignite a general conflict. While Albertini’s work ascribes most of the blame to the Central Powers, namely Austria-Hungary and Germany, it appealed to readers on both sides of the debate, as his scholarship is also highly critical of Poincare, Grey and Sazonov. [35] In 1954, historian Raymond Aron published The Century of Total War . Although the work builds on the belief of citation essay Renouvin that the statesmen of Berlin and Vienna wrongfully risked war, it illustrates the complexities of the conflict that Aron contends cannot be reduced to the guilty and the guiltless. [36] The idea that war was accidental or simply a product of the flawed European system continued to appear in WWI literature.

One of the most legendary and popular portrayals of this stumbling into war was The Guns of admission essay zuckerberg August , published by in the time butterflies essay, historian Barbara Tuchman in essay, 1962. Tuchman claims that as July 1914 came to time of the essay dede a close and war looked more and more probable, “governments struggled and twisted to admission college essay fend it off,” but “it was no use.” [37] In a famous investigation into the power of army schedules released in citation essay, 1969, British historian A. J. P. Taylor asserts that the help zuckerberg, extreme focus on speedy and efficient military timetables forced countries to become increasingly unwilling to in the time of the butterflies essay dede turn to diplomacy, for fear of becoming weeks, days, or even precious hours behind in college essay help zuckerberg, their plans. Challenge Essay. [38] Taylor lays most of the responsibility on admission college, the Central Powers, yet he fits partially into the collective culpability school, believing the ethics challenge, war was in no way “deliberate,” but actually “produced by muddle.” [39] Historian David Stevenson suggests in “The Politics of the Two Alliances” that while alliances were not solely to blame for college help zuckerberg, war, it is impossible to explain the decisions made by the major powers during July 1914 without considering the writing prompts, hostile, two-bloc European system. [40] Equally concerned with international relations, historian John Keegan’s corpus describes a world that was turning away from diplomacy and towards military action. Keegan concedes that A. J. P. Taylor was too extreme in his conclusion that military timetables had caused war, but asserts that Prussia’s success with timetables in 1870 prompted Europe to become increasingly concerned with mobilization dates and further entrenched in secret alliances and admission essay inflexible war plans. “Secret plans,” Keegan claims, “determined that any crisis not settled by sensible diplomacy would, in the circumstances prevailing in Europe in 1914, lead to general war.” [41] Historian Paul Kennedy similarly cites the European environment, plagued by the effects of modernization, industrialization and urbanization, as a cause of war.

In The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , Kennedy focuses on the growing suspicion and rivalries in Europe, coupled with the novel writing prompts, creation of agreements and military pacts. Essay Zuckerberg. This coalition mentality, Kennedy argues, encouraged countries to act in haste during crises like that of July 1914. [42] Modris Eksteins, a historian also concerned with the active underlying forces of European society, goes so far as to depict WWI as a sort of social conflict. He argues that a more progressive, avant-garde Germany was forced to assert itself to the conservative, old-fashioned Anglo-French. Phd Dissertation Slides. [43] There are fundamental problems with any school of thinking that holds all, or none, accountable. Essay Help. In her book, The War that Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 , historian Margaret MacMillan even describes it as “dangerous thinking” to dickinson essay accept WWI as an inevitability. Of course there were underlying factors—trends and circumstances—that helped to college essay zuckerberg create an environment conducive to war, but there were also individuals responsible for their countries’ policies and decision-making. [44] Leading up to in the time dede the conflict, Europe was a web of provocative alliances. Stevenson makes a valid point that general war was much more likely after “industrialization…transformed the power to produce and admission college help destroy” and because “central military antagonism polarized the two big blocs.” [45] This arms race and sense of rivalry, however, is not evidence in itself that all nations were equally culpable.

More important is how the powers responded to dickinson essay this environment, and that one nation, above all, still felt powerful enough to compete on the world stage, but that its position was becoming increasingly precarious. Germany, in other words, felt as though the window of opportunity to prove itself in this type of tense, competitive Europe was quickly closing. [46] There is no significant evidence that any nation hoped for or designed a world war, but the Second Reich, with its fatalistic mentality, maintained a unique willingness to resort to violence. By 1912, most German military commanders painted a very bleak picture for admission college essay, their civilian government. They were convinced that the international geopolitical situation was turning against their country and that Europe’s other armies were poised only to become more potent and better equipped as time went on. [47] As early as December 8, 1912 at the now infamous “war council” held at the Royal Palace in Berlin, German government officials were already discussing the importance of citation essay British neutrality, the production of U-boats and efforts to popularize war. [48] At the meeting, Germany’s leaders expressed confidence in the likelihood of a victory for their nation as long as fighting were to take place before Russian armament increases in 1916; as Helmuth von Moltke, the admission essay help, German chief of ethics essay staff put it: “War the sooner the help zuckerberg, better.” [49] Although this conference did not result in, as some historians would argue, a design for war (the specific naval expansion and propaganda campaign proposed by the Kaiser never came to fruition), it showed, as Christopher Clark says, that Berlin was “strikingly untroubled by the prospect of such an outcome.” [50] More important, it exhibits the way in dickinson essay, which the German generals doubted there being any chance to break their country’s encirclement through peaceful measures. Admission College Essay Zuckerberg. [51] In the years leading up to war, the Second Reich’s leaders did not want to fight, but felt increasingly like they might not have a choice. As conflict seemed more and more inevitable, historian Michael Howard argues, “war avoidance” became a low priority. [52] In their clumsiness, the Germans even exposed their frighteningly cavalier attitude towards combat to the international community when, in November 1913, King Albert of Belgium met with Wilhelm in Berlin. Citation Essay. The Belgian military attache reported that the Kaiser talked of marching on Paris while Moltke spewed similar bellicosities about the likelihood of an impending war with France. Admission College Essay Help. [53] Even in the first half of 1914, a peaceful time when conflict seemed less likely than it had in the past, men like Moltke and Generals Alfred von Waldersee and Alfred von Schlieffen still insisted war would prove unavoidable. [54] Moltke and Bethmann-Hollweg believed that if fighting must break out, it was imperative that it be before French and Russian military expansion in one or two years’ time. [55] Waldersee even wrote in his personal journals that though Germany had no reason to fear any imminent attacks, they had equally little reason to avoid war, as their success seemed probable. [56]

Some historians have nonetheless chosen to phd dissertation focus on systems, rather than these types of college statements from citation essay, individuals. The shift in help zuckerberg, historiographical thinking in the 1930s, coupled with the ethics challenge, rise of Marxism, also led to a more literal Marxist interpretation of the Great War—a view in which gluttonous capitalism and competitive imperialism were to admission college essay help zuckerberg blame for hostilities. [57] This school had early origins with Lenin’s pamphlet “Imperialism: The Highest Stage of prompts Capitalism” in 1916. Lenin states that “under capitalism the home market is inevitably bound up with the foreign market” and because the capitalistic countries of the world had already seized and divided up all unoccupied territory by the turn of the twentieth century, only redistribution, and therefore conflict, was possible. He also expresses his own perspective on the nascent historiography extant at the time of his work’s publication: “bourgeois scholars,” writes Lenin, were defending imperialism “in veiled forms” as they fumbled with “partial and secondary details,” ignoring the real crux of the issue. [58] Lenin laid the groundwork for admission college essay zuckerberg, a less widely-accepted way of thinking, but one that continued to dickinson essay appear periodically in WWI historiography. Admission College Essay. Some researchers investigating the origins of the novel prompts, First World War went so far as to say that the private sector—businessmen and manufacturing companies—encouraged governments to college essay help declare war, hoping to citation essay profit from the lucrative armaments market.

One German historian, Willibald Gutsche, rationalizes WWI as the work of greedy steel and mining companies, large banks, engineers and shipping firms. [59] Left-wing British politician, Konni Zilliacus, makes the claim in admission essay help zuckerberg, his Mirror of the phd dissertation slides, Past: A History of Secret Diplomacy (1946) that the admission college help, plutocracy financed organizations like Navy, Air and Empire Leagues, Colonial Societies, and British capitalist parties, which lobbied successfully for ethics essay, imperialism, protectionism and armaments. Help Zuckerberg. Zilliacus also asserts that each country was “defending its imperial interests” and, in a sense, fought a preventative war, attempting to preemptively restrain other powers from achieving economic dominance on the continent. [60] Similarly focused on imperialism, historian Eric Hobsbawm’s Age of Empire , published in 1987, scrutinizes the pre-war fixation with competition and formal conquest. He concedes that the citation essay, Marxist interpretation is not a complete explanation, but believes that “the development of capitalism inevitably pushed the world in admission help zuckerberg, the direction of state rivalry, imperialistic expansion, conflict, and phd dissertation war” and hurried along the “uncontrolled slide” into catastrophe. [61] Although, as historian Roland Stromberg observes, the idea that capitalism was at the root of WWI is “as old as the war itself,” this thesis is far from an answer to the war-guilt question. [62] The biggest problem with this rationale is that Anglo-German trade had seen dramatic increases between 1904 and help zuckerberg 1914. During this time, Great Britain was Germany’s best customer, and Germany was Great Britain’s second largest export market. [63] The overwhelming belief in London in the twentieth century was that war would induce economic chaos, not prosperity, and possibly even political dissent from the left. A motion put before the House of Commons in April 1897 had called attention to inadequate food production in England, leaving the nation’s leaders wary of the fiscal implications of time dede fighting or blockade up until and throughout the war. [64] Furthermore, the most outspoken German advocates of war, like the Pan-German League and Parti Colonial were comprised of mostly teachers and intellectuals who had virtually no connection to big business. [65] Capitalism did have its effect on world events in that the admission essay zuckerberg, imperialism it helped, in part, to phd dissertation defense inspire was a major source of tension and one of the admission college help zuckerberg, chief catalysts in triggering confrontation. Countries like China, Morocco and Egypt became highly sought-after prizes and diplomatic battlegrounds as each country pursued its own goals of challenge essay economic expansion and worldwide prestige. As colonies and foreign markets were divided up among the powers, conflict naturally ensued and the world changed: according to historian Joachim Remak, had it not been for pressures and admission college essay help zuckerberg disagreements in Africa and Asia, British Foreign Secretary Lord Lansdowne would not have considered abandoning non-alignment when he came to power in 1900 or felt it necessary to negotiate a defensive agreement with the French—the Entente Cordiale—In 1904 . [66] It was German imperialism, though, and German foreign policy that did the most irreversible damage.

Not unified until 1871, Germany had to organize and industrialize rapidly to dickinson essay stay on par with the rest of the top nations of the world. It did not acquire many useful colonies—Germany had come late to the imperialistic party—and always felt left behind and inadequate as a world power. [67] When the country was ready to help zuckerberg embrace overseas expansion, most of the world’s valuable possessions had already been claimed. Prompts. Ironically, as historian Zara Steiner states: “It was the admission college essay help, British example which provided both the impulse and the obstacle to research German expansion.” [68] The Second Reich’s leaders in 1890 did not heed the words of their former Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, that Germany was in fact a territorially satiated nation. [69] Instead, they adopted a bizarre foreign policy and embarked on ever-changing, ambiguous goals of arbitrary imperialism. Great Britain was never against legitimate German efforts to expand. Grey was only concerned about British possessions, not, for instance, German efforts to admission college secure ports and coaling stations, penetration of Sweden, Denmark and Holland, or work on the Berlin-Baghdad Railroad. [70] Writing in a memorandum, British diplomat Sir Eyre Crowe acknowledges that his nation should not deter peaceful and legitimate German expansion. In the same document, however, Crowe describes Teutonic expansion as vague and unpredictable, instilling in him a genuine fear that Germany may be more forceful in further attempts to assert itself to the rest of Europe. [71] It was not the idea of German imperialism per se that led to a hostile Europe, but rather the in the time of the essay dede, way in which its policies were carried out. Great Britain was left constantly guessing at admission essay zuckerberg the Germans’ actual aims, leading the British to misconstrue their motives. As Remak states, with an phd dissertation slides, expanding industry, Germany had the right to seek out markets and college essay natural resources, but so often its foreign policy defied “rational explanation” and writing prompts was just “action for essay help, action’s sake.” [72]

Historian Richard Hamilton characterizes Wilhelmine imperialism along the lines of “bullying tactics.” In 1894 alone, Germany instigated arguments over Samoa, the Congo, the Sudan, Morocco, Turkey, and Portugal’s African colonies. “The tactics,” Hamilton says, “were unpleasant and the apparent lack of motive confused and annoyed the British without producing any serious gain for Germany.” [73] The effects of this alienating, alarming and phd dissertation seemingly random foreign policy became most apparent during the college zuckerberg, Moroccan Crises, as indiscriminate attempts to dickinson essay weaken Anglo-French relations only admission essay help zuckerberg, resulted in challenge, further German isolation. [74] In March 1905, the Kaiser landed in Tangier, Morocco and publicly announced his support for its independence. He then asked for an international conference to vote for an open door policy and prohibit the French’s exclusive influence in the northwest African country. Despite France’s willingness to compromise (the influential anti-German diplomat, Theophile Delcasee, was dismissed and a part of Morocco was offered to Germany), the Wilhelmine government insisted on staging the conference, which convened in Algeciras in 1906. Remak describes the British as “disturbed” by college help, the “German bullying” and when a vote was finally taken, only Austria-Hungary sided with Germany. [75] The incident at Tangier not only intensified the growing British suspicions of the Second Reich, but the initial capitulation of the French exposed Paris’s weakness, and London’s need to protect its fellow Entente member. The Anglo-French relationship became stronger than ever before. [76] While no binding agreements were reached, the Moroccan Crisis sparked informal military discussions between the French and the British about novel writing prompts theoretical army sizes and coordinated strategies. [77] In 1911, there was a native revolt in Morocco, which warranted French military intervention.

The Germans, in a theatrical attempt to remind the admission essay, French that Morocco was still nominally independent, yet ostensibly to protect German citizens in South Morocco (in true clandestine and unintelligible German fashion, the foreign ministry only used this excuse well after the event), sent a gunboat, the Panther , to Agadir during the crisis. [78] Germany had no real designs in Morocco. There were no hopes for gaining territory or any need to defend its commercial interests there. The Germans were simply motivated by misguided efforts to cultivate prestige and weaken British and French relations. [79] In fact, although Germany intended to force France into negotiations, the Germans were in Morocco for an entire month before they decided what it was that they were demanding. Eventually, 100,000 square miles of territory in Central Africa was given to Germany in novel prompts, exchange for its recognition of help zuckerberg a French protectorate over Morocco. [80] For such little actual gain, the methodology for dissertation, Germans suffered significant diplomatic losses in the Agadir Crisis: the Anglo-French Entente grew stronger once again due to the growing mistrust in their mutual enemy and European leaders felt increasingly certain that they would never be able to essay understand or predict Germany’s opaque foreign policy. Dickinson Essay. [81] Yet in the 1930s, WWI historiography’s early years of dissecting imperialism, many believed that colonization in general, not one country’s actions, generated enough conflict and admission college zuckerberg competition to citation essay precipitate war. As shared responsibility remained the zuckerberg, consensus among the scholarly community continuing into the 1940s, and Europe was distracted by the plunge into another world war, the once loud and heated debate fell nearly silent. Overshadowed by the horrors of WWII and with a sense that the question had been answered, the war-guilt discussion lay dormant for many years. Nowhere in prompts, the world was there more unanimity about the war’s origins than in Germany.

The Weimar Republic’s innocence campaign had been so successful and so pervasive that German historians followed suit, becoming increasingly entrenched in their views and unapologetic in their defense of the admission essay help, Second Reich. Dickinson Essay. Moreover, in the time of the Third Reich, those who voiced their support of the Versailles verdict risked losing their jobs. Essay. Hitler put a stop to all WWI inquiry, fearing his regime might be undermined or eclipsed by essay, memories of the Kaiserreich . In the admission essay help, 1940s and 1950s, Germans continued to believe that their country held no–or at worst–secondary blame for WWI. [82] It was in this environment that historian Fritz Fischer published Griff nach der Weltmacht in West Germany in 1961. His book, eventually translated into English as Germany’s Aims in the First World War , though claiming to be “neither an indictment nor a defense,” implicated the Germans as being chiefly responsible for the war’s outbreak. Fischer describes Germany as unrelenting in its quest for world power, a navy comparable to England’s, a central European customs union and an opportunity to overturn the colonial status quo.

The controversial historian argues that the Second Reich’s war-time goals and campaigns for dominance and annexation as laid out by Bethmann-Hollweg’s Septemberprogramme— German plans created in the first few weeks of WWI — were not a matter of writing prompts opportunity, but a continuation of fully-formed ambitions discussed well before fighting began. As early as 1912, he contends, Rathenau had completed plans for a Central European customs union, approved by admission, Bethmann-Hollweg. Before the war, the German chancellor was concerned about Russia’s abundant natural resources and manpower and believed France to be a chief obstacle that needed to be eliminated. Writing. Germany, Fischer maintains, encouraged Austria-Hungary to admission confront Serbia in 1914. The Second Reich did so with “eyes wide open,” knowing that Russia would never let the dual monarchy “act in the Balkans unopposed” and that a general war was not only possible, but likely. Of The Butterflies Essay Dede. [83]

The book sparked a furious backlash. Admission College Essay Help Zuckerberg. In the introduction to dickinson essay a later, translated version, historian James Joll describes the work as being at “the centre of one of the most violent academic controversies,” reigniting the debate over a question thought to be long answered in West Germany. [84] Internationally, Fischer did not present an entirely new view on the issue (his work agreed, in large part, with the popular and widely accepted scholarship of admission college essay help zuckerberg Albertini and Taylor), but domestically, it was a scandal. In an almost blasphemous betrayal of the patriotic self-censorship that had evolved as German tradition, Fischer became the writing, first major West German historian to admission college help zuckerberg denounce his country as the principal instigator of WWI. Phd Dissertation Defense Slides. These findings had serious implications. As Joll states: “One can understand why those Germans who are willing to accept Hitler’s responsibility for the Second World War and even, to some extent, Germany’s responsibility for Hitler, find it hard to college help zuckerberg reopen the whole question of methodology war guilt in the First World War.” [85] If Prussian militarism was responsible for the entire twentieth century, Hitler was not the anomaly. As a result, Fischer and his “Hamburg School” of followers suffered personal attacks. Fischer was impugned by some as being supported by East Germany, a government striving to discredit its predecessors. [86] West German historian Wolfgang J. Mommsen wrote “The Debate on German War Aims” in direct response to Fischer, criticizing him for essay help zuckerberg, exaggerating evidence and methodology ignoring context and the circumstances in which decisions were made. [87] Gerhard Ritter, known at the time as the “dean of college essay help German historians,” called Fischer an “old Nazi” and accused him in dickinson essay, 1964 at the Congress of the German Historical Association in West Berlin of fabricating sources.

In that same year, the West German government cancelled funding for Fischer’s U.S. tour. [88] Ritter continued to be Fischer’s fiercest critic. Zuckerberg. In his work, he accuses Fischer of taking politicians’ words out of context and confusing nationalist, patriotic rhetoric for actual political intentions. [89] He criticizes Germany’s Aims as being too exaggerated in its depiction of a unique German preoccupation with world power and makes the in the time, case that other nations harbored expansionist strategies too. [90] Ritter believes that only the Second Reich’s generals pushed for annexation. He stands firm with the West German status quo that had developed up until the time of Fischer’s scholarship, depicting the army and the civilian government as having very different agendas, defending the chancellor and ascribing all notions of admission college aggression to the armed forces. [91] Fischer’s disciples include historians like Dirk Stegmann, Barbara Vogel and Peter Christian Witt who went on to expand his theory. Research Methodology. [92] The most outspoken defender of Fischer’s thesis was his student, Imanuel Geiss, a professor of modern history at the University of Breman. Essay Help Zuckerberg. In his work, Geiss disputes what he sees as the illusion of encirclement, describing the two bloc alliances as springing mostly from German militarism and bad policy in their quest for power. [93] He believes that, in the time leading up to the events of in the 1914, the German empire constituted the biggest threat to peace. Germany’s world policy, he maintains, “made war inevitable,” while its pact with Austria-Hungary and admission essay zuckerberg Italy was quickly transformed from a defensive agreement to a “basis for German ambitions as a fledgling world power.” [94] As the Fischerite point of citation essay view gained more traction around the admission, world and time butterflies dede its stigma in West Germany began to admission college zuckerberg erode, the position inspired further theories of a German preemptive strike or an especially aggressive Second Reich bent on world domination—ideas that have occasionally appeared in WWI historiography ever since.

Historian John C. In The Of The Butterflies Dede. G. Rohl believes that Germans were in fact trying to establish hegemony on the continent and that the Kaiser and his staff saw the controversy in July 1914 as a “golden opportunity” to fight the Franco-Russians. [95] In the legacy of Fischer, historian Jerzy Marczewski argues that Wilhelmine policy was nothing short of “maximum expansion,” while historian David Fromkin believes that Moltke and German General Erich von Falkenhayn seized control from the Austro-Hungarians during the Serbian crisis and college zuckerberg crafted the preventative war they had always wanted. Citation Essay. [96] Fischer’s treatise reignited an important dialogue and help appropriately refocused scrutiny on the most deserving country, but did so through an over-extended, problematic philosophy. Germany was chiefly responsible for WWI; it was the most seemingly aggressive nation in the years leading up to war. Phd Dissertation. The Germans should be held responsible, though, not for their assertive, defined goals, but their lack thereof. After Bismarck’s dismissal in 1890, German foreign policy and government decision-making took a dangerous turn.

His less cautious and admission essay zuckerberg less able successors abandoned his complex, well-structured plans for dickinson essay, a poorly executed, haphazard pursuit of status and prestige. [97] While Germany’s policies were without a doubt the most alarming and troublesome of admission essay help that of all the powers, they were not the foundation of a bid for world domination, but were, rather, a result of the government’s unclear aims and inability to navigate the European system. After 1890, Margaret MacMillan asserts, there was a degree of “indifference” in German foreign policy as leaders allowed their country to dickinson essay “drift” further into dependency upon the Triple Alliance. [98] Even within that relationship, Germany caused tension and confusion. Vienna was fearful of Germany’s inconsistent policies and admission college their overtly aggressive propaganda and naval armaments. [99] Austria-Hungary was not even sure whether it could regularly count on the support of its much stronger ally. In November 1912, at phd dissertation slides his hunting lodge, the Kaiser personally promised Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand outright support in the First Balkan War (1912-1913), but as conflict broke out, Berlin eventually worked to restrain Vienna and cooperated with Britain in maintaining peace and undermining its partner. [100] Germany never had concrete plans to exploit tensions between the two blocs of powers and, in fact, even confused and alienated its own ally. The Second Reich maintained bizarre relationships with the other powers as well. The post-Bismarck era was marked by increasing British and French uncertainty of their Teutonic neighbors and their aims, which, as Paul Kennedy notes, “looked ambitious and dangerous” because they were so often unclear. [101] In 1898, the Germans rejected British statesman Joseph Chamberlain’s offer for a defensive alliance with the British, fearing that an agreement of that kind would dash the hopes for good relations with the Russians. [102] Just a few years later, however, in admission essay help, 1901, Germany changed its strategy, aspiring to ally itself with Great Britain and, accordingly, was hesitant to commit to supporting the French in Morocco. Nevertheless, in their usual desultory fashion, the Germans never reached out to the British to initiate any cooperation over the course of the six months following their rejection of the French. In the phd dissertation slides, meantime, France, apprehensive from the failure to admission help zuckerberg come to phd dissertation slides an agreement with Germany, began looking to the British for admission essay zuckerberg, support. [103] It was Germany’s wandering policy, not a well-designed scheme that set the country on the path towards isolation. The Kaiser’s personal attempts to cultivate alliances or control foreign policy often exacerbated the situation for the Germans. Dickinson Essay. In 1905, while cruising together on the Baltic, Wilhelm convinced the Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II, to sign an impromptu defensive treaty, effectively neutralizing Russia’s treaty with France. Admission College Essay. Afterwards, both governments were outraged at the actions of their respective heads of state and the agreement was immediately annulled, but the slides, close call did have lasting effects for college, Germany.

Great Britain, which was already intrigued by the Franco-Russian alliance, grew suspicious of the inscrutable, underhanded game Germany seemed to be playing and reevaluated its relationship with Russia, concluding that it may need further security in the face of the Teutonic menace. Once again, it was mere German clumsiness that repelled other nations. During his rule, the citation essay, Kaiser often alienated the international community. His erratic and admission essay help unstable personality was worrisome to other nations; Europe’s leaders were unsure whether or not to take him at time of the butterflies his word in his calls for German dominance and belligerence. Wilhelm’s bellicose speeches, bold correspondences and angry marginalia became infamous, as historian Max Hastings sardonically suggests, “the exclamation mark was his favoured instrument of policy-making.” [104] The German emperor’s intentions were often ridiculous and ephemeral (for a brief period he wanted to create a South American “New Germany” and encourage colonization in and migration to Brazil), but had little effect on actual policy. Admission Essay Help. [105] While the country and the Kaiser’s ostensible aggression had a direct role in both bringing the Triple Entente closer together and creating tension between the two opposing blocs, Wilhelm was not the mastermind behind a designed crusade for dickinson essay, hegemony.

Even the aggressive rhetoric recklessly thrown around by the Kaiser and his government was just that—rhetoric—and not an expression of tangible objectives. The principle of college Weltpolitik , or world policy, perpetuated by Bulow and other leaders, included vague notions of German expansionism and a dedication to finding its imperial “place in the sun.” This was inherently problematic—most land was either taken or, as in in the time of the, China, highly contentious. [106] As the Second Reich promoted propaganda and admission college essay help zuckerberg commissioned endless speeches constructed around Weltpolitik and the German call for ascendancy, neighboring powers naturally grew concerned. Great Britain in particular knew that its empire was the greatest obstacle to German expansion and feared that a more autocratic state like Germany could transform grandiloquence into action overnight. [107] While Weltpolitik was a major contributor to the formation of phd dissertation defense slides a hostile Europe, it was not the help, basis of citation essay a German attempt at world domination. The policy, first of all, was impossible to define. Bulow never publicly expressed any of its actual aims. College Essay Help Zuckerberg. [108] Even within the government there was confusion. Waldersee wrote in his journal: “We are supposed to pursue Weltpolitik. If I only knew what that was supposed to novel be.” [109] MacMillan describes the admission, oscillating foreign policy of Germany between 1890 and 1897 as “incoherent.” In 1894 Leo von Caprivi, chancellor at the time, told the German ambassador to London that the research methodology for dissertation, Solomon Islands were a crucially important imperialistic target, yet within two months, Berlin lost all interest there. [110] The German world policy never resulted in many actual gains.

Its practical achievements after 1897 included only the modest acquisition of the Caroline Island and essay zuckerberg a segment of Samoa. Ethics Essay. [111] With its forceful rhetoric, aggressive speeches, and Weltpolitik, the admission college essay, German government postured itself as a threat to peace, seriously alarming the major powers and isolating the dickinson essay, Second Reich. This heavy-handed approach had a direct effect on college essay help, Europe at large, and set the stage for war in 1914. German stratagem remained at its core, however, illogical, indefinable, and without conscious design. Among the novel writing prompts, scholars involved in the historiographical debate, many came to see this point of view, questioning the extremism of Fischer’s thesis, while some still took a strong stance in his defense. Others were inspired by his work to explore new ways of essay help thinking about WWI. One particular offshoot, the “domestic crisis school,” argues that local, not global politics, was at the center of the in the time of the essay, war’s outbreak. [112] The work of West German historian Eckart Kehr (a contemporary of Fischer whose ideas were actually published before Germany’s Aims ) became increasingly popular in the midst of the Fischer controversy, and his theory of der primat der innenpolitik , or the primacy of domestic politics, offered a new perspective. Kehr contends that solely considering diplomacy is not a thorough enough investigation. He argues that the admission college essay help, Second Reich was chiefly responsible in starting the First World War, but only in that the slides, state’s foreign policy was “a means to their domestic ends.” Essentially, much of Germany’s pre-war decisions were conservatives’ attempts to quell the social conflicts that arose in the 1890s and preserve patriarchal, agrarian capitalism. Kehr notes that the German agrarian elites originally rejected the building of a naval fleet in 1890, but came to embrace the idea at the turn of the century in the spirit of Anglo opposition because the admission college essay, British—an industrialized power—victory over the Boers—an agrarian society—represented a blow to their traditional position of power. [113] Arno Mayer, a historian from Princeton University, takes the argument even further, claiming that because of internal turmoil, German policymakers were especially willing to of the engage in violence in 1914; their fear of revolution trumped their fear of college help combat. Novel. [114] In essence, the college essay, Second Reich fought a counter-revolutionary, diversionary war. [115] Historian Michael Gordon, writing in citation essay, 2014, agrees that a sole focus on foreign policy is insufficient in understanding the First World War.

He describes the elites of the Wilhelmine era as living in an “anxiety-ridden condition,” disturbed by admission essay help, the societal vicissitudes that accompanied Germany’s budding modernism and remarkably quick industrialization. Inevitably, Gordon believes, this uneasiness informed subsequent government decision-making. [116] While the fear of social upheaval in pre-war Germany may have been very real, any organized attempts to combat the issue or divert attention from methodology for dissertation, it were not. The labor strikes that occurred in Germany and elites’ trepidation over a new, more progressive lower class were not unique problems, but ones that the Second Reich was especially ill equipped to manage. Their unreliable political system included a federal parliament, the Reichstag , which maintained the power to college zuckerberg approve the national budget and a federal council, the Bundesrat , which oversaw foreign affairs and dickinson essay the army and navy. The council never amassed much power. In Bismarck’s time, he designated himself not only Chancellor, but Prussian Minister-President and admission college essay help zuckerberg Foreign Minister, running foreign affairs out of the Prussian Foreign Ministry. With such broad control, when Bismarck was gone, it became unclear where responsibility and final authority lay. In this atmosphere, the Reichstag often tried to essay dede establish some sort of control and influence government policy by withholding approval of admission college budgets, resulting in devastating political paralysis in times of crisis. [117] Social uproar shed light on the inefficiency of the German system, but did not inspire notions of prompts using war as a distraction. In fact, Bethmann-Hollweg believed that this environment made war even riskier—defeat could open the door to revolution. [118]

The internal distress of the Second Reich was more of an indirect cause of WWI. Dissent led Germany to adopt certain policies that helped to create an environment hospitable to war in 1914. Just as Volker Berghahn, a historian who wrote on college essay help, Germany’s domestic situation, argues, internal and external factors are interdependent. [119] In the late nineteenth century Bulow, the Kaiser and conservative advisors adopted a policy of prompts Sammlungspolitik —a program dedicated to college essay galvanizing nationalist support and undermining socialism through, in part, an active foreign policy. Novel. Bulow once revealed that the Germans had taken Samoa, knowing it to be of no use, solely in hopes of inspiring pride and patriotic fervor at college help zuckerberg home. In The Time Of The Butterflies Essay. [120] Sammlungspolitik also involved state-sponsored propaganda. There were films, pamphlets, battleship launches and public ceremonies celebrating the fortitude of Germany.

Even naval armament, to some extent, had its origins in help zuckerberg, the quest to ethics challenge quell social unrest. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz and other officials believed the expansion of the navy could inspire German prestige and develop as a project for citizens to rally behind. [121] However, this ostentatious bellicosity used as means of uniting Germans only worked to college essay instill fear in the rest of the phd dissertation, world. [122] Throughout the historiography of the admission zuckerberg, war, the in the time of the essay, tense relationship between Great Britain and Germany—one exacerbated by college help, the naval race—has been examined endlessly, yielding various hypotheses about time of the essay how competition between the two nations was allowed to escalate into armed conflict. Admission College Essay Zuckerberg. A viable, but less popular view, defended wholeheartedly by slides, Ferguson in 1999 in The Pity of War , contends that London, not Berlin, was at the center of the admission college help zuckerberg, sour relations. The author claims that any chance at Anglo-German cooperation broke down, not due to Germany’s strength or aggression, but as a byproduct, in fact, of its weakness: Britain felt it needed to ethics challenge essay appeal to stronger allies like Russia, France, or the United States, even if it meant marginalizing others. There is no doubt that Germany was outpacing Britain and France economically and industrially, Ferguson admits, but it was not beating them financially. By 1913, Britain had accumulated 3.9 billion pounds of essay help foreign assets, while France had about half as much, and Germany only a quarter. [123] The historian also argues that Grey and his government were constantly overestimating the novel writing, belligerence of the Second Reich, wrongly accusing them of Napoleonic schemes.

The threat posed by the German navy, for example, was exaggerated. In 1912, Germany had nine dreadnoughts to the British’s fifteen; at the start of war, the Entente had forty-three warships, while the Central Powers had only essay help, twenty. In The Time Of The. As other historians and defenders of the Second Reich often point out, Tirpitz’s plan for naval armaments were never connected to any specific offensive campaigns. College Essay Zuckerberg. [124] Although Germany never formulated explicit plans for the navy, the program remained the most incendiary element of Anglo-German relations. Ethics Essay. Even a historian like Keegan, who tends to lay blame on abstract concepts, like diplomacy and rivalry, admits that the worst rivalry of all was the one actively provoked by the Germans when they decided to embark on building a fleet comparable to the best in the world—the British navy. [125] Although the British always maintained their naval supremacy, the German fleet was still a direct threat to Britain, a country whose defense and security was based on the water. It was also a country that relied heavily on imports: Britain imported seven-eighths of its raw materials (excluding coal) and half of its food supply. [126] An enemy blockade would be devastating. In addition, an agreement between Grey and admission essay help zuckerberg French diplomat Paul Cambon specified that the French fleet protect all Entente interests in the Mediterranean while the British fleet protect the Channel. Therefore, Germany’s more realistic goal of building a navy as strong as France’s had huge implications for the British as well. Citation Essay. [127] Germany already maintained the biggest army of the twentieth century. Admission Zuckerberg. Naval expansion, then, was an especially antagonistic, alarming practice as Britain and the other major countries worried that too much power would be concentrated in the hands of one nation. [128] Like much of Germany’s inexplicable policy, naval development was also seemingly unnecessary.

Tirpitz and Bulow made claims that a fleet would benefit the Germans’ colonial exploits, and yet there was very little economic significance to their colonies after 1897. [129] As Geiss writes: some politicians in Britain were “disturbed and phd dissertation slides even frightened by admission zuckerberg, the menace of the German fleet, of Germany’s vague, ill-defined demands, her pretensions and the ostentatious display of dickinson essay her military and naval power.” [130] Unable to college help zuckerberg discern the actual motivations behind the fleet, Great Britain and the rest of Europe often assumed the worst. The British were effectively alienated once again as a result of another German diplomatic blunder in January 1896. The incident—known today as the Kruger Telegram—involved a congratulatory message from the Kaiser to Paul Kruger, the president of the South African Republic, commending his work in repelling British invasion. Dickinson Essay. Regarding Great Britain’s efforts in admission college zuckerberg, South Africa, most powers were in fact privately in support of Kruger, but were prudent enough to remain publicly neutral. [131] As Remak states: “the Germans did not even possess enough good sense to phd dissertation avoid policies that were bound to create friction…with Great Britain.” [132] Limited by admission help zuckerberg, their own tunnel vision, Germans remained seemingly blind to the realities of the world and unwittingly agitated the British with their unnecessary and unwise policies. Beyond the historical investigation of citation essay prewar Britain, much of the literature on admission college essay zuckerberg, the Great War’s origins also seeks to explain the nature of Franco-Russian tension with Germany. In the dickinson essay, tradition of revisionists like Barnes, some recent scholarship still maintains Russia and France were motivated in going to war, or at least in entering into their surprising and provocative alliance, because of admission help zuckerberg their respective hopes of claiming the research methodology for dissertation, highly sought-after Straights and to recover the lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. College Essay. [133] In other words, the essay, partnership was based on expansion and admission college essay zuckerberg revenge. In his 2011 book, The Russian Origins of the First World War , historian Sean McMeekin argues in this same vein, claiming that much of Russia’s foreign policy was centered on finding a warm water port and a fear that an time of the essay dede, improving Turkish army would make that objective difficult. He argues that the college help zuckerberg, historiography focuses more on Germany’s war aims only because its army’s early success provided the opportunity for leaders to consider expansion and more aggressive ambitions. If a battle like Tannenberg had had a different outcome, more historians would be debating Russia’s bellicosity. [134]

There is very little evidence that either France or Russia designed a war for challenge essay, expansion. French revanche has been dispelled by recent scholarship as a myth, and though a thorn in the side of France, lost territory was far from a reason to risk world war. In fact, Alsace-Lorraine was a profitable center for the nations on essay, either side as it served as the nexus between the very successful Franco-German banks and research methodology for dissertation industry. [135] In 1914, the Tsar and the Russian government had even less reason to provoke conflict, knowing that their country would be much better prepared in two years time upon admission, the completion of their military plans and armaments production. [136] The Franco-Russians cannot be considered blameless—their decision alone to ally with one another was antagonizing, turning German fears of challenge essay encirclement into a reality. Their partnership, however, did not inspire, but rather was a result of a mutual distrust of admission essay help Berlin and its strange policies and disturbing rhetoric. [137] In fact, it was the same strange German policy that directly led to its enemies’ union.

As historian George F. Challenge. Kennan writes in The Fateful Alliance , “the decline of the essay, special Russo-German relationship was the prerequisite for the establishment of any significant political and military intimacy between Russia and France.” [138] When in 1890 the Tsar made an offer to the Kaiser to in the of the butterflies renew the Reinsurance Treaty (an agreement designed by Bismarck three years earlier in which both nations consented to remain neutral if the admission essay, other were to end up at war), the Germans rejected the defense, Russian proposal, worried it may contradict their arrangement with Austria-Hungary. None of Bismarck’s successors had his propensity for judiciously maintaining foreign relations and skillfully fitting the zuckerberg, country’s agreements and treaties neatly together. As a result, the Russians, fearing isolation, turned to dickinson essay the French, while the Germans became intrinsically more reliant on their only viable ally—Austria-Hungary. [139] More often than the Franco-Russians, the Austro-Hungarians have been cited as the admission essay zuckerberg, principal instigator of WWI due to their provocative ultimatum to Serbia on July 23, 1914. Landlocked Serbs wanted to expand, access more markets, and citation essay encourage subversion in the multi-cultural Austria-Hungary. Admission. [140] Their country, due to the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, increased in size by 80 percent, while the dual monarchy was left in a very precarious position as a world power. [141] It was no secret then that Austria-Hungary was looking to absorb its chief rival and biggest threat, Serbia, and that its chief of novel writing prompts staff of the armed forces, Franz Conrad von Hotzendorf, was a zealous hawk who had been agitating for admission help zuckerberg, action against the Serbs since 1906. [142] Historian Max Hastings is among many who reserve harsh judgment for the Austro-Hungarians, criticizing their desperation to become a more formidable world power and the speed with which their military leader’s impulse turned violent. Between January 1, 1913 and phd dissertation defense June 1, 1914, Hastings notes in his book Catastrophe 1914: Europe Goes to War, Conrad asked his government for war a total of twenty-six times. [143] Austria-Hungary should bear secondary blame for the war. Its failure to act swiftly and decisively following the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand on June 28, 1914 opened a window of opportunity for controversy and allowed events to escalate into chaos. The international community was initially sympathetic to the nation whose heir to the throne had just been murdered and had always considered Serbia an college essay help, inherently violent and research methodology backward place.

If the dual monarchy had taken immediate, punitive action, there likely would have been no opposition. It was Austria-Hungary’s decision to wait nearly a month (which incited fears that the Central Powers were planning a much larger war) and include its more powerful allies in a situation unrelated to admission zuckerberg them that led to the outbreak of general conflict. In The Time Of The Dede. [144] If Austria-Hungary should be held accountable for mishandling the events of July, the Germans should be afforded as much blame in the blind support of college help zuckerberg their inept ally. After the assassination, the Second Reich acted according to its typical reflexive and impetuous behavior. On July 5, 1914, Austria-Hungary’s foreign minister, Count Leopold Berchtold, sent Alexander Hoyos, his chief of writing staff, to Berlin to arrange a meeting between the essay help zuckerberg, Austro-Hungarian ambassador to Germany, Laszlo Szogyeny, and Wilhelm II to see what role the Germans were willing to play in the dual monarchy’s plans for action. Citation Essay. Despite confessing the need for final confirmation from his chancellor, the Kaiser ultimately offered his nation’s support. By July 6, Bethmann-Hollweg had also sent the help zuckerberg, allies word of his agreeing to whatever aid the country requested in its strike against dickinson essay Serbia. This unwavering promise of support came to be known by historians as the “blank check.” The blank check, issued casually and without much consideration of the admission essay, devastating alliance mechanism it could initiate, was vital in Austria-Hungary’s decision to take action. The question of German support had been on every leader’s mind since the commencement of discussions of revenge. [145] The Austro-Hungarians, militarily and essay economically relatively weak, and certainly isolated without the help of Germany, would have been far less likely to engage in conflict without the help of college help their ally. In fact, their monarch, Franz Joseph, refused to sign off on war until he was assured of German support. Slides. [146]

This blind faith—a pledge of support without hesitancy or reflection—was typical of the Second Reich, always plunging into the tides of conflict without sticking a toe in the water first. The issuing of the blank check was only the grand finale in a series of German indiscretions and careless decision-making. The famous Prussian efficiency of the army never carried over into the civilian government in the forms of diplomacy or foreign policy, as German leaders, with vague dreams of admission success, always seemed to have their hand in twice as many matters as the rest of the world, but with only half the results. The Germans’ reassurance to Austria-Hungary, a country which holds secondary responsibility for its direct role in precipitating conflict, was the methodology for dissertation, tipping point in a world disposed toward war—a world created, in large part, inadvertently by Germany. The Triple Entente is admission college help not blameless in the events leading up to WWI. The British, the French and the Russians all participated in the same arms race and secret diplomacy that made Europe such a powder keg in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. They were quick to citation essay grow suspicious and often acted on fears grounded in an overestimation of German belligerence. At the root of many of the Entente nations’ decisions, however, was German recklessness. Nevertheless, the Second Reich never forged concrete plans to admission essay help zuckerberg spark a world war. Like so many of its gestures, the call to fight or desire to research for dissertation prove themselves was mostly rhetoric, uttered without thinking and without intention. Even the admission college essay zuckerberg, clearest expression of belligerence communicated by butterflies dede, the men in Berlin on December 8, 1912, though alarming and proof of a unique German perspective, never resulted in the actual war preparations that were discussed.

It was Germany’s clumsy attempts to flourish, not devious, calculated plans that led to essay zuckerberg war. Encumbered with domestic turmoil, and writing prompts suffering a sense of inadequacy on the continent, Germany’s policies unraveled in confusion and isolation after Bismarck’s dismissal in 1890. Patriotic, truculent propaganda and college help zuckerberg the insistence on developing a world-class navy were intended to serve the German people in their time of disunion, but only managed to inflame the time of the essay, international community. The Kaiser, prone to his fits of rage and his perpetually changing plans; Weltpolitik with its menacing bombast; and Germany’s seemingly arbitrary, antagonistic foreign policy (including the Moroccan Crises and the rejection of the admission help, Reinsurance Treaty), culminated in an anxiety-ridden Europe and an estranged two-bloc system. This Europe, crafted unskillfully by Teutonic leaders, was poised perfectly for citation essay, war in admission college essay zuckerberg, July 1914.

With one bullet, one pledge of support, and one ultimatum, the novel, world that Germany had unintentionally created, spiraled into an unprecedented catastrophe. Like other nations, the Second Reich was fearful of college zuckerberg war, but less so. Leaders and politicians, like Wilhelm and novel Bethmann-Hollweg, and military men, like Schlieffen and Waldersee, often expressed belief in the war’s inevitability. Moltke’s insistence on “war the sooner the better” has now become infamous and cited innumerable times throughout the essay, voluminous historiography of WWI. Citation Essay. In the literature of the past century, historians have focused on quotes like these and tried to make sense of the zuckerberg, devastation and failure to phd dissertation defense compromise in 1914. Admission College. The majority place responsibility on Germany, to varying degrees, but countless other creative and cogent theories have been promulgated. Nonetheless, the for dissertation, blame game is admission college less about condemning those from our past and more about ensuring the research methodology, brightness of essay zuckerberg our future. As the investigation continues, without a conclusion in sight, historians provide the world with an in depth dissection of rivalry and conflict—knowledge that may give the world a better chance at fending off the demons of division, competition and violence that plagued Europe in 1914. [1] Christopher Clark, The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to citation essay War in 1914 (New York: Harper, 2013), xxiii. [2] Holger Afflerbach and David Stevenson, eds ., An Improbable War? The Outbreak of World War I and European Political Culture before 1914 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2007), x-xii.

[3] Annika Mombauer, The Origins of the First World War: Controversies and Consensus (London: Pearson Education Limited, 2002), 106. [4] Frederick Hale, “Fritz Fischer and the Historiography of admission college World War One,” [6] Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War: Explaining World War I (New York: Basic Books, 2009), xxxiii; Holger Herwig, “Of Men and Myths: The Use and Abuse of in the dede History and the Great War,” in The Great War and the Twentieth Century , ed. Jay Winter, Geoffry Parker and Mary R. College. Habeck (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 301. [9] John W. Langdon, July 1914: The Long Debate, 1918-1990 ( Oxford: Berg Publishers Inc., 1991), 2. [12] Keith Wilson, ed., Forging the Collective Memory: Government and International Historians through Two World Wars (Providence, RI: Berghahn Books, 1996), 11-12. [14] Jay Winter and Antoine Prost, The Great War in novel writing, History: Debates and Controversies 1914 to the Present (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 9. [19] Max Montgelas, “The Case for the Central Powers,” in The Outbreak of the First World War: Who Was Responsible?, ed. Dwight E. Lee (Boston: D. Help. C. Heath and methodology Company, 1963), 5. [20] Erich Brandenburg, “From Bismarck to college zuckerberg the World War,” in Lee, 8. [22] Herman Wittgens, “Senator Owen, the ethics challenge, Schuldreferat, and the Debate over War Guilt in the 1920s,” in Wilson, 128-129. [23] Harry Elmer Barnes, The Genesis of the World War: An Introduction to the Problem of War Guilt (New York: Howard Fertig, 1970), 46-48, 138. [24] Sidney Bradshaw Fay, “Origins of the World War,” in Lee, 16, 19. [25] Holger Herwig, “Clio Deceived: Patriotic Self-Censorship in Germany after the Great War , ” in Wilson, 105. [27] Bernadotte E. Schmitt, “The Origins of the First World War,” in Lee, 74-75.

[29] Camille Bloch, “The Causes of the World War, in Lee, 22, 25. [34] Franco-German Textbook Commission, Franco-German Agreement on Controversial Issues in European History , in Lee, 64. [36] Raymond Aron, “The Century of college help Total War,” in Lee, 68. [37] Barabara Tuchman, The Guns of defense slides August (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1964), 72. [38] A. J. P. Taylor, War by Timetable: How the First World War Began (New York: American Heritage, 1969), 15, 18. [39] A. J. Essay. P. Writing Prompts. Taylor, “Fritz Fischer and His School,” The Journal of Modern History 47, no.

1 (March 1975): 121, accessed August 26, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1878926. [40] David Stevenson, “The Politics of the college help, Two Alliances,” in Winter, Parker and Habeck, 78. [41] John Keegan, The First World War (New York: Alfred A. In The Of The Essay Dede. Knopf, 1999), 26-28, 48. [42] Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the college help zuckerberg, Great Powers (New York: Random House Inc., 1987), 199, 249, 252-254. [43] Modris Eksteins, Rites of citation essay Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989), 82-83. [44] Margaret MacMillan, The War that Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 ( New York: Random House, 2013), xxvi, xxxv. [45] David Stevenson, Armaments and the Coming of War: Europe 1904-1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 9, 15. [48] Clark, 329; Max Hastings, Catastrophe 1914: Europe Goes to War (New York: Random House LLC, 2013), 30.

[52] Michael Howard, “The First World War Reconsidered,” in Winter, Parker and Habeck, 22-23. [54] Holger Afflerbach, “The Topos of Improbable War in Europe before 1914,” in Afflerbach and Stevenson, 162-163, 167. [58] V. J. Lenin, “Imperialism: The Highest Stage of admission college essay Capitalism,” (New York: International Publishers, 1982), 68, 76, 109. [60] K. Zilliacus, “Mirror of the Past: A History of Secret Diplomacy, ” in dickinson essay, Lee, 46. [61] Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Empire: 1875-1914 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1987), 56, 315. [62] Roland Stromberg, “ On Chercher Le Financier : Comments on the Economic Interpretations of World War I,” The History Teacher 10, no. 3 (May, 1977): 435-436, accessed July 24, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/491853. [63] Zara Steiner, Britain and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1977), 62.

[64] David French, “The Edwardian Crisis and the Origins of the admission essay, First World War,” The International History Review 4, no. 2 (May 1982): 208, 210, 216, accessed August 19, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40105199. [66] Joachim, Remak, The Origins of time of the butterflies dede World War I: 1871-1914 (New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1967), 37. [67] Volker Rolf Berghahn, Germany and essay the Approach of War in 1914 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1973), 19-20; H.W. Koch ed., Origins of the First World War: Great Power Rivalry and German War Aims (New York: Palgrave Taplinger Publishing Co., 1972), 2. [71] Imanuel Geiss, “Origins of the methodology, First World War,” in Koch, 50. [73] Richard F. Hamilton, “The European Wars: 1815-1914,” in The Origins of World War I , ed.

Richard F. Hamilton and admission essay Holger Herwig (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 83. [74] Michael Ekstein, “Sir Edward Grey and Imperial Germany in 1914,” Journal of Contemporary History 6, no. 3 (1971): 123, accessed July 14, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/259883. [79] David E. Kaiser, “Germany and the Origins of the First World War,” The Journal of Modern History 55, no. 3 (September 1983): 452, accessed June 22, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1878597. [83] Fritz Fischer, Germany’s Aims in the First World War (New York: W. Research Methodology. W. Norton Company Inc., 1967), 8, 10-11, 28-29, 34-35, 52, 63. [84] James Joll, introduction to Fischer, xviii. [87] Wolfgang J. Mommsen, “The Debate on German War Aims,” in admission, 1914: The Coming of the First World War , ed. Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse (New York: Harper Row Publishers Inc., 1966), 54-55. [90] Klaus Epstein, “Gerhard Ritter and the First World War,” in Laqueur and Mosse, 188, 192. [93] Imanuel Geiss, “The Outbreak of the First World War and German War Aims,” in Laqueur and citation essay Mosse, 76-77.

[94] Imanuel Geiss, “Origins of the First World War,” 36-37, 45. [95] Holger H. Herwig, “Germany,” in Hamilton and Herwig, 150; John C. G. Rohl, “The Curious Case of the Kaiser’s Disappearing War Guilt: Wilhelm II in admission college help zuckerberg, July 1914,” in Afflerbach and Stevenson, 78-79. [96] Jerzy Marczewski, “German Historiography and the Problem of dickinson essay Germany’s Responsibility for admission college, World War I,” Polish Western Affairs 12, no. 2 (1977): 289, accessed August 26, 2014, http://proxy3.noblenet.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true#038;AuthType=ip#038;db=30h#038;AN=46400273#038;site=ehost-live#038;scope=site; David Fromkin, Europe’s Last Summer: Who Started the Great War in 1914? (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004), 290-291. [97] Michael Epkenhans, “Was a Peaceful Outcome Thinkable?: The Naval Race before 1914,” in Afflerbach and Stevenson, 116. [99] Samuel R. Williamson Jr., Austria-Hungary and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St.

Martin’s Press, 1991), 86-87, 143. [103] John F. Dickinson Essay. V. Keiger, France and the Origins of the essay zuckerberg, First World War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1983), 18, 21. [113] Eckart Kehr, Economic Interest, Militarism, and Foreign Policy: Essays on German History , ed. Gordon A. Craig, trans. Grete Heinz (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), 23-24, 27. [115] Michael. R Gordon, “Domestic Conflict and the Origins of the First World War: The British and the German Cases,” The Journal of Modern History 46, no. 2 (June 1974): 193, accessed August 1, 2014, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1877519, 193. [127] Sean McMeekin, July 1914: Countdown to dickinson essay War (New York: Basic Books, 2013), 72-73.

[130] Geiss, “Origins of the First World War,” 48. [134] Sean McMeekin, The Russian Origins of the First World War (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011), 30-31, 77. [137] D. C. B. Lieven, Russia and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1983), 27. [138] George F. Kennan, The Fateful Alliance: France, Russia, and the Coming of the First World War ( New York: Pantheon Books, 1984), xii.

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The Great Gatsby, by F. Admission College. Scott Fitzgerald. When I came home to phd dissertation slides, West Egg that night I was afraid for college a moment that my house was on fire. Two o’clock and dickinson essay, the whole corner of the peninsula was blazing with light, which fell unreal on the shrubbery and made thin elongating glints upon the roadside wires. Turning a corner, I saw that it was Gatsby’s house, lit from tower to admission college zuckerberg, cellar. At first I thought it was another party, a wild rout that had resolved itself into “hide-and-go-seek” or “sardines-in-the-box” with all the house thrown open to the game. But there wasn’t a sound. Only wind in the trees, which blew the wires and ethics, made the lights go off and on again as if the house had winked into the darkness. As my taxi groaned away I saw Gatsby walking toward me across his lawn. “Your place looks like the World’s Fair,” I said. “Does it?” He turned his eyes toward it absently. “I have been glancing into some of the rooms.

Let’s go to Coney Island, old sport. In my car.” “Well, suppose we take a plunge in college, the swimming-pool? I haven’t made use of citation essay, it all summer.” “I’ve got to go to admission essay zuckerberg, bed.” He waited, looking at me with suppressed eagerness. “I talked with Miss Baker,” I said after a moment. “I’m going to call up Daisy to-morrow and research methodology, invite her over here to tea.”

“Oh, that’s all right,” he said carelessly. “I don’t want to put you to essay help, any trouble.” “What day would suit you?” “What day would suit you ?” he corrected me quickly. “I don’t want to put you to any trouble, you see.” “How about the day after to-morrow?” He considered for a moment. Then, with reluctance: “I want to get the dickinson essay grass cut,” he said. We both looked at admission college essay, the grass — there was a sharp line where my ragged lawn ended and methodology for dissertation, the darker, well-kept expanse of college, his began. I suspected that he meant my grass. “There’s another little thing,” he said uncertainly, and hesitated. “Would you rather put it off for a few days?” I asked. “Oh, it isn’t about that.

At least ——” He fumbled with a series of beginnings. “Why, I thought — why, look here, old sport, you don’t make much money, do you?” This seemed to reassure him and he continued more confidently. “I thought you didn’t, if you’ll pardon my — You see, I carry on a little business on in the time of the butterflies the side, a sort of admission essay help, side line, you understand. And I thought that if you don’t make very much — You’re selling bonds, aren’t you, old sport?” “Well, this would interest you.

It wouldn’t take up much of your time and you might pick up a nice bit of money. It happens to be a rather confidential sort of thing.” I realize now that under different circumstances that conversation might have been one of the phd dissertation defense slides crises of my life. But, because the offer was obviously and tactlessly for a service to be rendered, I had no choice except to cut him off there. “I’ve got my hands full,” I said. “I’m much obliged but I couldn’t take on any more work.” “You wouldn’t have to do any business with Wolfsheim.” Evidently he thought that I was shying away from the “gonnegtion” mentioned at lunch, but I assured him he was wrong. He waited a moment longer, hoping I’d begin a conversation, but I was too absorbed to be responsive, so he went unwillingly home. The evening had made me light-headed and happy; I think I walked into admission college essay help, a deep sleep as I entered my front door. So I didn’t know whether or not Gatsby went to Coney Island, or for of the butterflies how many hours he “glanced into rooms” while his house blazed gaudily on. Admission Essay Zuckerberg. I called up Daisy from the office next morning, and methodology, invited her to essay help, come to tea.

“Don’t bring Tom,” I warned her. “Who is ‘Tom’?” she asked innocently. The day agreed upon was pouring rain. At eleven o’clock a man in ethics challenge essay, a raincoat, dragging a lawn-mower, tapped at my front door and said that Mr. College Zuckerberg. Gatsby had sent him over to cut my grass. Citation Essay. This reminded me that I had forgotten to admission essay, tell my Finn to come back, so I drove into slides, West Egg Village to search for her among soggy, whitewashed alleys and to buy some cups and lemons and college, flowers. The flowers were unnecessary, for at phd dissertation, two o’clock a greenhouse arrived from Gatsby’s, with innumerable receptacles to contain it. An hour later the front door opened nervously, and Gatsby, in a white flannel suit, silver shirt, and gold-colored tie, hurried in. He was pale, and there were dark signs of sleeplessness beneath his eyes. “Is everything all right?” he asked immediately.

“The grass looks fine, if that’s what you mean.” “What grass?” he inquired blankly. “Oh, the grass in admission zuckerberg, the yard.” He looked out the window at it, but, judging from his expression, I don’t believe he saw a thing. “Looks very good,” he remarked vaguely. “One of the papers said they thought the rain would stop about four. I think it was the Journal . Have you got everything you need in the shape of — of tea?” I took him into the pantry, where he looked a little reproachfully at the Finn. Together we scrutinized the twelve lemon cakes from the delicatessen shop. “Will they do?” I asked. “Of course, of course! They’re fine!” and he added hollowly, “ ... Research Methodology For Dissertation. old sport.” The rain cooled about half-past three to a damp mist, through which occasional thin drops swam like dew.

Gatsby looked with vacant eyes through a copy of Clay’s Economics , starting at the Finnish tread that shook the zuckerberg kitchen floor, and peering toward the bleared windows from time to time as if a series of invisible but alarming happenings were taking place outside. Finally he got up and ethics challenge, informed me, in an uncertain voice, that he was going home. “Nobody’s coming to admission help, tea. It’s too late!” He looked at his watch as if there was some pressing demand on his time elsewhere. “I can’t wait all day.” “Don’t be silly; it’s just two minutes to four.” He sat down miserably, as if I had pushed him, and simultaneously there was the phd dissertation defense sound of a motor turning into college help zuckerberg, my lane. Writing. We both jumped up, and, a little harrowed myself, I went out into the yard. Under the dripping bare lilac-trees a large open car was coming up the zuckerberg drive. It stopped. Daisy’s face, tipped sideways beneath a three-cornered lavender hat, looked out at me with a bright ecstatic smile.

“Is this absolutely where you live, my dearest one?” The exhilarating ripple of her voice was a wild tonic in the rain. I had to follow the sound of it for a moment, up and down, with my ear alone, before any words came through. A damp streak of hair lay like a dash of in the time of the butterflies, blue paint across her cheek, and her hand was wet with glistening drops as I took it to help her from the car. “Are you in love with me,” she said low in my ear, “or why did I have to come alone?” “That’s the secret of Castle Rackrent.

Tell your chauffeur to go far away and spend an hour.” “Come back in an hour, Ferdie.” Then in admission essay, a grave murmur: “His name is Ferdie.” “Does the gasoline affect his nose?” “I don’t think so,” she said innocently. “Why?” We went in. To my overwhelming surprise the living-room was deserted. “Well, that’s funny,” I exclaimed.

She turned her head as there was a light dignified knocking at novel prompts, the front door. College Essay Help. I went out and opened it. Gatsby, pale as death, with his hands plunged like weights in his coat pockets, was standing in for dissertation, a puddle of water glaring tragically into my eyes. With his hands still in his coat pockets he stalked by me into the hall, turned sharply as if he were on college essay help a wire, and disappeared into the living-room. It wasn’t a bit funny. Aware of the loud beating of my own heart I pulled the door to phd dissertation, against the increasing rain. For half a minute there wasn’t a sound.

Then from the living-room I heard a sort of choking murmur and admission zuckerberg, part of a laugh, followed by Daisy’s voice on a clear artificial note: “I certainly am awfully glad to see you again.” A pause; it endured horribly. I had nothing to do in defense slides, the hall, so I went into the room. Gatsby, his hands still in his pockets, was reclining against the mantelpiece in a strained counterfeit of perfect ease, even of admission, boredom. His head leaned back so far that it rested against the face of a defunct mantelpiece clock, and writing prompts, from this position his distraught eyes stared down at Daisy, who was sitting, frightened but graceful, on admission college essay zuckerberg the edge of a stiff chair. “We’ve met before,” muttered Gatsby. His eyes glanced momentarily at ethics, me, and college, his lips parted with an abortive attempt at a laugh. Dickinson Essay. Luckily the clock took this moment to tilt dangerously at the pressure of his head, whereupon he turned and caught it with trembling fingers, and set it back in place. Then he sat down, rigidly, his elbow on admission college essay help the arm of the sofa and his chin in his hand. “I’m sorry about the clock,” he said. My own face had now assumed a deep tropical burn.

I couldn’t muster up a single commonplace out of the thousand in my head. “It’s an old clock,” I told them idiotically. I think we all believed for a moment that it had smashed in pieces on the floor. “We haven’t met for many years,” said Daisy, her voice as matter-of-fact as it could ever be. “Five years next November.”

The automatic quality of Gatsby’s answer set us all back at methodology for dissertation, least another minute. I had them both on their feet with the desperate suggestion that they help me make tea in the kitchen when the admission essay help zuckerberg demoniac Finn brought it in on a tray. Amid the welcome confusion of cups and cakes a certain physical decency established itself. Gatsby got himself into a shadow and, while Daisy and I talked, looked conscientiously from one to the other of us with tense, unhappy eyes. However, as calmness wasn’t an end in itself, I made an dickinson essay, excuse at college essay help, the first possible moment, and got to dickinson essay, my feet. “Where are you going?” demanded Gatsby in immediate alarm. “I’ve got to speak to college help zuckerberg, you about something before you go.” He followed me wildly into the kitchen, closed the door, and whispered: “Oh, God!” in research for dissertation, a miserable way.

“What’s the matter?” “This is a terrible mistake,” he said, shaking his head from side to side, “a terrible, terrible mistake.” “You’re just embarrassed, that’s all,” and luckily I added: “Daisy’s embarrassed too.” “She’s embarrassed?” he repeated incredulously. “Just as much as you are.” “Don’t talk so loud.” “You’re acting like a little boy,” I broke out impatiently. “Not only that, but you’re rude. Daisy’s sitting in there all alone.”

He raised his hand to stop my words, looked at me with unforgettable reproach, and, opening the essay help zuckerberg door cautiously, went back into novel writing prompts, the other room. I walked out the admission essay help zuckerberg back way — just as Gatsby had when he had made his nervous circuit of the house half an hour before — and ran for a huge black knotted tree, whose massed leaves made a fabric against dickinson essay, the rain. Essay. Once more it was pouring, and my irregular lawn, well-shaved by Gatsby’s gardener, abounded in research for dissertation, small, muddy swamps and admission college, prehistoric marshes. There was nothing to in the of the butterflies, look at from under the essay help tree except Gatsby’s enormous house, so I stared at novel writing, it, like Kant at admission essay, his church steeple, for half an hour. A brewer had built it early in the “period” craze, a decade before, and there was a story that he’d agreed to pay five years’ taxes on all the neighboring cottages if the owners would have their roofs thatched with straw. Perhaps their refusal took the heart out of butterflies dede, his plan to admission college help, Found a Family — he went into an immediate decline.

His children sold his house with the black wreath still on the door. Dickinson Essay. Americans, while occasionally willing to be serfs, have always been obstinate about being peasantry. After half an hour, the sun shone again, and the grocer’s automobile rounded Gatsby’s drive with the raw material for his servants’ dinner — I felt sure he wouldn’t eat a spoonful. A maid began opening the upper windows of his house, appeared momentarily in each, and, leaning from a large central bay, spat meditatively into the garden. Admission Zuckerberg. It was time I went back. While the rain continued it had seemed like the murmur of their voices, rising and swelling a little now and then with gusts of emotion. Citation Essay. But in the new silence I felt that silence had fallen within the house too. I went in — after making every possible noise in the kitchen, short of pushing over admission college, the stove — but I don’t believe they heard a sound.

They were sitting at essay, either end of the couch, looking at each other as if some question had been asked, or was in the air, and admission zuckerberg, every vestige of methodology, embarrassment was gone. Daisy’s face was smeared with tears, and when I came in she jumped up and began wiping at it with her handkerchief before a mirror. But there was a change in Gatsby that was simply confounding. He literally glowed; without a word or a gesture of exultation a new well-being radiated from him and filled the little room. “Oh, hello, old sport,” he said, as if he hadn’t seen me for years. I thought for a moment he was going to college, shake hands.

“It’s stopped raining.” “Has it?” When he realized what I was talking about, that there were twinkle-bells of for dissertation, sunshine in college essay, the room, he smiled like a weather man, like an ecstatic patron of recurrent light, and repeated the novel news to Daisy. “What do you think of admission college help zuckerberg, that? It’s stopped raining.” “I’m glad, Jay.” Her throat, full of aching, grieving beauty, told only of her unexpected joy. “I want you and Daisy to come over to my house,” he said, “I’d like to show her around.” “You’re sure you want me to come?” “Absolutely, old sport.” Daisy went up-stairs to wash her face — too late I thought with humiliation of ethics challenge essay, my towels — while Gatsby and I waited on zuckerberg the lawn. “My house looks well, doesn’t it?” he demanded. “See how the whole front of it catches the light.” I agreed that it was splendid.

“Yes.” His eyes went over it, every arched door and square tower. “It took me just three years to earn the money that bought it.” “I thought you inherited your money.” “I did, old sport,” he said automatically, “but I lost most of it in the big panic — the citation essay panic of the war.” I think he hardly knew what he was saying, for when I asked him what business he was in admission essay help zuckerberg, he answered, “That’s my affair,” before he realized that it wasn’t the phd dissertation defense slides appropriate reply. “Oh, I’ve been in help zuckerberg, several things,” he corrected himself. “I was in the drug business and then I was in the oil business. But I’m not in either one now.” He looked at phd dissertation, me with more attention. “Do you mean you’ve been thinking over what I proposed the other night?” Before I could answer, Daisy came out help of the house and dickinson essay, two rows of brass buttons on help zuckerberg her dress gleamed in the sunlight. “That huge place there ?” she cried pointing.

“I love it, but I don’t see how you live there all alone.” “I keep it always full of interesting people, night and day. People who do interesting things. Celebrated people.” Instead of taking the short cut along the Sound we went down the road and entered by of the essay dede the big postern. With enchanting murmurs Daisy admired this aspect or that of the feudal silhouette against the sky, admired the gardens, the sparkling odor of jonquils and college essay, the frothy odor of of the dede, hawthorn and plum blossoms and the pale gold odor of essay zuckerberg, kiss-me-at-the-gate. It was strange to novel prompts, reach the marble steps and find no stir of bright dresses in essay help, and out the citation essay door, and hear no sound but bird voices in the trees. And inside, as we wandered through Marie Antoinette music-rooms and Restoration salons, I felt that there were guests concealed behind every couch and table, under orders to be breathlessly silent until we had passed through. As Gatsby closed the door of “the Merton College Library.” I could have sworn I heard the college essay zuckerberg owl-eyed man break into ghostly laughter. We went up-stairs, through period bedrooms swathed in rose and lavender silk and vivid with new flowers, through dressing-rooms and poolrooms, and bathrooms with sunken baths — intruding into dickinson essay, one chamber where a dishevelled man in pajamas was doing liver exercises on the floor. It was Mr.

Klipspringer, the “boarder.” I had seen him wandering hungrily about the beach that morning. College Essay Help Zuckerberg. Finally we came to Gatsby’s own apartment, a bedroom and a bath, and an Adam study, where we sat down and phd dissertation defense slides, drank a glass of some Chartreuse he took from a cupboard in the wall. He hadn’t once ceased looking at Daisy, and I think he revalued everything in his house according to the measure of response it drew from her well-loved eyes. Admission Help Zuckerberg. Sometimes, too, he stared around at dickinson essay, his possessions in a dazed way, as though in her actual and astounding presence none of help, it was any longer real. Once he nearly toppled down a flight of stairs. His bedroom was the simplest room of all — except where the research for dissertation dresser was garnished with a toilet set of college essay help, pure dull gold.

Daisy took the of the butterflies dede brush with delight, and smoothed her hair, whereupon Gatsby sat down and shaded his eyes and began to laugh. “It’s the funniest thing, old sport,” he said hilariously. College Help Zuckerberg. “I can’t — When I try to ——” He had passed visibly through two states and was entering upon dickinson essay, a third. After his embarrassment and his unreasoning joy he was consumed with wonder at her presence. He had been full of the idea so long, dreamed it right through to the end, waited with his teeth set, so to speak, at an inconceivable pitch of intensity.

Now, in the reaction, he was running down like an overwound clock. Recovering himself in a minute he opened for admission help us two hulking patent cabinets which held his massed suits and dressing-gowns and ties, and his shirts, piled like bricks in stacks a dozen high. “I’ve got a man in England who buys me clothes. He sends over challenge essay, a selection of things at the beginning of each season, spring and zuckerberg, fall.” He took out a pile of shirts and began throwing them, one by one, before us, shirts of sheer linen and in the of the butterflies essay dede, thick silk and fine flannel, which lost their folds as they fell and covered the table in essay zuckerberg, many-colored disarray.

While we admired he brought more and the soft rich heap mounted higher — shirts with stripes and scrolls and novel writing, plaids in coral and apple-green and lavender and faint orange, and monograms of Indian blue. Suddenly, with a strained sound, Daisy bent her head into the shirts and began to admission college essay zuckerberg, cry stormily. “They’re such beautiful shirts,” she sobbed, her voice muffled in novel, the thick folds. “It makes me sad because I’ve never seen such — such beautiful shirts before.” After the house, we were to see the grounds and the swimming-pool, and the hydroplane and the mid-summer flowers — but outside Gatsby’s window it began to rain again, so we stood in a row looking at the corrugated surface of the Sound. “If it wasn’t for the mist we could see your home across the bay,” said Gatsby. “You always have a green light that burns all night at the end of your dock.” Daisy put her arm through his abruptly, but he seemed absorbed in college essay, what he had just said. Possibly it had occurred to him that the colossal significance of that light had now vanished forever. Compared to the great distance that had separated him from Daisy it had seemed very near to her, almost touching her. Writing Prompts. It had seemed as close as a star to the moon.

Now it was again a green light on a dock. His count of enchanted objects had diminished by one. I began to admission college help zuckerberg, walk about the methodology room, examining various indefinite objects in the half darkness. A large photograph of an elderly man in admission essay help, yachting costume attracted me, hung on the wall over his desk. “That? That’s Mr.

Dan Cody, old sport.” The name sounded faintly familiar. “He’s dead now. Time Butterflies Essay. He used to college help, be my best friend years ago.” There was a small picture of essay, Gatsby, also in yachting costume, on the bureau — Gatsby with his head thrown back defiantly — taken apparently when he was about eighteen. “I adore it,” exclaimed Daisy. “The pompadour! You never told me you had a pompadour — or a yacht.” “Look at this,” said Gatsby quickly. “Here’s a lot of clippings — about you.” They stood side by side examining it.

I was going to ask to admission essay help, see the rubies when the phone rang, and Gatsby took up the methodology for dissertation receiver. “Yes. College Help Zuckerberg. ... Citation Essay. well, I can’t talk now. ... I can’t talk now, old sport. ... I said a small town. ... he must know what a small town is. ... well, he’s no use to admission college essay, us if Detroit is his idea of a small town. ... ” “Come here quick !” cried Daisy at the window. The rain was still falling, but the darkness had parted in the west, and dickinson essay, there was a pink and golden billow of admission essay help, foamy clouds above the sea. “Look at defense, that,” she whispered, and then after a moment: “I’d like to just get one of those pink clouds and put you in it and push you around.” I tried to go then, but they wouldn’t hear of it; perhaps my presence made them feel more satisfactorily alone. “I know what we’ll do,” said Gatsby, “we’ll have Klipspringer play the piano.” He went out of the admission college help zuckerberg room calling “Ewing!” and returned in citation essay, a few minutes accompanied by an embarrassed, slightly worn young man, with shell-rimmed glasses and scanty blond hair. He was now decently clothed in a “sport shirt,” open at the neck, sneakers, and duck trousers of a nebulous hue.

“Did we interrupt your exercises?” inquired Daisy politely. “I was asleep,” cried Mr. Klipspringer, in a spasm of embarrassment. “That is, I’d been asleep. Then I got up.. ..” “Klipspringer plays the piano,” said Gatsby, cutting him off. “Don’t you, Ewing, old sport?” “I don’t play well. I don’t — I hardly play at all. Help. I’m all out of ethics challenge essay, prac ——” “We’ll go down-stairs,” interrupted Gatsby. He flipped a switch.

The gray windows disappeared as the house glowed full of college help, light. In the music-room Gatsby turned on a solitary lamp beside the dickinson essay piano. He lit Daisy’s cigarette from a trembling match, and sat down with her on a couch far across the room, where there was no light save what the gleaming floor bounced in from the hall. When Klipspringer had played The Love Nest , he turned around on help the bench and searched unhappily for Gatsby in writing, the gloom. “I’m all out of practice, you see. I told you I couldn’t play. I’m all out of prac ——” “Don’t talk so much, old sport,” commanded Gatsby. “Play!” Outside the wind was loud and admission help, there was a faint flow of thunder along the writing Sound. Admission Help. All the lights were going on in West Egg now; the electric trains, men-carrying, were plunging home through the rain from New York. It was the hour of a profound human change, and excitement was generating on dickinson essay the air.

“ One thing’s sure and nothing’s surer. The rich get richer and the poor get — children . As I went over to say good-by I saw that the expression of bewilderment had come back into admission college essay help, Gatsby’s face, as though a faint doubt had occurred to him as to the quality of essay, his present happiness. College Essay Help Zuckerberg. Almost five years! There must have been moments even that afternoon when Daisy tumbled short of his dreams — not through her own fault, but because of the colossal vitality of his illusion. It had gone beyond her, beyond everything. He had thrown himself into it with a creative passion, adding to it all the time, decking it out with every bright feather that drifted his way. No amount of fire or freshness can challenge what a man will store up in his ghostly heart.

As I watched him he adjusted himself a little, visibly. His hand took hold of hers, and phd dissertation defense slides, as she said something low in his ear he turned toward her with a rush of emotion. Admission Zuckerberg. I think that voice held him most, with its fluctuating, feverish warmth, because it couldn’t be over-dreamed — that voice was a deathless song. They had forgotten me, but Daisy glanced up and held out phd dissertation defense slides her hand; Gatsby didn’t know me now at all. I looked once more at them and they looked back at college zuckerberg, me, remotely, possessed by intense life.

Then I went out for dissertation of the room and down the marble steps into the rain, leaving them there together.

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acdemic essay BEFORE PLANNING AN ACADEMIC ESSAY. Admission College Essay Zuckerberg! CONSIDER the PURPOSE. Questions to ask yourself: What is my goal in writing this piece? What information do I need to include? How shall I organize the information? CONSIDER the AUDIENCE. Questions to ask yourself: What do my readers need to know? Who are my readers? Generate some ideas: create a network of related information that covers the main and supporting ideas of the topic.

BASIC ESSAY STRUCTURE. Thesis statement-is a statement of the main idea or central argument that most commonly appears in the introductory paragraph. This is how you begin to articulate your position. CONCLUSIONS: these represent the most common approaches to writing conclusions for. · Provide an analogy or comparison. · Suggest a specific plan of action. · Speculate about the future. · Refer to research for dissertation, relevant research. MAKING AN ESSAY PLAN. Help! All of the stages below are needed to produce good academic writing. Outlining: An outline is: * A way of planning and inventing. · A logical, general description. · A summary of your plans. · An organizational pattern. · A visual and conceptual arrangement of your writing. · It is used to show a relationship between ideas and writing prompts, can look like this:

m. A. Division of major topic. n. 1. detail concerning division A. 1. second detail. B. Second division of major topic. ll. Second major topic. A. Division of admission essay, second major topic. 1. In The Of The Essay! detail concerning division B. 2. second detail.

Example: Thesis : Although various methods for limiting or disposing of admission, nuclear waste have been proposed, each has serious drawbacks. I. The process of limiting nuclear waste through partioning and transmutation has serious drawbacks. A. The process is complex and phd dissertation defense, costly. B. Nuclear workers#146; exposure to radiation would increase. Essay Help! II. Ethics Essay! Antarctic ice sheet disposal is problematic for scientific and legal reasons.

A. Our understanding of the behavior of ice sheets is too limited. Help Zuckerberg! B. An international treaty prohibits disposal in Antarctica. III. Space disposal is unthinkable. A. The risk of an accident and resulting worldwide disaster is great. B. Dickinson Essay! The cost is prohibitive. College Zuckerberg! IV. Seabed disposal is unwise because we do not know enough about the procedure or its impact. A. Scientists have not yet solved technical difficulties. B. We do not fully understand the impact of such disposal on the ocean#146;s ecology. Drafting is writing a first copy of your plans and research for dissertation, outline and making meaningful connections. among your ideas and information . Admission Essay Zuckerberg! It is a preliminary version of your paper which you write with the intention of revising and editing several times before producing a final copy.

Think about research all the points below before you start your draft. Composing : begin writing your paper, keeping all of your pre-writing plans in mind. Paragraphing : see *****essay planning section. Organizing : arranging and admission college essay, sequencing the information to be included in your paper in a logical and coherent manner. Pay attention to the way you group your ideas together in the drafting stage. Incorporating sources : draw on the readings and citation essay, external sources you have summarised or paraphrased for help zuckerberg, inclusion in your paper. Synthesising: joining pieces of information from different sources together in a smooth and citation essay, coherent manner.

Arranging : place the admission zuckerberg information in dickinson essay the most logical and college help, reader friendly order. Selecting : choose what information to include where and when in time of the essay dede your text. STRUCTURE AND LANGUAGE INSIDE THE ESSAY. Within the essay structure, there are several key aspects to concentrate on in your assignment. As well as overall essay structure, each paragraph of your essay must also be well structured. The paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. An effective paragraph should contain the following: unity, coherence, a topic sentence and adequate development through the use of supporting details and evidence. Try the following: · put only one main idea per paragraph. · Aim for 3 to 5 sentences per paragraph. · Include about 3 typed paragraphs per page. · If you have a few very short paragraphs, think about whether they are really parts of a larger paragraph#151;and can be combined#151;or whether you can add details to support each point and admission college help, thus make each into a more fully developed paragraph. Unity - the entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus.

If it begins with one focus or major point of discussion it should not end with another or wander within different ideas. Topic sentences - indicate in novel writing a general way what ideas or thesis the paragraph is admission college essay help zuckerberg going to deal with. Not all paragraphs have clear-cut topic sentences and some topic sentences can occur anywhere in the paragraph (1 st sentence, last sentence, or somewhere in challenge the middle). However, the college zuckerberg easy way to citation essay, make sure the reader understands the topic of the paragraph is still to put your topic sentence near the beginning of the paragraph. (A good general rule for less experienced writers) Supporting details : the topic should be discussed fully and adequately. Again, this varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author#146;s purpose, but writers should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. Some methods to make sure your paragraph is well developed with supporting details: Use examples as evidence: · Cite data (facts, statistics, evidence, details, etc#133;) · Use an admission college essay zuckerberg, anecdote or story. · Compare and contrast. · Evaluate causes and research methodology for dissertation, reasons. · Examine effects and consequences. · Analyse the topic. · Describe the topic. · Offer a chronology of an admission college, event.

Use indentation signals to the reader the start of a new paragraph and helps section. your paper into units of dickinson essay, information that are unified in topic and admission college essay help zuckerberg, focus. This is a way of condensing text to remember key points and making use of the summarised material for time of the butterflies, some other purpose,such as essay writing or note making. Summaries can be undertaken in the following way: 1. Read through the original text to college essay help zuckerberg, obtain the gist (an impression of the slides information) and use a technique of underlining or highlighting the most important points. College Essay! 2. Use these key ideas to generate your own notes using your own words. 3. Draw on your notes to write your summary beginning with the novel prompts main idea and admission essay, indicating the source of the material. 4. Dickinson Essay! Include only the most important supporting information. 5. Alter the essay help zuckerberg sequence of the points to make the writing more reader friendly. Ethics Challenge Essay! 6. Review your summary and admission, check it for efficiency. Time Essay Dede! · your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. · one legitimate way to borrow from a source. · a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea. Strategies for effective paraphrasing : · Re read the original passage until you understand its full meaning.

· Set the original aside, write your paraphrase on a note card. · Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you late how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. · Check your version against admission help the original to make sure that your rendition accurately conveys all of the essential information in a new form. · Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source. · Record the source (including page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the information into your own writing. Example: The original passage. Novel Prompts! Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Example: A legitimate paraphrase. There is a strong connection between quoting excessively during note taking and over quoting in research assignments. Coherence: When sentences, ideas and details fit together clearly and logically, readers. can follow the text more easily. Linking words behave like glue, connecting all the college help zuckerberg parts of a piece of text together smoothly.

Here are. some of the methods for dickinson essay, achieving coherence in your writing: · Repetition of key terms or phrases- to college help zuckerberg, avoid confusion, writers often repeat words and phrases. Example: The problem with contemporary art is that it is novel prompts not easily understood by most people. Modern art is deliberately abstract, and that means that contemporary art leaves the viewer wondering what she is looking at. · Synonyms- words with identical or very similar meanings: they provide some variety in admission essay help your word choices while helping to connect important ideas. Example: Myths narrate sacred history and explain sacred origins. These traditional narratives are, in short, a set of beliefs that are a very real force in the lives of people who tell them. · Pronoun reference- this, that, these, those, he, she, it, they and we, are useful pronouns for referring back to dickinson essay, something previously mentioned. Be sure that what you are referring to is clear. Example: When scientific experiments do not work out as expected, they are often considered failures until some other scientist tries them again. · Transitional words #150; are connecting words that serve as a bridge, connecting one paragraph, sentence, clause, or word with another and signal the relationships between sentences and ideas in admission college a piece of writing.

Transitional words and expressions Purpose. Also, too, in addition, furthermore, to research methodology for dissertation, add an idea or example. College Essay Help! Moreover, and, besides, in fact. For example, for instance, such as, to supply an in the butterflies essay dede, example to support a including generalization. First, next, last, before, after, earlier to indicate order in which events subsequently, later, while, until, initially, occur or ideas are presented. Because, since, for the reason is that to indicate the cause or reason for. Therefore, so, thus, as a result, so that, to indicate the effect or result.

But, however, nevertheless, on the contrary to indicate that one thing is different. although, unlike, whereas, while, in contrast from or contrasts with another thing. despite, yet, on the other hand. Similarly, likewise, in the same manner, to indicate that one thing is similar. in the same way, along the admission help same lines as, to something already mentioned. unless, if, even if, or, provided that, to indicate a condition. still to indicate that something continues. in other words, that is, that is to say to indicate that something will be restated for research methodology for dissertation, clarity. finally, at last, after all, in conclusion, to indicate the end of a thought or list. to conclude, to sum up. Admission Essay Help Zuckerberg! INDICATORS FOR ACADEMIC WRITING. Arguments Indicators Premise Indicators Conclusion Indicators. Phd Dissertation! should since therefore. must because hence. necessarily as so. inasmuch as consequently. for the reason that it follows that. REFORMLATING AND REVISING YOUR ESSAY. This occurs throughout the writing process and need not be left until the end.

A good writer is constantly reviewing his or her writing and making changes to strengthen the piece. At this stage, you should be: Editing : re-read your writing and check for grammar, usage and punctuation accuracy. Revising: the process of essay zuckerberg, modifying and reshaping the ideas in novel writing your writing in order to convey your message in the most reader friendly way. College Essay! Try the following: · Re read your paper to dickinson essay, determine if the admission college essay help zuckerberg content (ideas) is being conveyed in the best possible way. Citation Essay! · Time: let some time go by between the drafting stage and admission college essay help, the revising stage. This can help you distance yourself from the time of the butterflies draft and see it in new ways. · Peer review: show your work-in-progress to one or two readers to get feedback on your writing. · Checklists: construct a checklist for revising and check your draft against the established criteria.

Proofreading : check for spelling and admission, punctuation errors. Responding to writing, peer and tutor feedback : return to your text and incorporate the recommended changes. · Editing: is the final process of preparing a piece of writing for an audience. Editing involves paying attention to the surface details of the admission college help writing. At this point you should look at: Example: ( I#146;ve, I have ) always felt that science and the military ( are obligated to, should, have to ) work together. · sentence structure (see sentence and grammar errors).

A common error is to use incomplete, or fragments. Example: Or how to ride a bicycle. This is not a complete sentence! · Grammar (see sentence and grammar errors) A common mistake is to have part of the sentence that don#146;t #145;agree#146; with each other. Example: The Prime Minister make important foreign policy decisions. · Spelling: don#146;t worry about spelling during the planning, drafting and writing prompts, revising stages, wait until you have completed your revising before checking your spelling. Example: controversy (correct) versus contraversy (wrong) · use standard and commonly accepted abbreviations , · spell out numbers of one or two words, or those that begin a sentence. · italics and underlining should be used for titles of books; plays; films; long poems; works of visual art; magazines; newspapers; pamphlets; and radio and television programs; aircraft; ships; and trains; foreign words; . · consult the dictionary to determine whether the compound word requires a hyphen, · capitalize the beginning of every new sentence; the names of specific people; places; groups; businesses; events; people#146;s titles and college zuckerberg, their abbreviations; specific course; religions; languages; organisations; and titles of works. Errors in these areas may violate our standards for prompts, academic writing.

Here are some useful strategies for when you are checking your work. · Read aloud: reading aloud forces you to read it slowly and allows you to experience your words through your eyes, ears and mouth. · Read backward: this strategy separates words from their usual contexts and essay help zuckerberg, allows the writer to examine each word carefully for spelling errors and typing mistakes. · Circle verbs: one way to dickinson essay, revisit sentence structure is to look at the verbs you have chosen. Good writing often depends on strong verbs and reexamining the verb choices you have made can ensure that you have expressed your ideas strongly. · Reading sentences out of context: reading out of context helps to determine whether the college help sentences are complete or fragments. · Keep a log of the feedback you receive to see if there are any patterns to your errors. Challenge! IMPROVING YOUR WRITING STYLE. Admission College! Choosing appropriate words is not easy even for the seasoned writer. There are some strategies however, that can minimize any difficulty and help you improve the choices you make when you write.

Register : whether the topic or assignment demands a formal or informal tone. Example: It was no big deal It was inconsequential. Style : We write differently for different audiences and for different purposes. Style is writing largely determined by these five features of the language: 1. The presence or absence of the writer in admission help the prose: using the first person #145;I#146;. Example: #147; I believe that atomic war will devastate life on research, earth.#148; (the use of #147;I#148; gives the impression that the writer is essay help relying on dickinson essay, personal experience and knowledge). Admission College Essay Help! #145;It is believed that atomic war will devastate life on earth#146; 2. The representation of the audience: speaking directly to the reader using #147;you#148; Example: #145;As you prepare for ethics challenge essay, this course..#146; #145;In preparation for this course #145; (the first example is more conversational and less formal while the second example is more objective and more formal).

3.Word choice : a heavily nominalised (verbs and adjectives turned into nouns) style is formal, abstract and impersonal. Admission Help! Sentences with heavy nominalisation are more formal and objective sounding to the reader. Examples: to decide OR decision; to novel, act OR action; clear OR clarity; accurately OR accuracy. Example: #145;He decided to act once the issues became clear #146; #145;He made the decision to take action once the issues took on greater clarity. 4. Sentence length, structure, variety : for essay help zuckerberg, some audiences you are likely to consider word choice and sentence length differently. Sometimes more specialized, complex words and grammar are necessary to ensure clarity. Example: #145;The huts vary in height.

They measure from ten to writing, fifteen feet in diameter. Admission College Essay Zuckerberg! They contain no modern conveniences.#146; #145;The huts, which vary in height and measure from dickinson essay, ten to college help, fifteen feet in diameter, contain no modern conveniences.#146; 5. The design of the paragraphs : To the reader, paragraphs that are longer than half a page appear difficult. Short paragraphs may signal ideas that are underdeveloped. Most paragraphs should be 5-7 sentences, three paragraphs to a single typed page. Basic matters of style: · Use concrete nouns. Good writing is detailed and exact, not vague or general. · Avoid the passive too much and don#146;t rely to heavily on the verb #145;to be#146;. Dickinson Essay! · Don#146;t depend on adjectives and adverbs to convey your meaning. Let the nouns and verbs do most of the work. · Vary sentence length. When every sentence is the same length the text becomes monotonous. A short sentence can be an admission college essay help zuckerberg, effective way to emphasize an idea, and a long sentence can produce a satisfying and convincing rhythm. · Think about your style: personal or impersonal, academic or social? I MPROVING YOU VOCABUALRY: LEVELS OF FORMALITY.

Try the following exercise. Arrange the list of words according to citation essay, their usage levels#151;from most formal to most informal.

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Death With Dignity Act Essays (Examples) A patient can rescind a request at any time and in any manner. The attending physician will also offer the patient an opportunity to rescind his/her request at the end of the 15-day waiting period following the initial request to college zuckerberg, participate. (Oregon Death With Dignity FAQ) Death With Dignity: A Right or Not? Both doctors feel physician-assisted suicide is a compassionate alternative to living the remainder of life filled with pain and suffering.

Many others agree, and there are even published documents instructing loved ones and physicians how to go about assisting in a death with dignity suicide. In fact, many physicians feel that physician-assisted suicide could help keep health care costs in citation essay check as the baby-boomer generation ages. Unfortunately, statistics are lacking in the area of terminally ill patients and how many would end their lives if given the choice. Statistics do show, however, that many physicians receive requests for medications that will hasten death, or requests for lethal injections, and that a small number to comply in some cases. What the essay, physician must take into account when approving the lethal medication is more than just the patient's state of mind and medical condition. The patient's family can and should be taken into consideration. Slides. Any patient whose family strongly and vocally opposes the physician-assisted suicide might have a more difficult time convincing a physician that the choice to euthanize is the college essay zuckerberg, right one. death: suicide, euthanasia and the death penalty. Looking at certain aspects of each and discussing the issues concerning society. Also providing a sociological out look and economic basis for the arguments. But as it currently stands, the practice is pervasively regarded by United States law as manslaughter, with its perpetrators subject to prosecution to phd dissertation, the fullest extent thereof.

This is why at present, the American court system goes beyond attempting to have assisted suicide legalized. Help. Instead, it seeks to have hastened death constitutionalized. (Marker, 6). Dying with dignity is a controversy argued in two perspectives by ethics, death scholars. Some scholars argue that dying with dignity is expiring without unnecessary physical pain while others argue that it is essay help, dying in the socially accepted ways. Reaching these arguments was in light of changing health care demands and diverse customary practices. This controversy dated back to the ancient civilizations when many Greeks believed that taking one's life was better than experiencing endless suffering. This made physicians give poison to the terminally ill patients.

However, with the advent of Christianity, the research methodology for dissertation, Hippocratic School that was against giving deadly drugs to patients acquired considerable acceptance. Therefore, euthanasia, as called in the fifteenth century was suicide and thus immoral. College Essay. As time passed, reintroduction of the time of the, use of euthanasia continued, and admission essay zuckerberg it has even been largely accepted in various medical institutions. Grief or loss can cause change -- force evolution, if you will, into the human ability for personal growth and self-actualization. Citation Essay. Certainly grief is a human emotion; as much a part of us (Kubler-Ross, 2009). Psychologically, grief is a response to loss -- conventionally emotional, but also having physical, cognitive, social, philosophical, and even behavioral dimensions. Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to college essay help zuckerberg, bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in methodology for dissertation order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the admission essay zuckerberg, death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment.

Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on writing death row. A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in admission college essay zuckerberg the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder. Laws and Health Care. Euthanasia comes from the Greek phrase meaning good death, (Euthanasia 112). The various practices that fall under the general rubric of in the time dede, providing a person with the means for a good death include physician-assisted death, also referred to as physician-assisted suicide. Until recently, all forms of euthanasia were illegal in the United States and in most other developed countries but within the past generation, these laws have been liberalized so that citizens in help democratic societies increasingly have access to a good death. Dickinson Essay. Physician-assisted suicide occurs under the guidance of an essay, experienced and citation essay qualified physician, who is college essay zuckerberg, not legally obliged to defense slides, agree to the practice. Therefore, no coercion takes place.

The doctor is not permitted legally or ethically to zuckerberg, coerce a patient into dying prematurely and phd dissertation slides the patient is likewise not ethically or legally allowed to persuade their doctor to intervene on their behalf. Admission Zuckerberg. What physician-assisted death laws do allow is for…… [Read More] death penalty has been a highly contentious issue in the United States, especially during the in the, last fifty years or so. The reason for this is admission college help, that human rights have become, more than ever, the basis of the American culture. The death penalty is a complex issue, relating to the rights of both the victims and the perpetrators of crime. The complexity of the issue becomes clear once again in H.L. Citation Essay. Mencken's article, The Penalty of Death, where the author explains the death penalty in terms of human psychology combined with human rights. death toll rises in Iraq and questions are raised regarding the foreign policies practiced by the United States, books like Jack Donnelly's International Human Rights become particularly relevant. American intervention in Iraq has become one of the salient political issues of our time, one that begs a thorough investigation of the need for international human rights policies. In his book, Donnelly presents a thorough overview of the politics of human rights, tracing its role in admission domestic and slides foreign policies since the Second World War.

In fact, the essay, author notes that before the 1940s, international human rights were of little importance. Isolationism and strict respect for national sovereignty guided foreign relations policies and precluded nations, individuals, or organizations from taking action to promote human rights outside of their own communities. Pointing out how the Holocaust moved human rights into the realm of international politics in citation essay conjunction with a burgeoning global economic…… [Read More] young, most of us do not think about essay zuckerberg making a conscious decision to die. We look forward to years of long and healthy life, and if death ever seems appealing it is as an antidote to depression. It does not often, if ever, occur to ethics challenge essay, us that there will be a time when we look forward to the good death promised by euthanasia. NURSING CRITIQUE ON LAW: LIFE, LIBERTY AND THE PURSUIT OF PALLIATION: RE-EVALUATING RONALD LINDSAY'S EVALUATION OF THE OREGON DEATH WITH DIGNITY ACT BY DURANTE (2009) This is based on the theory, posed by citizens, that certain individuals afflicted with terminal illnesses should have the legal right to admission college, hasten their death. A person should always have the citation essay, opportunity to die with dignity and perhaps even discover the meaning of one's life as pointed out by Pythia Peay. According to Reno congress had not intention to displace the states as the primary regulators of the admission college, medical profession and as not to override a states' determination of that which constitutes legitimate medical practice in the absence of a prohibitive federal law. Because so many other countries in citation essay the world look toward the Netherlands and their assisted suicide policies, medical officials there continually review and revise (if necessary) the admission college essay zuckerberg, guidelines to methodology, keep stringent watch over physicians and patients. Many other countries that are considering their own assisted suicide laws keep track of what happens in the Netherlands, and alter their own legislation accordingly.

euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide on ReligiousTolerance.org, most people in North America die a bad death, one characterized by pain, being unable to admission college essay help, participate in their medical treatment program, or after spending over ten days in intensive care. A prevailing belief that any sign of life is preferable to death fuels arguments against the practice of voluntary euthanasia, distinguished from phd dissertation slides involuntary euthanasia in that the suicide is admission help zuckerberg, requested directly by the person in dickinson essay question. Euthanasia is one of the most controversial subjects in medial ethics today. On one side of the argument, organizations like the Hemlock Society have pushed for legislation that permits physician-assisted suicide (PAS). These efforts have met with a degree of admission college help zuckerberg, success in the United States; in 1994 Oregon passed the Death with Dignity Act allowing PAS. Methodology. However, there is even a distinction between voluntary euthanasia and PAS: with PAS, the physician simply provides the means with which…… [Read More] As palliative care specialist Dr. Gilbert puts it, Despite this close involvement with the very patients for whom euthanasia is advocated we do not encounter any persistent rational demand [Southern Cross Bioethics Institute]. College Essay Help Zuckerberg. The very point of 'Advanced Directives' is in dickinson essay itself confounding issue as frequently it is the patient's imaginary fears about admission help zuckerberg loss of body functions and pain that drives them to such conclusions. Physician Assisted Suicide in Patients With Unbearable Suffering or the research for dissertation, Terminally Ill. e. Admission Essay Zuckerberg. The exceptions made for impairment and age would open a Pandora's Box of novel, legal precedence.

The Death with Dignity Act and any other forthcoming active euthanasia laws will likely continue to follow the same line of reasoning, i.e. that it is the zuckerberg, unimpaired individual who must shoulder the full responsibility of the decisions he or she is citation essay, making regarding the end of his or her life. That is in fact the point of the law, that a physician's responsibility as well as the responsibility of anyone who is active in the act of euthanasia is relinquished entirely to the will of the dying individual. In the case of a child this decision cannot be made by admission help zuckerberg, a proxy, nor can this decision be made for an individual who is mentally impaired, by phd dissertation, his or her guardians or care takers. Though the parents in this case have fundamentally compelling arguments…… [Read More] McClellan's assertion that the Government promotes a culture of life could be seen as a contradiction when considering what sort of life it is essay help, promoting. In The Butterflies Essay. For terminally ill patients, life could mean imprisonment in a body filled with never ending pain. Essay Zuckerberg. The Constitution guarantees not only freedom, but also the pursuit of happiness. Surely there is no happiness in constant suffering. Sometimes history needs to be rewritten so as to comport with modern sensibilities. Time Of The Butterflies Dede. Today, we live in an era where the average life span has been increases as a result of modern technology; however, sometimes our lives our being prolonged (e.g. Admission Help. given more quantity) at the expense of quality of life.

The founding fathers of our nation did not have such technological and dickinson essay ideological issues to debate. In fact, we did not even have penicillin until relatively recently in our history. In short, given that we have been able to live longer, we must understand that there may be times when the quantity of life should not be chosen over the quality of life. Both are equally important, but if there is no quality in essay help one's life, what good is the quantity anyway? Bringing Capital Punishment Down to Practicalities. Old and New Leadership Styles.

imposition, abolition or return of the death penalty has been an unsettling issue among the world's peace-loving nations over the years in the universal desire to control criminality and promote maximum peace and security in human society. Although strictly imposed in ancient times, capital punishment has been, in recent years, openly and indignantly questioned and condemned by certain organizations and abolished in some countries for certain reasons. These reasons we will consider and phd dissertation defense attempt to reconcile, as far as possible, with those that favor it. Speech Is a Carefully Crafted Act of admission college essay help, Rhetoric. Life and Death: The Life Support Dilemma by Kenneth E. Schemmer M.D. Hamlet, however, is full of hesitation. He does not experience the type of research methodology, confidence Antigone does and suffers because of it. These characters are not abnormal; they are exaggerated or comical in a way audiences cannot relate to them.

They are uniquely human and that is why they are still popular today -- because they are real enough that audience members feel as though they have known these types of personalities before. Essay Help. Through these characters, the dickinson essay, playwrights show the audience how important it is to be true to self above all else. From Creon, who loses his sense of self when he sells out to power to Hamlet, who loses his sense of self when he falls into depression, to Antigone, who gladly gives her life for admission zuckerberg, what she believes, we see the power of the sense of self and in the the importance of college essay help zuckerberg, how it should be respected. An adult do not need to make all decisions in research for dissertation advance, but educating oneself is a vital first step. Essay Zuckerberg. (Death with Dignity: Planning Ahead for End-of-Life Care) few guidelines for signing a DNR order are given here. A Do Not Resuscitate Order - DNR is a physician's order to not to employ cardiopulmonary resuscitation - CPR in case of cardiac or pulmonary arrest. Competent adult patients may relinquish CPR for medical or non-medical reasons. The patient may make such requests verbally irrespective of whether or not he/she is fatally ill. An appeal to relinquish CPR may also be part of an Advance Directive. When it has been determined that the patient is short of decision-making capacity, the suitable substitute decision-maker should be recognized to writing, make treatment decisions, including decisions to relinquish CPR, if no such person has been appointed by an Advance Directive. If the patient is out of action,…… [Read More]

The morality of their behavior does not depend on mere sincere intention and motives only. They need to consider external criteria, which involve the person and admission zuckerberg his acts, which must include mutual self-giving. Human procreation must remain within the in the time butterflies dede, context of true love. This would be possible only within the confines of college help zuckerberg, married chastity with sincerity of heart. Periodic continence or non-performance of the research methodology, sexual act can regulate conception the natural way.

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The writer uses analytical skills to dissect and college help zuckerberg argue several right to die cases that have been presented in court in America. The writer discusses the ethics of the dickinson essay, practice as well as presents ideas about the future right to die arguments and cases. There were eight sources used to complete this paper. This action according to college help, Humphrey allows personal responsibility for family decision making to be broadened to a reasonable level. He argues that if society were to slides, allow the terminally ill to commit suicide, then it would be a small step to allow other members of college, society -- like the handicapped -- to do so as well. This is not a completely trivial argument for two reasons: first, it is the citation essay, point-of-view held by college essay help zuckerberg, the majority of the Christian right -- a powerful political force in the Untied States; and second, if we accept his principle that life is intrinsically valuable, regardless of individual's rights over their own bodies, then we should be inclined to believe that active euthanasia is always wrong. Yet, Otremba is phd dissertation defense slides, willing to concede that passive euthanasia may, sometimes, be permissible; this, however, only under the admission essay, conditions of extreme suffering and impending death.

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Specifically, she mentions the example of the ALVA Leadership Development program that is actively involved in helping older and…… [Read More] Loss of Function on the Quality of life and Independence, and Quality of life for the elderly Population. Health Promotion for admission college, End-Stage Dementia. When patients with chronic or acute illness in the setting of a severe chronic illness with a declining functionality so that death is expected within days to weeks, no CPR will be initiated. While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry. Health Advocacy Campaign. (King, 1) This means that. interpersonal communication is not simply a process by which we pronounce. and defend our interests, but one by which we attempt to understand the. position of our opponent or relational partner.

Using the method of clear. communication and time essay dede displaying a willingness to step outside of one's. perceptual filters in order to college essay help zuckerberg, attain some level of empathy for the. opposite party, it should be possible to better field and even satisfy some. of this party's demands. By incorporating the host of relationships addressed here above into citation essay a. unified support system comprised of both healthcare specialists and members. of the patient's personal network, it may be possible to admission essay, appeal both to the. rational and emotional interests of the patient. Combined, these forces. may have the capacity to assure the patient of dickinson essay, his strength to endure a. treatment that could ultimately relieve him of pain and prolong…… [Read More]

Pellissippi State Technical Community College. Online at. Renegotiating Health Care: Resolving Conflict to Build Collaboration. Jossey-Bass, 1st Edition. Nursing and Ethics. Ethics to Practice: Analysis of college help, 'end of life' decision making. This needs to be implemented because, the death of dickinson essay, patient at the hospital from: the lack of a back up monitoring systems, shows a deficiency of oversight in this area. As a result, the college essay help, organization needs to create various procedures that can monitor: the different systems and alert staff in the event that there is some kind of malfunction. This will help to prevent a situation like what occurred at the facility not long ago. (Zuckerman, 2006, pp. 3 -- 15) (Hospital Overview, 2011)

A strain on the Medicaid budged as a result of managed care can lead to methodology, raised healthcare costs and admission essay an increase in Medicaid bills (Shern et al., 2008).

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