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The Yellow Wallpaper essay draft | Winter 2015 Introduction to Literature
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odyssey thesis ideas Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. A Thesis in the Department of English.
Presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for wallpaper essay, the degree of Master of and sports, Arts at Concordia University Montreal, Canada. Keith Waddington 1998. School of Graduate Studies. This is to certify that the thesis prepared. By: Keith Waddington. Entitled: Pictures and Poetry. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay? Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence and submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of.
Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. This thesis examines the history and development of the Picturesque, its definition, theoreticians, and practitioners; and its influence on romanticism. The focus is the correction of on my, pejorative and wallpaper, negative assessments common in modern literary studies which provide a misleading interpretation of an essay, both the the yellow wallpaper essay Picturesque and its influence. The goal is a broader understanding which suggests the cowardice essay necessity of a new evaluation of Wordsworth’s “groundbreaking” contribution to literary development. Accordingly, an extensive introductory section examines pre-Picturesque and Picturesque painting, outlining the beginnings of a new and particularly English aesthetic. The Yellow Introduction? Also, an exploration of pre-Picturesque poetry and formative Picturesque poetry reveals the in the essay literary ramifications of this aesthetic. Finally, Wordsworth and Keats are canvassed within the Picturesque context: Wordsworth to demonstrate the origins and erroneousness of the modern critical bias and the way his poetry was often formulated according to Picturesque principles; Keats to demonstrate the longevity and wallpaper, continuing importance and influence of the Picturesque. On My? Conclusions are conclusive. Table of the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, Contents. Section One: The Canvas.
Section Two: Background. Section Three: The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. Section Four: The Foreground: Keats. Section One: The Canvas  [The] theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics. (Watkin, vii) The romantics . . . On My? inherited the picturesque way of looking at the yellow wallpaper essay nature, but realised that it . . Creative Writing Lessons? . had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of the yellow wallpaper essay, feeling. (Brownlow, 16) Major contribution or tyranny? When modern scholars of literature observe the Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry, ideas become gods and facts their disciples. The extensive adoption, intrinsic importance and in the time butterflies essay dede, “capability” of the Picturesque—willingly acknowledged by art historians like Watkin—are expurgated, summarily sacrificed on the altar of entrenched literary dogma, and the service of academia becomes a self-serving exercise in blind faith. This section will provide a prolegomenon to scepticism, describing the aesthetic context for the Picturesque movement, demonstrating the links between early continental landscape painting, neo-classicism, the wallpaper essay introduction Picturesque, later English landscape artists and romanticism.
Besides offering essential background, outlining the lessons artistic continuum which these links illustrate—revealing the inevitability of romanticisms and thus sanctioning a less venerational view of Wordsworth—the principle intent here is to provide a more useful definition of the the yellow essay Picturesque. In terms familiar to tabloid conspiracy theories: to tell you what they don’t want you to know. In the beginning was the word, and the word was Picturesque. Although perhaps peculiar to the pictorially educated modern, an aesthetic appreciation of landscape scenery was inconceivable prior to the Picturesque period. It is, in simple terms, a skill that requires learning. According to Christopher Hussey in The Picturesque , numerous impediments initially existed, including general Christian doctrine; the early Christian transmutation of pagan nature spirits and gods into evil spirits, essentially rendering the natural realm dangerous and even sinful; and the humanistic bias of our classical inheritance. In The Butterflies Dede? Although valid to varying degrees, the chiefest obstacle was more likely the general difficulties of life and the yellow introduction, travel which often rendered nature antagonist. Learning landscape then was an up-hill struggle. The Picturesque movement, prerequisite and intrinsic to this learning process, developed during neo-classicism’s reign supreme, and the formality and rigidity of that rule, by writing for elementary its very nature, proved conducive rather than obstructive.
The Picturesque, as we shall see, finally provided egress from wallpaper essay neo-classical regulations, where reason could finally take rest, where imagination could romp over hill and dale, where individual feeling accompanied originality. Our journey into the Picturesque begins with the essay value Grand Tour. Essay? Subsequent to England’s isolation during much of the seventeenth century and made possible by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), the Grand Tour was initially a diversion limited to the monied aristocracy. The journey southward to Italy involved either traversing the Alps or following the Rhone. In the accounts of grand tours made between 1640 and 1730 a pictorial view of landscape is essay value, exceptional. Wallpaper Introduction? In each case it can be traced fairly exactly to the actual sojourn in Rome, where the works of Claude and Salvator were to be seen. (Hussey, 84) Indeed, picturesque awareness—commonly the quiddity of modern tourism—was, like landscape painting itself, entirely foreign. Chaucer, for lessons students, example, made three or four trips over the Alps yet never mentioned them once in his poetry.
John Evelyn’s travels between 1644 and 1648 precisely outline a similar aesthetic vacuity, suggesting it was “as if Nature had here swept up the rubbish of the earth in essay the Alps” (qtd. Hussey, 85); remembering the “horrid mountains” as “troublesome” (qtd. Creative Students? Hussey, 86). Similarly, Richard Lassels’ Italian Voyage (1670) mentions Mount Cenis only in practical terms of route, “the most desirable for speed and convenience” (Manwaring, 9). Landscape painting at this time generally existed either as a background to human drama, or as a quasi-scientific topography. Neither was considered—especially for the English, where only the farmer or ditch-digger truly worked in wallpaper landscape—significant work for the significant painter. When aristocratic travellers finally arrived in Italy, they came upon an important exception to of the octavia butler, this rule. The Yellow? Claude Lorraine, Salvator Rosa and Gaspard Poussin broke with the an essay bicycle traditional subject hierarchy and raised the landscape to the yellow wallpaper introduction, lofty heights of respectability. The juxtaposition of the value of games scenery aristocratic tourists had seen and the landscape paintings they confronted provided an early indication of this parochial aesthetic and even philosophical void. The aristocracy progressively responded, bringing home souvenir paintings and prints—an early equivalent of modern picture post-cards—beginning collections and posing as cognoscenti . Grand Tour guide books soon appeared, including practical advice as well as art information. Essentially, the essay introduction status of landscape paintings in Italy compelled travellers to rethink traditional distaste for time essay dede, regions like the Alps, to over-look the associated dangers and the yellow, discomforts of travel and exploration. The preparatory precepts of the Picturesque aesthetic were thus first introduced into England, and it was particularly the paintings of parable sower octavia, Claude and the yellow essay introduction, Salvator Rosa which stimulated the greatest interest. The Less Grand Tour.
In addition to this, the Grand Tour played another important role. In what might be seen as an instance of cultural trickle-down theory, the less affluent middle-class, encouraged by fashionable discussions of Picturesque niceties, was soon occupied with more modest excursions into the English countryside. In search of creative writing, landscape, landscape gardens and the galleries of wallpaper introduction, mansions, tourists were aided by new guidebooks and much improved roads to get them there. A dramatic democratic appreciation of landscape was at last being realised, with travellers, invariably, carrying sketch-book and Claude Glass. The Claude Glass, a convex mirror of about four inches diameter with tinted filters and bound up like a pocket-book, effectively compressed and framed landscapes. Analogous to the camera in these film-free days, the user was obviously obliged to turn his back on the scene to observe the framed and cowardice essay, filtered view. Hugh Sykes Davies, in the yellow wallpaper essay introduction his recent analysis of the Picturesque and Wordsworth, offers the following comment: “It is very typical of their attitude to Nature that such a position should be desirable” (223).
Indeed, as we shall see, the comment is merely typical of Davies’ view of the Picturesque. Timothy Brownlow, in John Clare and Picturesque Landscape , offers a similar comment, all the more mockery for its parentheticality: “As an artist, he [Clare] casts aside, as it were, the Claude Glass (whose user had to turn his back on value of games and sports, the landscape)” (13). Malcolm Andrews, whose In Search for the Picturesque generally circumvents any romantic exploration, consequently offers a more useful note: The imagination as an “intellectual lens” approximates it to the Claude Glass, which can modify and enhance a particular landscape. All the special properties of the the yellow essay introduction Glass are present in Coleridge’s well-known account of the origins of his poetic collaboration with Wordsworth and their agreement about the two cardinal points of poetry: “the power of exciting the sympathy of the reader by a faithful adherence to the truth of nature, and the power of giving the interest of novelty by the modifying colours of the imagination.” (71) Support for the Claude Glass as imaginative metaphor comes from Claude himself, who was as willing as able to composite the actual with the imaginary: Pastoral Landscape with Ponte Molle (1645), for example (see figure 1), represents a view of the pope’s summer residence. Sower Octavia? . The Yellow Wallpaper Essay Introduction? . . The foreground is imaginary, but the palace is fairly accurately portrayed. The castle-like building bathed in sunlight is a forerunner of the highlighted castles in cowardice essay the middle ground so beloved of Gilpin. (Bicknell, 4) The Picturesque tourists offer moving evidence that the Picturesque became as widespread as it was popular. Indeed, the eighteenth century is matched only by the twentieth for the per capita number of country house visits.
At Hawkstone in Shropshire, for example, “there were so many visitors to the dramatically landscaped park that in c. The Yellow Essay Introduction? 1790 an hotel was built to accommodate them” (Watkin, vii). David Watkin, who examines the Picturesque from the essay prospect of art historian, similarly provides an analysis inscribed by positivism, unequivocally stating that “theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics” (vii); and that “the Picturesque became the leading building-type in post-Reformation England and has long been recognised as the nation’s principle contribution to the arts” (vii). “In the intervening two hundred years since its discussion . . . the Picturesque has been altered and the yellow essay, extended in many ways. Along the way it has acquired a pejorative tint” (Robinson, xii). Categorical and essay, “pejorative” statements: “The cultural games of the picturesque” (Woodring, viii); “The vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33); “Comic and faddish as much of the theory appears in retrospect” (Brownlow, 43); W.M. Merchant’s common “cult” (9) epithet; as well as the supercilious Davies, who extends this negation to the present, saying “The modern tourists . . . pass through the country at a rate never dreamed of by wallpaper essay introduction Gray and West, seeing nothing, and apparently feeling even less” (226), all fail to recognise that this appetite to sample and develop a taste for landscape was redolent of a general change in an essay bicycle aesthetic sense.
In fact, the the yellow wallpaper modern tourist, in the route he selects and with each viewfinder frame often reveals the influence of the word essay Picturesque. By the start of the nineteenth century, recognition of picturesqueness had become—and remains—second nature. Landscape Artists Abroad. Salvator Rosa (1615-73) As mentioned, Salvator Rosa, Neapolitan painter, etcher, satirical poet and introduction, actor, was crucial to the development of the Picturesque and also provides an early link with romantic poetry. In addition to his landscapes, which portrayed the feral and of games and sports, fierce of nature (see figure 3), Salvator displayed a penchant for the yellow essay, appalling subjects—witches and monsters, meditations upon death and so on—inspiring such romantic painters as Barry, Fuseli and Mortimer, and finding poetic expression in the romantic inclination towards the gothic and graveyard melancholy. Lady Mortgan’s The Life and Times of word, Salvator Rosa , published in 1824, depicted the artist as a legendary figure hobnobbing with bandits and joining a popular uprising in Naples, establishing him as the quintessential romantic artist: an outlaw encamped with darkness and the yellow, despair, whose bravura with the brush was symptomatic of a burning artistic brilliance inimical to convention.
Eighteenth century literary explorations of the Picturesque are literally laden with references to an essay on my, Salvator: “What’er Lorrain light touched with softening hue / Or savage Rosa dashed, or learned Poussin drew” ( Castel of Indolence I, XXXVIII). Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) Claude Lorrain, although French, spent his adult life in essay Rome. Claude was undoubtedly the greatest master of ideal-landscape painting, which seeks to present nature as surnature and concording with the habitual “improvement” of the Picturesque vision. In addition, Claude’s landscapes often contain classical ruins—an initial point of entry for English neo-classicists who required some token scrap of Rome or Athens—a key element modified in the Picturesque movement to accommodate native ruins—both genuine and artificial. Besides his fundamental importance to the Picturesque movement, Claude, like Salvator, exhibited a less direct though nonetheless certain connection with romantic poetry, with his much acclaimed poetic rendering of light. Bicycle? As E. Essay Introduction? B. Greenshields, Landscape Painting and an essay on my, Modern Dutch Artists , states, “if one artist were to be chosen as founder of modern landscape painting, that title would be rightly given to Claude” (15). Within the neo-classical/romantic context, John Ruskin offers the following: The love of neatness and precision, as opposed to all disorder, maintains itself down to Raphael's childhood without the slightest interference of the yellow wallpaper essay, any other feeling; and it is in the of the butterflies dede, not until Claude's time, and owing in great part to his influence, that the the yellow essay new feeling distinctly establishes itself. English scenery, initially, existed as a back-drop to continental landscape paintings in much the same way as landscape initially provided only the setting for human pictorial narratives. In a comparison between Dovedale and cowardice essay, Keswick, Dr. John Brown wrote:
Were I to analyse the two places in their constituent principles, I shoud tell you, that the essay full perfection of cowardice essay, Keswick, consists of three circumstances, beauty, horror and immensity united; the second of which is alone found in Dovedale. . . . But to give you a complete idea of these three perfections, as they are joined in Keswick, would require the united powers of Claude, Salvator Rosa and the yellow introduction, Poussin. Essay? The first should throw his delicate sunshine over the cultivated vales, the scattered cots, the groves, the lake, and the wooded island. Essay? The second should dash out the horror of the rugged cliffs, the steep, the hanging woods, and foaming water-falls; while the grand pencil of Poussin should crown the whole with the majesty of the impending mountains. Essay Value Of Games? (qtd. Davies, 218) The original works of wallpaper, this scanty collection of Italian painters only partly explain the extensive aesthetic transformation in remote England.
Walpole mentions in his Anecdotes several foreign landscape painters living and an essay bicycle, working in England during the the yellow late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.  These included Henry Dankers, employed by Charles II as a topographical artist and Francesco Zuccarelli, who visited England twice, lived in parable of the sower octavia butler essay London for five years and wallpaper essay, became a foundation member of the Royal Academy. Thomas Manby, an Englishman who studied in Italy, brought back the customary collection of paintings to add to his own works. In addition, the enormous popularity of these artists, especially Claude, led to countless copies and value and sports, even copies of copies. Less duplicitous was the invention of prints and the development of engraving to high art, making the landscapes of the masters as common as the furrowed tellurian landscapes of the peasants (see figures 1 and 2 ). Where the wallpaper essay introduction canvas could be known, often imprecisely, by only a few hundred privileged, the print could be known intimately by the massed thousands. Indeed, print collecting—”No person of Taste could be without a collection of prints” (Manwaring, 84)—became itself a popular pastime. Also, “the amateur landscape painter had begun to flourish before the seventeenth century closed, and long continued to flourish increasingly” (Manwaring, 8). The stylistically idealised quality of in the of the butterflies essay, Claude and Salvator’s paintings provided the inspiration for the Picturesque movement and was then modified as the English Picturesque developed, essentially becoming an idealisation of a nature that was rapidly vanishing and wallpaper essay introduction, celebrating a rural way of life that was being lost. A Picturesque Definition. Perhaps the earliest explicit statement on the Picturesque comes from William Kent in his 1709 Memorandum on lessons, the preservation of the yellow essay introduction, Woodstock Manor: That part of the Park which is seen from the parable of the sower butler essay North Front of the the yellow essay introduction new building has little variety of an essay, objects nor does the country beyond it afford any of value. It therefore stands in need of all the helps that can be given. . . . Buildings and Plantations.
These rightly dispos’d will indeed supply all the wants of Nature in that place. And the most agreeable disposition is to the yellow, mix them: in which this old Manour gives so happy an on my bicycle, occasion for; that were the enclosures filled with Trees (principally fine Yews and Hollys) promiscuously set to the yellow essay, grow up in a wild thicket, so that all the buildings left might appear in two risings amongst ’em, it would make one of the most agreeable objects that the best of Landskip painters can invent. (qtd. Lessons? Watson, 17) From this early beginning—remarkably loaded with what would eventually become the nitty-gritty of the yellow essay introduction, picturesque idiom: variety, wants of nature, mix, wild, thicket; and concepts: a harmony of architecture and natural surroundings and comparison with landscape paintings—the unfamiliar story of Picturesque development reads rather like the recorded exploits of an ancient relation discovered in a dusty chest, while categorical definitions have all the interest of his bleached bones. Time Of The Butterflies? Unfortunately, ubiquitousness and over-familiarity has essentially starved the term of any useful sense and to flesh out that skeletal frame becomes a matter of Hobson’s choice.
So what does “picturesque” really mean? As late as 1794, Uvedale Price wrote: “There are few words whose meaning has been less accurately determined than that of the word picturesque” ( On the Picturesque , 77).  Whether or not we accept J. R. Watson's hypothesis, in wallpaper essay introduction Picturesque Landscape and English romantic Poetry , that this period—despite being the most prolific in picturesque studies, picturesque tours and picturesque allusions—actually marks the decline of the movement (a somewhat strange notion considering Turner’s Picturesque series is still decades away), it seems obvious that the time was indeed ripe for some clear definition. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the in the of the butterflies subject means that no nut-shell, no matter how perfectly nutty, can contain a definition fair and useful. The stress here then is selectivity, surveying concepts intrinsic to Picturesque theory that reveals strong romantic links and wallpaper, usually glossed-over in modern literary criticism. William Gilpin (1724-1804) Perhaps the most succinct definition of Picturesque comes from writing for elementary students Reverend William Gilpin's Essay on Prints (1768): “ . . . a term expressive of that peculiar kind of beauty, which is the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, agreeable in a picture”(xii).
This simple statement is modified by essay value and sports the notion of “picturesque grace,” meaning “an agreeable form which may be given to a clownish figure”(xii): that stylistic rendition found in the yellow essay “Berghem's clowns, and in an essay bicycle Callot's beggars”(29). Thus, in the yellow introduction this simplest of beginnings, the Picturesque relates both to the elements in a scene as well as the artist's treatment of his subject. Essay on Prints provides a broad examination of art and compositional analysis; and Watson's suggestion that for most of the period this definition “was sufficient” seems sufficient only for those unwilling to read the book. Gilpin himself, recognising the fribblish finish, offers some restoration in Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape (1792) . The accepted definition of beauty—most often marked by smoothness and unity—was established by Edmund Burke in A Philosophical Inquiry into butterflies essay dede the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Recognising that scenes beautiful according to the yellow wallpaper essay, this definition were usually unsuitable subjects for the pencil, Gilpin considered the Picturesque composed of lessons for elementary students, roughness, irregularity and variety. In addition, Gilpin disagrees with Burke’s conclusions on the yellow essay introduction, the beautiful and sublime, where the effect of the former is pleasure, the latter astonishment and that the two, discovered in a single object, cause mutual destruction. In reference to Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Among all the visions of this enchanted country, we had seen nothing so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque, as this” ( Three Essays , 52). The juxtaposition of beautiful and sublime is both deliberate, and—as any present-day hiker in this region will attest—accurate. Indeed, the mix of beauty and sublimity, producing the Picturesque, seems to creative writing for elementary, be the gist of Dr.
John Brown’s “beauty, horror and immensity united.” As John Ruskin suggests, “this sublimity may be either in essay introduction mere external ruggedness, and other visible character, or it may lie deeper, in an expression of sorrow and old age, attributes which are both sublime” By defining the on my principle characteristics of the Picturesque, besides underlining the main weakness of Burke’s theory, Three Essays also achieved dubious honour of introduction, virtually codifying picturesque theory. The Picturesque was finally composed of such illustrative elements as ruins— à la Claude—cottages, villages, twisting tracks; with roughness, intricacy, sudden variation, abruptness, foreground, middleground and background forming the more abstract and general Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin's Picturesque musings, however, exceeded the catalogue of elements and cowardice essay, rules of composition, and in this often overlooked material Gilpin’s especial merit becomes clear. Wallpaper Essay? For all the asseverations on artistic theory, it was the visual art itself which most concerned Gilpin and explains the an essay bicycle focus of his philosophy. Words,, Gilpin insists, cannot mark the characteristic distinctions of each scene, the introduction touches of nature—her living tints—her endless varieties, both in form and colour.—In a word, all the cowardice essay elegant peculiarities are beyond their reach. The pencil, it is true, offers a more perfect mode of description. ( Observations , 10) Indeed, the peculiar strength of language rests elsewhere, and the adoption of Picturesque sensibilities by the poet must—by the very nature of his medium—result in an altered expression and not, to foreshadow central critical dogma, a transcending expression. Besides this conclusion—which literary scholars might find presumptuous—Gilpin keenly discerned the importance of the imaginative faculty: “. . . we may be pleased with the description, and the picture.
But the soul can feel neither, unless the force of our own imagination aid the poet's, or the painter's art; exalt the idea, and essay introduction, picture things unseen” ( Observations , 10). Essay Value Of Games And Sports? Reading poetry, viewing painting, it is the imagination which provides fullest meaning; and it is imagination also which accompanies Gilpin through the Lake District: The evening . . Wallpaper Introduction? . Of The Butterflies Essay? grew more tempestuous . . The Yellow Essay? . Bicycle? amid the obscurity, which now overshadowed the landscape, the imagination was left at large; and painted many images, which perhaps did not really exist. . . . Every great and pleasing form, which we had seen during the day, now played, in strong imagery before the fancy; as when the grand chorus ceases, ideal music vibrates on the ear. The Yellow Introduction? ( Observations , 19) Gilpin here describes the participation of active imagination both in reading poetry, viewing paintings, and exploring landscape. Transition Essay? Followers of the Picturesque then, at wallpaper essay least according to value of games and sports, Gilpin, are involved with elemental matter both external and wallpaper essay introduction, internal. Of The Essay? Figure 4, for example, offers an unusual composition where the two figures “may be supposed to the yellow wallpaper essay, see the continuation of a landscape down the valley . . . and this gives a sort of clue to the imagination” (qtd.
Bicknell, 38). Transition Essay? Indeed, the bridge leads the eye outside the frame and it is the unseen which initiates the imagination as much as the seen. In addition, Gilpin suggests picturesque tourists with an artistic drift should side-step exact copy and superinduce through the imagination and awareness of picturesque aesthetics: in a sense, the tableau should improve upon nature’s raw material. Hiking the lower lake of Buttermere, for example, Gilpin says: “Nothing is wanting but a little more wood, to make this lake, and the vale in which it lies, a very enchanting scene”( Observations , 3). Although instances such as this provide fodder for scholars hungry to highlight the absurdity of the Picturesque vision, where actual landscape is compared with ideal landscape painting, the methodology actually involves processing nature through artistic sensibility.
Indeed, such comments reveal the Claudian concept of ideal landscape to be never further than the next hill. Heading towards Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Except the mountains, nothing in all this scenery is great ; but every part is wallpaper essay introduction, filled with the sweet engaging passages of nature” ( Observations , 8). Here, “passages” suggests poetry—indeed, several lines of verse follow—and Gilpin, despite his acute sense of the visual, infers that landscape, painting and poetry are all, deucedly and inextricably, mixed. Published in 1792, it pre-dates Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads by six years and the poet’s own Guide to the Lakes by eighteen. Gilpin, as a clergyman, was naturally concerned the essay amorality of the Picturesque. Introduction? Davies, in an exhibition of ignorance and forgetfulness, quotes Gilpin’s comment on the lakeland shepherd: “But the life of the shepherd, in this country, is not an transition essay, Arcadian life. His occupation subjects him to many difficulties . . .” (qtd. Davies, 228), subsequently suggesting he afforded no interest in the people who live in landscape! In fact, Gilpin, as we shall see, was personally concerned with the well-being of country people and openly acknowledged that the Picturesque stood outside ethical concerns:
In a moral light, cultivation, in all its parts, is pleasing; the hedge and furrow, the waving corn field, and rows of ripened Sheaves. But all these, the Picturesque eye, in quest of scenes of grandeur, and beauty, looks as with disgust . Essay? . . thus the lazy cow herd, resting on his pole; or the peasant lolling on a rock, may be allowed in the grandest scenes; while the laborous mechanic, with his implements of labour, would be repulsed.” ( Observations, Cumberland , 45) This then is the Picturesque, not Gilpin himself. Gilpin, a school-master, required years of persuasion from friends before agreeing to publish his manuscripts. Subsequent royalties funded a school, “to remedy the conditions of essay and sports, ignorance and squalor” (Manwaring, 184) founded within the boundaries of wallpaper introduction, his rural parish. In contrasting urban and rural life, picturesque representations inadvertently suggested a conflict between the creative writing lessons students reality of children's lives and wallpaper essay, projected adult attitudes. Many such pictures—including Thomas Gainsborough's cottage series—share a romanticised notion of the countryside as an innocent, idyllic environment. While presenting children in tattered clothing, the effect is picturesque rather than moral. An Essay Bicycle? The very same, of course, can be said of much romantic poetry. Wallpaper Essay Introduction? Gilpin, often the object of narrow-view animadversion, not only recognises the problem but selflessly provides some correction.
Despite Gilpin's rule and dogma—measure for measure no more insidious than a modern “How-To” book—his Picturesque views display a diversity to which the satirists were forced to turn a blind eye; an an essay bicycle, acknowledgement that is the yellow, as much in accord with romantic contemplation as Picturesque investigation. From 1768 onwards, Gilpin undertook full many provincial journeys in essay of games and sports search of the Picturesque, producing a series of illustrated guide books which often suggested specific “stations”—places providing ideal perspective of picturesque vistas. These guides, including Wye and South Wales (1782) and the Lake District (1789), were paramount in the popularisation of the Picturesque as a means of essay introduction, viewing nature and cowardice essay, are, of themselves, indicative of the popularity of wallpaper, picturesque tourism. As Watkin suggests, “Gilpin’s numerous topographical books were essentially a preparation for lessons for elementary students, intelligent critical visiting, for the Picturesque presupposes a society which was interested in nature and in art and, above all, in travelling (vii). In conclusion, Gilpin's introduction to Essays provides the following clarification which modern critics might gainfully peruse: . . . we picturesque people are a little misunderstood with regard to our general intention . I have several times been surprised at finding us represented, as supposing all beauty to consist in picturesque beauty —and the the yellow wallpaper essay face of nature to be examined only by for elementary students the rules of painting. Whereas, in fact, we always speak a different language. We speak of the wallpaper grand scenes of nature, though interesting in a picturesque light , as having a strong effect upon the imagination . An Essay? . . we everywhere make distinctions between scenes, that are beautiful , and amusing , and scenes that are picturesque. ( i-ii) Followers of the essay introduction Picturesque—and their numbers were legion—were concerned with a general appreciation of landscape and nature, though particularly those scenes formed of in the, picturesque elements.
The Picturesque scene was of the yellow wallpaper essay, more intense interest to cowardice essay, painters, poets and travellers for wallpaper essay introduction, the simple reason that the Picturesque scene is a scene more intense in its capacity to provoke and induce reflection. And finally, Gilpin offers a warning: Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers, Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign. Great archetype in all. ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30) Uvedale Price (1747-1829) This capacity to provoke is an essential element in the theories of Uvedale Price. Like Gilpin, Price adopts Burke's analysis of beauty: uniformity of writing, surface, gradual variation and so on; as well as Gilpin's own analysis of picturesqueness: roughness, sudden variation, irregularity etc. Price, however, takes exception to pictorially-based definition, suggesting that the Picturesque is related to the yellow introduction, painting only transition word essay accidentally:
That term, as we may judge from its etymology, is applied only to objects of the yellow essay introduction, sight; and, indeed, in so confined a manner as to be supposed merely to essay value of games, have a reference to the art from which it is the yellow wallpaper, named. Cowardice Essay? I am well convinced however, that the name and reference only are limited and uncertain, and the yellow essay, that the qualities which make objects picturesque, are not only as distinct as those which make them beautiful or sublime, but are equally extended to cowardice essay, all our sensations by whatever organs they are received; and that music—though it appears like a solecism—may be as truly picturesque, according to wallpaper introduction, the general principles of picturesqueness, as it may be beautiful or sublime, according to those of beauty or sublimity. ( On the Picturesque , 79-80) Price also states: “Whoever studies art alone, will have a narrow pedantic manner of considering all objects” (3), stressing the importance also of of games, “the mistress of all art” (4), Nature herself. Price is here drawing attention to the ocular bias of William Payne Knight—introduced below—as part and parcel of a protracted debate. Strange then that Davies should insist that for Gilpin landscape’s “appeal is to the eye . . The Yellow Wallpaper Essay? . only through the in the time of the butterflies essay eye” (230). Heretically, in a topsy-turvey turn around and about Ullswater, Gilpin’s mentions the music of the wallpaper essay winds and tempest, “the echoes excited . . Writing? . in the yellow introduction different parts of [the] lake” ( Observations, Cumberland , 59). In addition, he tells the tale of the Duke of Portland, who owned a vessel fitted with brass cannons designed for the purpose of an essay on my bicycle, producing echoes. “Such a variety,” he suggests, “of awful sounds, mixing and commixing, and at the same moment heard from all sides, have a wonderful effect on the mind” ( Observations, Cumberland, 61).
Another example of the the yellow auditory factor in the picturesque is Hagley, Lord Lyttelton’s estate, the locale in which Thomson revised and rewrote The Seasons which, besides the artificial ruins, featured a stream carefully designed for bicycle, maximum gurgleability. Price seeks to the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, take something of the picture from Picturesque, considering it a new category of aesthetic values added to Burke's beautiful and sublime. . Essay? . . Introduction? picturesqueness appears to hold a station between beauty and sublimity; and, on that count, perhaps, is more frequently, and more happily blended with them both, than they are with each other. Cowardice Essay? It is, however, perfectly distinct from either. Beauty and picturesqueness are indeed evidently founded on very opposite the yellow wallpaper essay qualities; the one on smoothness, the other on roughness; the one on gradual, the other on writing, sudden variation; the one on ideas of the yellow essay introduction, youth and freshness, the other on those of age, and even of cowardice essay, decay. ( On the Picturesque , 90) Again, this is only a modification—an engradisement—of Gilpin. Unlike Gilpin’s nation-wide pursuit of the Picturesque, Price concentrated his aesthetic energies upon the picturesqueification of manor gardens; and it is here that the two part company.
In fact, it was William Kent, painter, architect and factotum of the Earl of wallpaper introduction, Burlington, who led the revolt against the artificial symmetry of gardens, (see figure 5 ), modifying, in 1734, the creative lessons for elementary gardens at Chiswick House with a meandering stream and an irregular path. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay? Price adopted Kent's early ideas and developed a more expansive theory of picturesque landscaping, arguing in On the Picturesque (1794), that gardens should imitate landscape paintings and that the gardener and painter each aspire to students, the improvement of nature—again, the wallpaper essay introduction familiar idea of Nature as archetype which might be improved through art. Parable Of The Sower Octavia Butler? Though inspired by essay introduction Claude and Salvator, Price also aspired, as suggested above, towards the guiding hand of raw nature and offered pragmatic suggestions of picturesque effects landowners might attempt. Unfortunately, Price’s own effect over actual landscapes was severely limited by the very nature of his improvements, many of which required decades to reach full decay. If the patrician Price failed to effect solid change in the English manor landscape, he nevertheless bequeathed a more ironic and in the time of the dede, widespread legacy: just as “the picturesque sketch promoted naturalism in landscape painting” (Bermingham, 67), Price’s notions fostered a new naturalism in the yellow essay introduction gardening—advocating the wild, the dramatic, the “accident” of nature: a withered tree, a half-submerged branch breaking the surface of a pool—and continued the in the butterflies dede democratisation of the the yellow wallpaper Picturesque aesthetic. Condemned by on my bicycle some contemporaries for taking wildness too far, Price ultimately won a vox populi approval. Indeed, the art of picturesque gardening was soon exported: “. . . the continent, about 1770, began to adopt widely the English . . . Wallpaper Introduction? fashion; and works in French and Italian were added to the copious literature of landscape gardening” (Manwaring, 121). The clash between aesthetic and utility—essentially the moral dimension—was particularly trenchant for Price, whose expertise was firmly fixed in the land itself.
In reference to thatched cottages, for example, he suggests: “It is writing lessons for elementary students, no less picturesque, when mossy, ragged, and sunk in among the wallpaper introduction rafters in decay; a species of that character, however, which the keenest lover of it would rather see on another's property than on his own” ( On the Picturesque , 398). To this, the zealous and sometimes verbose editor of the 1842 edition interpolates: I confess, that after considerable experience, I have been completely cured of my romantic attachment to thatch. If the roof of a cottage be well formed, and well projected, so as to throw a deep shadow over transition word, the wall beneath it, I do not conceive that it will be necessary to thatch it, in order to add to introduction, its picturesque effect, at the risk of in the essay dede, diminishing the essay introduction comfort of the poor inmates. (398) Price the cowardice essay gentleman farmer, occupied with increased production and the maximisation of land use, appears, Ann Bermingham points out, as something of a contradiction to essay introduction, Price the promoter of picturesque aesthetics, biased towards the nostalgic, the antiquated, the rustic, the dilapidated and word essay, the inefficient. The contradiction though seems somewhat delusive and is perhaps suggestive of the transformation of the paternal landlord-tenant relationship, with the picturesque manor garden now forming a physical boundary between aesthetic and productive nature. Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824) Richard Payne Knight, who owned the most valuable collection of Claudes in Europe and whose interests were eclectic,  provides still another perspective.
In, The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in Three Books , he refutes compositional analysis, instead seeing art as a “magic power”(8) which defies analysis and the yellow introduction, rule: Curse on cowardice essay, the pedant jargon, that defines. Beauty's unbounded forms to given lines! With scorn eternal mark the cautious fool. Who dares not judge till he consults his rule! Or when, Salvator from thy daring hand. Appears, in burnished arms, some savage band,— Each figure boldly pressing into life, And breathing blood, calamity, and strife, Should cold measure each component part. And judge thy genius by wallpaper essay a surgeons art. (6-7)
Knight also disagrees with Price’s multi-sensory theory, believing that the Picturesque “is merely that kind of beauty which belongs exclusively to the sense of vision; or to the imagination guided by that sense”  ( On the Picturesque , 500). Knight provides a curious blend of neo-classical—with his didactic poem festooned in rhyming couplets and his notions of “taste”—and romantic, a clear sign of the transition underway: Such too the Sicyonian sculptor taught. To model motion, and embody thought; Pure abstract beauty's fleeting shades to trace. And fix the image of ideal grace: Combining what he felt with what he saw. (5-6) Besides his emphasis upon “feeling” in the almost magical and almost irrational production of art, Knight points towards the dangers of fashion:
Straight lines were the fashion of the last century, and of the octavia butler, the curved ones are the wallpaper introduction fashion of this, and an indiscriminate adherence to in the time of the, the fashion of the introduction day, what ever it happens to be, with a supercilious contempt for bicycle, all who venture to dissent from it, is the never failing characteristic of the vanity, separated from the feeling, or discernment, of taste. The advocate for the curve lines would have been as much ridiculed in the last century as the advocate for straight ones in this; and with equal reason; for the indiscriminate use of either is equally bad. Many of the compositions of Nicholas Poussin show the the yellow wallpaper introduction grand effect which may be produced by the judicious use of essay of games and sports, straight lines. but the too general use of them was still more fatal to wallpaper essay, picturesque beauty, than the late senseless destruction of them has been. An Essay Bicycle? It belongs to the real improver to discriminate where the straight, and where the curve line will best suit the the yellow wallpaper essay composition; and octavia butler, it is this talent of discrimination which distinguishes the liberal artist from the mechanic. (fn 11) Here, “faddish” (Brownlow, 43) modern appraisals typified also by the “vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33) are clearly drawn and quartered by Knight’s properly considered execution of Picturesque principles which supersede transient newfangledness and commemorate the sempiternal. Knight's fixation upon “taste,” and “discrimination,” are reminiscent of the superciliousness of essay, a Pope or a Swift, though his distinction between the mechanic and creative writing students, liberal artist—one who follows no rules besides those which the the yellow wallpaper magic spirit of time of the butterflies essay, art suggests—offers a place within the romantic arena. Knight, like Price, was accused of wild neglect in his landscape theories: an indication indeed of the distance separating the new naturalism from the old neo-classicism. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, Knight insists that the transplanting and mimicking of Italian landscape—both real or painted—should finally be abandoned in preference to compositions which adopt Picturesque principles and native scenes: Nor, plac’d beneath our cool and wat’ry sky.
Attempt the glowing tints of the yellow wallpaper introduction, Italy: For thus compell’d in mem’ry to confide, Or blindly follow some preceding guide, One common track it still pursues, And crudely copies what it never views . . . Students? . (309-314) The work of Price and Knight, though perhaps less interesting a read than Gilpin, augmented the Picturesque phenomenon to a point where it was not only the talk of the town but of the estate and essay, village. Watson’s assessment that “it is difficult to regard it as much more than a sterile ending,” (21) reveals perhaps a certain sterility in his own point of view rather than providing any useful conclusion. Lancelot Brown (1716-83) Lancelot “Capability” Brown, though embroiled in the Picturesque debate, essentially helped define the Picturesque by negation: Brownian improvement replaced the artificiality of neo-classical landscape gardens with a new artificiality based either upon Burke’s principles of beauty or Brown’s singular notions born orphan and condemned to permanent infancy.
Fundamentally, Brown’s style, though claiming nature as its inspiration, was no less unnatural than, for example, Knole, Nymphenburg or Le Notre's Versailles. Of The Sower Butler Essay? If the “improvements” of Price and Knight might take decades to essay, develop, the bumbling “Capability” Brown provided expeditious transformations priced by the yard and complete the day after tomorrow. Gilpin himself comments upon this: This is the first subject of the kind he [Brown] has attempted . . . but a ruin presents a new idea; which I doubt whether he has sufficiently considered . . . An Essay On My Bicycle? [His lake] is too magnificent, and too artificial an the yellow, appendage, to be in unison with the ruins of an abbey. An abbey, it is true, may stand by the side of a lake; and essay value of games and sports, it is possible that this lake may, in some future time, become its situation; when the marks of the spade and the pick-axe are removed,—when its osiers flourish; and its naked banks become fringed and covered with wood . . . the ruin stands now on a neat bowling-green like a house just built, and without any kind of the yellow introduction, connection with the ground it stands on. (qtd. Watkin, 48) Brown designed his landscapes according to his own simple understanding of an essay on my, nature's harmonies and gradients, featuring vast expanses of grass, irregularly shaped bodies of water, and clumpified tree groupings. As a consequence, Brown eventually became the object of general ridicule: On one occasion Owen Cambridge remarked, “I wish I may die before you, Mr. Brown.” “Why so?” inquired the puzzled but flattered Brown. “Because,” came the reply, “I should like to see heaven before you have improved it.” (qtd. The Yellow Essay? Hussey, 139)
Brown clearly and entirely personified the halting and maladroit neo-classical Picturesque, an awkward attempt to plant a round tree in a square hole; and his importance stems partly from the an essay on my middleground his improvements occupied, and partly from the antithetical virtue of something which is not providing a point of reference to something which is. The Philosophical Context. The Grand Tour, the importation of souvenir landscape paintings and the increasingly popular provincial trips provide the foundation for all this Picturesque inquiry; but there was additionally a general philosophical investigation which offered a provocative and conducive milieu. The Yellow Wallpaper Introduction? Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) equated God with the natural order of the world; Wilhelm Wackenroder's Effusions of an Art-Loving Friar (1773-1798) proposed the existence of two Divine languages, the creative writing students first reserved for solely for God, the second composed of two components: Nature and Art—a kind of wallpaper introduction, bilingualism for the unilingual. Together, these ideas brought some balance to the traditional Christian bias against nature. Most important was Burke’s (1729-1797) aforementioned theory of the sublime: the transition ultimate experience of the yellow wallpaper introduction, divinity, composed of essay, awe, fear and wallpaper essay, enlightenment, and produced by the contemplation of potent and alarming nature. For Elementary? The effect of visible objects on the passions, clearly, is not only the concern of the yellow wallpaper essay, Burke, but lies at the heart also of an essay on my bicycle, Picturesque theory. In effect, these philosophical theories began either to intellectualise landscape and nature—a process continued by the Picturesque school, which allowed a less restricted participation—or attached to the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, it theological importance (see figure 6) where once was seen irreverence. Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), for example, exhibited Cross in the Mountains in 1808: a landscape intended as an altarpiece for a private chapel. Critics initially condemned this as sacrilegious. Friedrich's own interpretation of the picture identified the word natural images as symbols for religious beliefs: “The Cross stands erected on a rock unshakeably firm as our faith in Jesus Christ.
Evergreen, enduring through all ages, the firs stand round the cross, like the hope of mankind in Him”( Encyclopaedia Britannica ). Wallpaper Introduction? Landscape and landscape paintings, through these developments, were deemed to be intellectually and religiously interesting and thus offered a respectability previously unknown. Importantly, the religious angle provided only an initial entry point in what was finally to become an essay of games and sports, amoral and secular aesthetic. Returning to the yellow essay introduction, the properly Picturesque, Thomas West’s Guide to the Lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and parable octavia, Lancashire , first published in 1778, displays the religious overtones of landscape within the context of the urban/rural dichotomy: Such as spend their lives in cities, and their time in crouds will here meet with objects that will enlarge the mind, by contemplation, and raise it from the yellow introduction nature to nature’s first cause. Whoever takes a walk into these scenes must return penetrated with a sense of the creator’s power in heaping mountains upon mountains, and enthroning rocks upon rocks. And such exhibitions of sublime and essay value of games and sports, beautiful objects cannot but excite at once both rapture and reverence. Introduction? (4)
Although religion, ultimately, would be banished from the Picturesque scene, initially such inclusion provided justification and absolution for the new focus on landscape. Within the larger context, the developing interest in landscape painting and cowardice essay, landscape itself comes as no surprise and the romantic school of poetry was essentially a natural progression as inevitable as the wooded shadows cast by a brilliant dawn. Landscape Painters Autochtonous. As we have seen, the appreciation of landscape was one which required learning, and it was through landscape painting and painters that this skill was initially acquired. Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88) Thomas Gainsborough, perhaps the earliest and certainly most highly regarded pioneer of picturesque English landscape painting, emerged as.
the most significant landscape painter of the century. Whereas the work of Wilson, the “English Claude,” could be accommodated within the familiar art-history tradition of landscape painting, Gainsborough’s art inspired insights that ran counter to the academic notions of paintings. . . . (Bermingham, 58) Gainsborough “gave landscape the status of pure painting: private, personal” (Bermingham 43). Rejecting portraiture, with its congenital mandate for poetic license, conjured to placate a patron, rather than artistic integrity, Gainsborough believed that the material of landscape allowed “. . . the the yellow wallpaper artist freely to exercise his imagination” (Bermingham 44). In his later work, Gainsborough offered ever more subjective and sentimental subjects: the cottage, the parable sower sublimity of sea, of mountain, and the innocence of children, each finding a correspondence in such poems as Wordsworth’s “The Ruined Cottage,” “Ode: Intimations of Immortality,” “Farewell though little Nook of mountain ground” and “We Are Seven.” In the decades after his death in essay introduction 1788, a veritable inversion of taste had occurred, with critics and sensible folk alike increasingly praising landscape over butterflies essay, portraits. Gainsborough rejected predefined artistic traditions, embraced English rural subject matter as “a direct response to nature” (Bermingham 58), and established an affinity with the Picturesque well beyond that of either Claude or Salvator. If, as Hussey suggests, Claude, Salvator and others caused a revolution in the appreciation of scenery and wallpaper essay, nature, then Gainsborough landed that rebellion on the home front, adopting English countryside and scenes with a subjective reconnaissance which sought to discover their innate truth. J M W Turner (1775-1851) Joseph Mallord William Turner was principally influenced by Claude, and so, not surprisingly, painted a host of picturesque scenes whose mythological and historical subjects are guaranteed to warm even the coldest cockles of the neo-classicist: Dido Building Carthage , The Bay of Baiae with Apollo and value of games and sports, the Sibyl and Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus , to name only a few.
And yet the subjects themselves tell only half the story, for these were indeed Picturesque canvases with atmospheric effects suggestive of the yellow introduction, Claude (see figure 7) and foreshadowing impressionistic treatment. Turner then demonstrates the tenacity of neo-classical material in paintings; but also the word essay movement towards a more individual and romantic approach: in place of mere factual recording, Turner translated scenes into a light-filled expression of his own romantic outlook. Other paintings, like Buttermere Lake: A Shower , from around 1798, as well as Turner’s extensive touring of England and Scotland during the same period, show a sensitivity to the nationalistic climate inherent in the Picturesque movement. Turner, like Salvator, was himself something of a romantic figure: claiming no close friends, painting in absolute privacy, spending months in solitude and always travelling alone. When persuaded to sell his paintings, Turner suffered days of dejection.
Finally, Turner left a large fortune which he hoped would support what he called “decaying artists”—a picturesque appellation if ever there was one. What makes Turner particularly interesting is his treatment of the sublime and its Picturesque ramifications. John Ruskin has a unique and the yellow essay introduction, convincing view of this which explains the strength of the word Picturesque and partly —infinitesimally—accounts for the modern literary bias: . . . if this outward sublimity be sought for by the painter, without any regard for the real nature of the essay thing, and value of games and sports, without any comprehension of the pathos of the yellow wallpaper introduction, character hidden beneath, it forms the low school of the surface-picturesque; that which fills ordinary drawing-books and of the octavia, scrap-books, and employs, perhaps, the the yellow wallpaper most popular living landscape painters of France, England, and Germany. But if these same outward characters be sought for in subordination to the inner character of the object, every source of pleasurableness being refused which is incompatible with that, while perfect sympathy is an essay bicycle, felt at the same time with the object as to all that it tells of itself in essay introduction those sorrowful by-words, we have the school of true or noble picturesque. To extend this analysis, it is an of the octavia butler, acute sympathy which separates middling artists of the wallpaper Picturesque from the Turners and the Wordsworths; it is, to essay of games and sports, adopt Ruskin’s terminology, the difference between high and low Picturesque. Although Turner— unlike Wordsworth—employed both sketches and memory, a similar temporal distancing from subject is common to the yellow essay introduction, their respective methodologies: The sketch which Turner used as the in the of the butterflies dede basis for his drawing of Louth, Lincolnshire , a drawing that dates from sometime in 1827-8, was made thirty years earlier, in 1797. The Yellow Introduction? As will become increasingly obvious, painting and literature are indeed sister arts and their practitioners intimately related. (Shanes, 20) John Constable (1776-1837) John Constable was born and bred in rural England and his bond to the countryside was life long and reverential. No other painter of the period imbued such a sense of self in his work, calling his sketchbooks “journals”—complete with their autobiographical annotations—and stating, surely with a nod of approval from Wordsworth: “I am fond of being an Egoist in writing whatever relates to painting” (qtd. Bermingham, 87).
His earliest works were venerational sketches in the style of the yellow wallpaper introduction, Gainsborough; and, though never abandoning Picturesque theory, Constable appropriated its many exigencies and eventually made them componential to parable sower octavia butler essay, the dictates of wallpaper introduction, his own. Initially, then, the Picturesque afforded Constable an aesthetic perspective whose ideological bias coincided at and sports many points with his own rejection of commercial values as shared by his family. Furthermore, the Picturesque focus on the specific appearances of objects and the power of these appearances to evoke strong imaginative associations encouraged Constable’s own propensity to essay, infuse particular views and cowardice essay, objects with affective significance. Wallpaper Essay Introduction? (Bermingham, 113-114) Perhaps the most striking aspect—at least to the literary minded—of Constable’s stylistic development involves his new conception of nature with its emphasis upon specific and individual elements which undermine traditional hierarchical landscape composition. Discussing Dedham Vale: Morning , Bermingham states: . . Cowardice Essay? . the eye cannot trace a pedestrian itinerary; it focuses on charged spots—the figures, the tall golden trees, the white church, the the yellow essay introduction post in the left foreground. . . . [It is this] profusion of dialectically charged spots [that] organises Constables landscapes. (123) Besides these spots of composition, Constable, in lessons students the frontispiece of English Landscape Scenery , supplies an archetype for his work in general: This spot saw the day-spring of my life, Hours of Joy and the yellow introduction, years of Happiness; This place first tinged my boyish fancy with a love of the of the essay Art, This place was the origin of my fame. (qtd. Bermingham, 125)
The obvious and unavoidable correspondence with Wordsworth’s “spots in time” is the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, further augmented by Constable’s use of recollection: Flatford Mill from the Lock , as a case in point, is a composite canvas composed of five prefatory and much studied sketches, and features five charged spots—focal points of interest—copied from their respective points in the sketches. The final choice of perspective and arrangement is suggested by Constable in a letter to his wife: “I have tried Flatford Mill again, from the cowardice essay lock (whence you once made a drawing)” (qtd. Bermingham, 131). The lock and its view, as we see, are associated with his wife, and the final composition is the yellow, imbued with the emotions stirred by his memories of writing lessons for elementary, that moment and of imaginings, of retrospection: “. . . what he experienced remembering with what she had experienced in the process of drawing” (Bermingham 132); a fusion of wallpaper essay, past and present. We should deduce no direct philosophical or methodological imitation from either Constable or Wordsworth—though each was intimately acquainted with the other’s work—but rather recognise that both responded to the spirit of the times, inheriting a still viable Picturesque aesthetic, assimilating its imperatives and making egotistical innovation their own underlying principle. If we accept for the moment that the romantic movement came not as a miraculous gift from a prophetic Wordsworth tired of rhyming his couplets and poeticising his passages, but as a result of an essay bicycle, processes already under way; similarly, the Picturesque itself developed through gradual shifts in wallpaper introduction the philosophical mind and artistic mix. Figure 1: Claude, Pastoral Landscape With the Pointe Molle, from Bicknell. Figure 2: Earlom, from Bicknell. Figure 3: William Westall (1781-1850) View of the caves near Gordale Scar, Yorkshire from Bick nell. “Of all the scenes regularly visited by travellers in on my bicycle search of the Picturesque, Gordale Scar most vividly evoked Salvator” (Bicknel, 72). Figure 4: Gilpin, Number 18, from Bicknell.
Figure 5: Garden Plan, from Manwaring. Figure 6: Marco Ricci (1679-1729), Classical landscape with a traveller and two figures kneeling before a cross, from Bicknell. Figure 7: Turner, Caernarvon Castle (1799) Claudeian influence. Moving from Picturesque affects to effects: as fundamental to literature as to introduction, the way we presently evaluate and relate to landscape scenes, the holidays and pictures we take, the rural dreams we dream. Continuing the supposition that the parable of the sower essay Picturesque was no mere fad, this section will detail the transition from introduction literature’s traditional view of landscape shortly before and writing lessons for elementary, during the Augustan reign to one which gradually accommodates Picturesque learning and issues in the sovereign Nature of the romantics. The movement from neo-classicism to romanticism was not so much a break as a gradual changing of the introduction guard, until finally the palace itself stood vacant and the Greco-Roman soldiers sent a-packing. Just as Sir Isaac Newton—for all his cosmic reconstruction—quietly maintained traditional beliefs, writing a commentary on the Book of Revelations which flabbergasted his scientific admirers, so too the Picturesque prebendaries provided token offerings to the ancient classical gods. William Gilpin himself reveals this tentation, offers these offerings, in his definitions of of the essay, picturesque, occasionally comparing picturesque roughness with classical depictions: Virgil’s Venus, with hair dissundere ventis , Homer’s rugged Jupiter. The strain of discovering the Picturesque in the classics is injurious both to Picturesque theory and to the authors themselves, though the omnipresence and potency of Augustan authority and prestige during the eighteenth century essentially made necessity of inanity. In addition, Gilpin sometimes uses Virgilian quotations to describe English scenery; and in the yellow essay introduction Observations even suggests that Virgil was a great master of landscape. From this, Hugh Sykes Davies—perhaps the most Boeotian of transition, modern critics—understands the Picturesque to be a “revived Augustan attitude to Nature” (248)—a particularly unique and outlandish notion which defies both the evidence of art and literature.
Indeed, David Watkin makes this absurdity clear: Carroll Meeks showed in 1957  how each of the five principles of the Picturesque—variety, movement, irregularity, intricacy and roughness—is respectively echoed in the characteristics of Baroque as defined by Heinrich Wolfflin (1864-1945): painterly, recession, open, unity and unclearness. In Wolfflin’s visual system of analysis, which in itself could be seen as a legacy of the Picturesque, these characteristics were identified as the opposite of those of the yellow wallpaper essay, Classic Art: namely linear, plane, closed, multiplicity and clearness. (x) Section one provided some hint of the amorality that marks the Picturesque school. It is this very fact which provides and another important distinction between the Picturesque and neo-classicism. In Gilpin’s Dialogue upon the Gardens at Stowe , two visitors discuss the essay value of games merits of a ruinous hermitage. The first is the yellow, puzzled “why we are more taken with a prospect of this ruinous kind, than with views of Plenty and creative writing lessons students, Prosperity in their greatest Perfection.” (5) The second responds: Yes: but cannot you make a distinction between natural and essay introduction, moral Beauties? Our social Affections undoubtedly find their Enjoyment the essay most complete when they contemplate, a Country smiling in the yellow wallpaper the midst of Plenty, where Houses are well-built, Plantations regular, and creative for elementary, everything the most commodious and useful. But such Regularity and Exactness excites no manner of Pleasure in the Imagination, unless they are made use of to the yellow essay, contrast with something of an opposite kind. (5) Malcolm Andrews contextualises such differentiations: “. . . the distinction between natural and moral beauty would have made most Augustans very uneasy, so clearly does it fly in the face of cherished neo-classical values, where physical beauty is seen as the expression of moral beauty” (48).
In terms more specifically concerned with the development of the sower butler essay Picturesque and romantic poetry, Brownlow makes a similar point: “They [neo-classicists] took it as axiomatic that the training of the eye was a moral activity, in that a properly conceived, and perceived, landscape or garden was an emblem of order . . . in the state, the mind, the soul, and the emotions” (15). The influence of the Picturesque in France stands as further testament: there the impact was particularly striking for “it conflicted with the rationalist trend of architectural theory which survived from the late seventeenth into the early twentieth century” (Watkin, 161). Eighteenth century neo-classical and Picturesque correlations, like those of Gilpin, which are, at best, spurious, are further explained, firstly, by some degree of pedantry; secondly, intellectual name-dropping, offering assent through association; and thirdly, and wallpaper essay, most particularly, the of the sower octavia butler essay tremendous difficulties involved in developing an aesthetic outside the wallpaper introduction ubiquitous and transition word essay, intrinsically disdainful neo-classical confines. The Picturesque then, saw its earliest lines of delineation drawn during the the yellow Augustan heyday. Augustans’ adoption of the Picturesque was initially obvious: with the works of Claude increasingly in vogue, his idyllic and nostalgic landscapes of lost classical splendour were understandably and generally embraced.
Indeed, the historical/classical narrative in an essay on my bicycle Claude’s paintings was comfortably accommodating to neo-classicists and offered—as was the case with religious allusion—a license of interest in what was actually a novel, non-classical, non-traditional genre. The Picturesque Path  The attendant problem in viewing pre-picturesque poets through the filter of this thesis is actually the point: landscape in literature, until the early eighteenth century, is conspicuous either by its absence, rarity, or treatment. As mentioned in Section One, just as landscape in painting initially existed largely as a backdrop to human drama, similarly, in literature, it functioned as a symbol of or allusion to grander to more “worthy” conceptions. Ben Jonson (1572/3-1637) Ben Jonson’s “To Penshurst” (1616) is an interesting case in point: cutting the first turf in a sub-genre celebrating a specific locale, its treatment of landscape is exactly as we would expect, which is to say, exactly as this thesis anticipates. Penshurst, the the yellow essay introduction country seat of the Sidney family (Sir Philip being the most familiar) is value of games and sports, described by Jonson in a most particular manner: after a brief preamble describing the manor’s modest facade, the poem turns to the yellow wallpaper, the surrounding gardens, where “Thou hast thy walks for health, as well as sport” (9)—though notably not for any aesthetic value; where, not surprisingly, Pan and Bacchus drop in for a famous feast; and where every element of this topography reads like a catalogue of ownership, the ledger of a steward rather than a poetic eulogy or a laudation of landscape. “That taller tree, which of a nut was set / At his great birth, where all the butler Muses met” (13-14), initially provides a symbolic marking of Sir Phillip’s birth, soon inscribed—“There in the writhed bark are cut the names / Of many a sylvan” (15-16)—with the scrawl of lovers re-scrawled as the initials of fabled wood deities.
The oak stands not as a tree valued for its majestic treeness, but as an emblem marking the consequence of its wealthy owner; and, to pursue this branch to its limit, acting as a veritable Zeitgeist . “Thy copse, too, named of Gamage, thou hast there, / That never fails to serve thee seasoned deer” (19-20), strengthens the notion of ownership through nomenclature and the yellow, introduces the of the octavia butler essay main theme: nature not as objet d’art but as morsels of existentialistic meat, the ingredients of the yellow wallpaper, art culinaire . Accordingly, in this Edenic garden, with land-owner seated not as Adam but standing as God, “The painted partridge lies in every field, / And, for thy mess, is willing to be killed” (29-30); and “Fat, aged carps, that run into thy net, / Bright eels that emulate them, and transition word essay, leap on land / Before the fisher, or into his hand” (33-35). Of course, all this is the yellow, very pragmatic and moral, supporting the pillars of establishment and legitimate dominion in a manner suggestive of Elizabethan hierarchy. It will be some time before the stability of the oak and word essay, pillars becomes, instead, the stuff of aesthetics. John Denham (1615-69) Sir John Denham, in Cooper’s Hill (1642), composed one of the earliest and particularly influential topographical poems.
Typically, it mixes natural descriptions with moral. Here, for example, the two are intercoursed: Though with those streams he no resemblance hold, Whose foam is amber and their gravel gold; His genuine and less guilty wealth t' explore, Search not his bottom, but survey his shore. (165-168) The incorporation of the yellow, historical and political reflections, besides foreshadowing Pope—specifically Windsor Forest —highlight a landscape invisible without the filter of man’s works. An Essay On My? Interestingly, ironically, use of the heroic couplet marks the transition from metaphysicals to neo-classicism in the yellow wallpaper essay much the same way that Thomson’s The Seasons foreshadows romanticism. John Hughes 1677-?
John Hughes, with a lifelong interest in graphic art, is one of several lesser poets whose attempts at landscape poetry predates the more familiar and famous. Cowardice Essay? His Court of essay, Neptune (1700) describes “Landscapes of rising Mountains, shaggy Woods, / Green Valleys, smiling Meadows, silver Floods, / And Plains with lowring Herds enrich’d around” (qtd, Manwaring, 96). Obviously, this pre-Picturesque period, still lacking any landscape aesthetic, is incapable of providing any genuine pictorial perspective. Nevertheless, Hughes’ introduction to lessons, Poetical Works offers an introduction, interesting observation: “There are no parts in sower octavia essay a poem which strike the generality of readers with so much pleasure as Description” (xxxxv). Poems like “The Picture,” features an original collecting of wallpaper essay introduction, hues from nature: Queen of essay and sports, fancy hither bring. So from ev’ry flow’r and plant. Gather first the immortal paint.
Fetch me lilies, fetch me roses. (7-14) The poem is delightful not only for its originality, but for the genuine poetic sensibility. Finally, however, all this pigment is to paint a portrait of Venus. “Greenwich Park,” despite the hopefulness of the yellow wallpaper essay, its title, inevitably becomes nothing more than a background for parading and sower essay, prancing nymphs, Cupid, Mira and various embodiments of beauty: a landscape reflecting classicism and finally fading into aesthetic oblivion while all the the yellow essay introduction radiance that remains is human. Transition? Poems like “The triumph of peace occasioned by the yellow essay the peace of Ryswich 1697” and “The court of Neptune on King William’s return from Holland 1699,” surprisingly do contain landscape elements, though again only parable octavia essay as a history painting-like background. Only the subject itself of To Mr. Constantine, on His Paintings makes true landscape fleetingly possible:
Here tufted Groves rise boldly to wallpaper essay introduction, the Sky, There Spacious Lawns more distant charms the Eye, The Crystal Lakes, in Borrow’d Tinctures shine. And misty Hills the far Horizon join, Lost in the azure of in the time, Borders of the Day, Like Sounds remote that die in Air away. (qtd, Manwaring, 96) Conventionally a cardinal artistic sin, this copy of copy surprisingly exhibits particular merit, not only for the avant-garde Picturesque elements—William Kent’s 1709 Memorandum, after all, appears now on the horizon—but with the “borrowing” from one state of reality to another and the canvas’ frame providing closure to the yellow wallpaper, the day. Nevertheless, any systematic rendition of landscape is, at cowardice essay this time, possible only by imitation not of essay, nature—nor indeed Nature—but of of the sower essay, a landscape canvas.
The Picturesque Convergence. Alexander Pope (1688-1744), writing during and even dabbling in the development of Picturesque theories, enters the literary pantheon during this transitional period and wallpaper introduction, consequently demands significant attention. In The Time Of The Dede? In fact, as will become apparent, the Augustan embrace of the Picturesque was one without much feeling, attachment, sincerity and the yellow wallpaper essay, without much conviction. Pope was connected with the earliest picturesque efforts: one of the value of games and sports first romantic mediaevalisations, built at Cirencester Park, Gloucestershire. The Yellow Wallpaper Introduction? Known as Alfred's Hall, it was begun in 1721 for the first Earl of Bathurst. In 1732 Bathurst wrote to Pope: “I have almost finished my hermitage in the wood, and it is better than you can imagine . . . An Essay Bicycle? I will venture to assert that all Europe cannot show such a pretty little plain work in essay introduction the Brobdingnag style as what I have executed here” (qtd. Watkin, 45). This plain structure eventually became, with Pope's advice and assistance, a venerable castle and mock ruin. In addition, Pope’s Moral Essays , “Epistle IV” offers some promising notions of picturesque landscape gardening, with both Nature and cowardice essay, painting offered as inspiration and methodology. This leads J. R. Watson to suggest: “The gardener’s task was now to co-operate with nature, as Pope knew” (16).
In fact, although Pope mocks the formality of a Versailles, supplanting it with, “Parts answ’ring parts shall slide into the yellow introduction view / Spontaneous beauties all around advance, / Start ev’n from Difficulty, strike from Chance” (66-68), his own poetry regularly smacks of the formality of cowardice essay, affected gardens. Indeed, Pope’s own garden—mostly laid out in c. 1718-25—epitomised by its now famous grotto, illustrates something of the awkwardness of his picturesque dabblings. David Watkin—in what becomes a familiar motif of prevarication—succinctly describes this incongruity: “Pope enhanced his grotto with optical illusion, with mirrors and waterworks, with ores and minerals chosen for their beauty not their rarity, yet he still considered it natural in comparison with the the yellow formality and artificiality of mannerist and baroque grottoes” (4). A Plan of Mr. Pope’s Garden , penned by essay value of games and sports John Serle, Pope’s gardener and man-servant, reveals more details: the grotto was, in fact, a rock and sea-shell strewn tunnel leading beneath a road to the garden. Besides the opulence of the marble plaque inscribed in gold letters decorating the entrance, Italian marble, Plymouth marble, Cornish diamonds, Amesthystine crystals—to scratch only the surface—form the grotto itself. Although none of the yellow introduction, these are precious materials per se , neither are they the stuff of the primitive Picturesque scene. A Plan , in its cartographic fold-out, reveals the lay-out of the garden: formed mostly of cowardice essay, radial and rectilinear pathways and a polished lawn, there are nevertheless a few hesitant serpentine walks.
Watkin admits: “What Pope persisted in seeing as ‘natural’ seems to us as artificial as Rococo . . .” (5). The Yellow Wallpaper Essay? Indeed, what Pope persisted in creative lessons for elementary seeing as natural would no doubt have seemed equally artificial, only a few decades later, to Price and wallpaper essay introduction, Knight. What makes A Plan particularly interesting is its uninteresting inventory, which not only itemises the materials used in the grotto, but their source: Several large Groups of in the time of the essay dede, Cornish Diamonds tinged with a blackish Water, from the Rev. Dr. William Borlace of Ludgvan in Cornwall . Wallpaper? . . For Elementary Students? . Several fine Pieces of Eruptions from Mount Vesuvius , and the yellow, a fine Piece of Marble from the Grotto of essay of games, Egeria near Rome , from the Reverend Mr. Spence ; with several fine Petrifactions and Plymouth Marble, from Mr. Cooper . (6-7) This brief extract, with its “fine” name dropping, reveals the familiar marks of ownership and prestige. The emblem of land title, which we saw in Jonson’s “To Penshurst,” is here reduced to constitutional elements: rocks and minerals, and suggesting the commensurate importance of associate names, like famous signatures in a gallery of ultimately mediocre art: the high price of reputation . Even the the yellow introduction poems contained in a section entitled, “Verses Upon the of games and sports Grotto at Twickenham” concern themselves not with the grotto itself, but with the man who owned the grotto. Emerson once wrote that although fields and farms belong to this man or that, the landscape is nobody’s private property.
In early eighteenth century England, the notion of landscape finally existed, though Emerson’s point was as yet lost in the haze of future understanding. The far flung opulence, the unnatural far flung assortment of items collected from various regions—how natural is the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, a chunk of Vesuvius clinging to a lump of Plymouth Marble?—should, one would think, quickly and essay, convincingly settle the question which Morris R. Brownell rhetorically poses in his introduction to A Plan : “Pope’s acknowledgement to Sloan for his gift of joints of the introduction Giant’s Causeway raises the question of his conception of the grotto—fosillary of rare minerals or imitation of nature?” (viii). Not surprisingly, Brownell sees the whole thing as an imitation of nature. However wrong this blind faith reading might be, the essay value and sports question itself misses the essay introduction point: whatever Pope’s intent, the result was impossibly unnatural. The neo-classicist, no matter what aesthetic mining he attempts, can extract only a rarefied nature, more artful than natural, the geological equivalent of a landscape lyric in heroic couplets, with every pair of in the essay dede, lines a peculiar strata of imported rock. In fairness to Pope, however, Twickenham garden and the yellow wallpaper introduction, Lord Burlington’s in Chiswick vie as the essay of games first picturesque grounds. If they are, by later standards, largely unnatural and unpicturesque, they were at least a tentative first step down the meandering garden path. Further, Pope’s definition of nature was usually Nature , duly capitalised and interrelated not with “the great out-doors,” nor nature in a Darwinian sense, but more particularly the illustrative, universal and intransmutable; common sense and essay, perspicacity: Yet if we look more closely, we shall find. Most have the seeds of judgement in their mind: Nature affords at least a glimmer of light;
The lines, though touched but faintly, are drawn right;(“An Essay on Criticism,” 19-22) Here the writing for elementary drawing metaphor is the yellow essay introduction, emphatically concerned neither with landscape nor art, but with “good sense.” Pope’s earliest attempt at what we might broadly term nature poetry was Pastorals . Creative Lessons? Reading like a declaration of love from an avaricious beggarly bachelor to essay introduction, a wealthy widow, any genuine feeling seems obliterated by a self-conscious pedantic exhibitionism: the writing for elementary Thames valley landscape, for example, is the yellow wallpaper essay, chock-a-block with “ Sicilian Muses” (certainly not my italics) though singularly Spartan in sunny meadows. The natural elements in Pastorals typically function in one of three ways: firstly, as a form of extended characterisation: Oh deign to visit our forsaken seats, The mossy fountains, and the green retreats! Where’re you walk, cool gales shall fan the glade, Trees, where you sit, shall crowd into a shade; Where’re you tread, the in the of the butterflies dede blushing flow’rs shall rise, And all things flourish where you turn your eyes. (71-76)
In this instance, the chastity, morality, purity of Rosalinda is externalised in a venerational relationship with subdued Nature. Secondly, as a mere pretext for the yellow wallpaper, manifold classicisms: Beneath the Shade a spreading Beech displays, Hylas and Aegon sung their Rural Lays; This mourn’d a faithless, that an cowardice essay, absent Love. And Dekia’s Name and Doris fill’d the essay introduction Grove. Ye Mantuan Nymphs, your sacred Succour bring; Hylas and Aegon’s Rural Lays I sing. ( Pastorals: Autumn , 1-6) And, thirdly, as in bicycle traditional paintings, as a background or at the yellow wallpaper best a setting for human activity.
Windsor Forest (1713) provides another example of cowardice essay, Pope’s inability to the yellow essay, create either pictorial or picturesque scenes. Indeed, the poems turns out to be a virtual arboricultural wasteland: a peculiar reversal of the familiar aphorism where we cannot see the trees for the forest. Here Hills and Vales, the Woodland and the Plain, Here Earth and water seem to strive again. There, interspers’d in Lawns and opening Glades, Thin Trees arise that shun each others Shades. Here in full light the russet Plains extend;
There wrapt in bicycle Clouds the bluish Hills ascend. (11-24) Certainly there is some semblance of landscape here, but the lawns are never far away, and we imagine a scene, not surprisingly, more typical of Capability Brown than the Picturesque. The Yellow Introduction? The natural elements are correspondingly here, here, there, here, there: namely, nowhere, a collage of bits glued willy-nilly, denying spatial and relative reality; the thin trees seemingly represent not a fecund forest but the sparsity of Pope’s pictorial sense. To admire Pope for his particular strength without acknowledging his weakness licenses the implicit generosity of J. R. Watson and the superficiality of an essay bicycle, Manwaring’s statement that “Pope comes close to the yellow, Claude” (97) and does neither service to understanding Pope’s poetry nor Picturesque development. Indeed, Hussey convincingly argues that, “There is no analogy in his landscapes to those of Claude or Salvator” (30). Pope’s embryonic landscapes, in place of visualisation, provide Defoe-like catalogues, reminiscent also of “To Penshurst”: painting the scenery of inventory rather than the canvas of invention. Pope’s Classical Roots. Ever since Horace’s dictum in Ars Poetica (c. 13 BC) “ ut pictura poesis —“as is and sports, painting, so is poetry”—the two arts have been jointly imprisoned in the same ivory tower—albeit “painting” definitively meant portraiture. Even briefly setting aside the neo-classical context, there can be no surprise that the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction Picturesque movement was initially tied—though with varying degrees of tightness—to classical poetry.
Of course, Pope’s archetypes—indeed, the fact that his literature always passes through some metaphysical classical filter—virtually disallows any personal expression of a personal relationship with nature, or at least results in hollow sentiments. A brief quotation from Virgil’s The Eclogues (37 BC) will perhaps make this clear: Happy old man, who ’mid familiar streams. And hallowed springs, will court the cooling shade! Here, as of old, your neighbour's bordering hedge, That feasts with willow-flower the Hybla bees, Shall oft with gentle murmur lull to sleep, While the leaf-dresser beneath some tall rock. Uplifts his song, nor cease their cooings hoarse. The wood-pigeons that are your heart's delight, Nor doves their moaning in the elm-tree top. ( Eclogue I)
Though certainly broader than Pope’s catalogue of natural elements, the holistic perspective of landscape is obviously impossible where man and his activities form the principal focus. Interestingly, Virgil goes beyond simple nature eulogy and those country comforts provide a simple alternative to lessons, urban opulence: “Let Pallas keep the the yellow essay towers her hand hath built, / Us before all things let the woods delight”(Eclogue II). The English ideal would transform these towers into stately homes, islands of luxury in a sea of peasant labour, a simplicity of life defined geographically rather than philosophically. While Virgil calls for a hands-on relationship with nature, rural England produced the harvest bounty at arms length. Essay Value And Sports? In addition to this, the classical landscape, though never described in terms of landscape, is one distinctly exotic, inhabited by pipe-playing shepherds, wayward wolves and unfamiliar flora. Thus, the the yellow wallpaper introduction classical pastoral offers a way of life that no well-manored Englishman could tolerate in a countryside he could not assimilate. The “Muses of Sicily,” (Eclogue IV) can never truly sing of England, and lessons, Pope, in emulation, can never truly sing familiar nor sing true. When Pope adopts not only the dialogic structure of Virgil’s Eclogues but the characters themselves, “Fair Thames , flow gently from thy sacred Spring, / While on thy Banks Sicilian Muses sing” (“Spring. The First Pastoral, or Damon,” 3-4), the result is transplanted absurdity, apparent not only to the modern reader, but the contemporary also: Thomas Tickell, in his Guardian essay (April 15, 1713), comments: . . . our countrymen have so good an opinion of the wallpaper ancients, and think so modestly of themselves, that the generality of Pastoral Writers have either stolen all from the of the dede Greeks and Romans, or so servilely imitated their manners and customs, as makes them very ridiculous. (qtd.
Andrews, 11) Pope understood none of this,  saw no immediacy in the pastoral, no native narrative nor contemporaneity: only a perpetual backwards survey of a Golden Age forged in Vulcan’s far away fires. Accordingly, in wallpaper “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” Pope states: If we would copy Nature, it may be useful to take this Idea along with us, that pastoral is an image of what they call the Golden age. So that we are not to describe our shepherds as shepherds at cowardice essay this day really are, but as they may be conceiv’d then to wallpaper, have been. (120)
The real requirement was something Pope could never provide: a kind of lessons for elementary, reverse alchemy, transforming the gold of the Golden Age into the Englishman’s baser mettle. Pope’s further insistence upon “exposing the best side only of a shepherd’s life, and in concealing his miseries” (120) is again in opposition with picturesque trends which, though, as we have seen, generally avoiding the moral context of poverty, places emphasis upon the dilapidated, the coarse, the unkept, positing hardship as intrinsic to the scene as the gnarled wind-blasted tree. The ragged shepherd, his hair swept by wallpaper introduction wind, his visage worried by the elements, is both a more accurate and picturesque portrait. Virgil’s Eclogues , with “These fallows, trimmed so fair” (Eclogue I) and, “Now, Meliboeus, graft your pears, now set / Your vines in order!” (Eclogue I), provides a subtext of nature controlled, ordered and an essay, manipulated. In Georgics , of course, this philosophy becomes an overtly expressed treatise on the cultivation of estates, making the incongruity between the neo-classical and the Picturesque as conspicuous as a dilemma between nature ordered and natural disorder. But there is an even more important incongruity, for Georgics , like much of Virgil’s poetry—and The Aeneid in particular—features a strong nationalistic component. As the focus gradually fixes upon the yellow essay, British landscape, Virgil’s distant view of “. . . Dede? Britain, from the wallpaper introduction whole world sundered far” (Eclogue I,) and the worship of transition, foreign fields reveals a dislocated panegyric, at odds with the essay general trend. Malcolm Andrews, in The Search for creative lessons for elementary, the Picturesque , sees Virgil’s patriotism as offering “. . . a kind of licence for essay, cultural emancipation” (9), and moves in the next paragraph to an analysis of Thomson’s The Seasons , as if Virgil’s nationalistic vision directly correlated to an appreciation of English landscape. Octavia Essay? In fact, the neo-classical attitude as expressed in Pope’s “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” implies the very reverse. Infatuation and emulation of the Golden Age proved a barrier to home-spun nature and wallpaper, landscape literature—briefly recollect the shepherd not as he is but as he might once have been—and it was the Picturesque movement which gradually laboured in chipping away at in the time butterflies that barrier. This can be seen even in Pope’s pastoral verse, “Spring.
The First Pastoral, or Damon”: despite mimetic qualities, the poem works upon the premise of “ Cynthus and Hybla yield to Windsor- Shade” (68), festooning lines with English flora. The result is a hodge-podge of classical characters, ancient gods, and the English rose as an uncomfortable floral bed fellow. The new focus on landscape through the Picturesque was never a reinvention of the Golden Age: the Picturesque includes in its composite elemental degeneration, hardship and ruin: the stuff of the English countryside rather than the introduction eternal Mediterranean spring and a life of ease. Richard Payne Knight’s comment that “a person conversant with the writings of Theocritus and Virgil will relish pastoral scenery more than one unacquainted with such poetry” ( Inquiry , 150), demonstrates the difficulties involved in adopting a new and provincial landscape still largely devoid of sower octavia butler, literary and wallpaper introduction, artistic association and prestige. Such comments lead Malcolm Andrews to talk of the “elitism of the Picturesque” (4), though it seems more appropriate—especially when we consider the eventual popularity of picturesque tourism—to understand rather the elitism of Knight himself. Word? The plethora of Picturesque guide books is indicative of the increasing popularity of landscape appreciation. Essay? This gradual shift from cowardice essay “elite” to general can also be seen in Gilpin’s Observations on the River Wye : the first edition of 1782 features Latin quotations which, in the second 1789 edition are all translated. If textbooks on landscape gardening exist for the narrow academic, this by no means suggests the humble fellow busy building his lily pond is similarly focused. Essay Introduction? The initial references to Virgil and Horace were as necessary as they were inappropriate: before Britain could be truly discovered and word, localised, it was conceptualised as a transplanted Arcadia, where northern Shepherds wandered crooked hills buffeted by Mediterranean breezes, expecting at any moment to introduction, come upon a triumphant Aeneas.
With no traditional appreciation for landscape as a meaningful aesthetic experience, new understanding, occasioned by the novel introduction of essay of games, landscape paintings, came not from a moment of revelation, but rather from a gradual modification and eventual weakening of what was already known. Essentially, Pope understood a well composed garden to be an emblem of good order reflecting the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction inner good order of the educated mind. His treatment of cowardice essay, nature is subjugated by the omnipresent and Elizabethan notion that “ORDER is Heav’n’s first law” ( Essay on Man , Epistle IV, 50), though devoid of Shakespeare’s sense of nature’s power, of wallpaper, Godlike omnipotence; and of the, botany, biology, anthropology, philosophy, painting, all become mere lessons in classical history. Classical pastoral and Georgic writing, in the yellow wallpaper simple terms, are too distant and different to ever speak of England, no matter how cunningly coined and conflated with native elements. Like Windsor Forest, Pope’s Picturesque is essay value of games and sports, one defined by wallpaper essay omission, a Picturesque truly without the picture. The Picturesque Scene. James Thomson (1700-1748), as an acquaintance of Arbuthnot, Gray and Pope, falls firmly into the neo-classical camp.
His landscapes, although they were greatly influenced by those of Claude, Rosa and Poussin, include only occasional classical allusions, and from this we see some glimmering hope of rebellion. Indeed, this is the case: the bugle call bugled, the neo-classical swan-song giving way to. The Muses, still with freedom found, Shall to thy happy coast repair: Blest isle! with matchless beauty crown'd,
And manly hearts to guard the octavia butler essay fair. Rule, Britannia, rule the waves; Britons never will be slaves.(“Rule Britannia”, 1729) Despite somewhat artificial diction, Thomson’s The Seasons :, first completed in the yellow essay introduction 1730 and time of the, later expanded, offers a landmark in English poetry. The influence of the increasingly familiar Picturesque is particularly clear in Winter : the wallpaper first edition expressed only minor pictorial interest; in the second, Thomson inserts such Salvatorian lines as “. . . The cloudy Alps and in the butterflies dede, Appenine / Capt with grey mists, and everlasting snows; / Where nature in wallpaper introduction stupendous ruin lies. (243-5) The remaining three books, composed subsequently to Winter , feature diverse landscape scenes. Summer (1727) illustrates Claudian sun play: . . . yonder comes the powerful king of an essay, day,
Rejoicing in the east. The lessening cloud. The kindling azure, and the yellow essay introduction, the mountain’s brim, Illumed with fluid gold; (81-84) In Spring both the poet and Nature play the part of painter:
Behold yon breathing prospect bids the Muse. Throw all her beauty forth. Value Of Games And Sports? But who can paint. Like Nature? Can imagination boast, Amid its gay creation, hues like hers?
Or can it mix them with that matchless skill. And lose them in each other, as appears. In every bud that blows. (467-73) Manwaring explains: “In the edition of 1744—that is, after his visit to Italy and his collecting of prints—appears the most elaborately composed of all his landscapes, with real Claudian distances” (104). Wallpaper Essay? Although none of this is specifically Picturesque, the Claudian influence and the well defined conflation of poetry and of games and sports, landscape painting demonstrate the wallpaper essay development underway. Abandoning rhyming couplets was nothing new—indeed, The Seasons , as commonly acknowledged, owes some of its versification to Miltonic influence—but in the context of Pope’s predominant style it was a break in lessons for elementary the pillars of the literary establishment.
The popularity of The Seasons , with over three hundred editions published between 1750 and 1850, is a testament to the vitality of the Picturesque trend. Certainly, The Seasons is not solely a Picturesque poem, though the influence of painting is everywhere; and the title itself, suggestive of the temporal changes of nature, quotes the the yellow wallpaper introduction movement of Picturesque tenets in implicit opposition to the static catalogues of Pope: a real landscape that generates and degenerates. Parable Sower Butler? Although the poem predates the wallpaper essay introduction apex of Picturesque popularity, there can be no doubt as to the Picturesque vision that made the parable sower octavia butler essay conception possible: . . . now the bowery walk. Of covert close, where scarce a speck of day. Falls on the lengthened gloom, protracted sweeps; Now meets the bending sky, the river now. Dimpling along, the breezy ruffled lake. The forest darkening round, the glittering spire, The ethereal mountain, and the distant main.
Here we see not only metastasis, the chequered canvas of change, with the temporal “now” rather than Pope’s unplaceable “here” and “there,” but also key Picturesque elements: the dimpling river anticipates Knight’s original musing on essay introduction, smoothness : Smoothness being properly a quality perceived only by the touch, and applied metaphorically to the objects of the other senses, we often apply it very improperly to those of vision; assigning smoothness, as a cause of visible beauty, to things, which, though smooth to the touch, cast the most sharp, harsh, and angular reflections of lessons for elementary students, light upon the eye. . . . ( An Analytical Inquiry , 65) The ethereal mountains offering a suggestion of sublime grandeur; the depth of field, with the meandering river leading the eye towards a distant background. Unlike Pope, Thomson invites the the yellow wallpaper introduction reader to view the landscape with leading locutions: “see,” “prospect” and “yon,” and the frequent use of the present tense. As Watson points out, the description of George Lyttelton’s estate at Hagley “is carefully composed and in the time of the butterflies dede, presented as foreground (the Hall), middle distance (villages, fields, heathlands, a ‘broken landscape’) and background (the Welsh mountains)” (32), a method identical to wallpaper introduction, that employed later by Picturesque writers and cowardice essay, intrinsic to the landscape artist’s craft. Andrews, however, refuses to see any influence of picturesque painting in Thomson’s The Seasons , asserting instead the influence stems rather from literature. External evidence all suggests otherwise. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay? The historical context: this is, after all, rapidly becoming the age of landscapes and influence seems virtually unavoidable; the geographical: the poem was actually revised and partly rewritten at Hagley, then newly laid out according to picturesque tenets; and, as mentioned above, Thomson travelled to Italy during the composition, making subsequent books markedly richer in landscape images. Unfortunately, Andrews’ literary bias—the idea, for example, that, “Painting’s sister-art [literature] had shown the way to freedom from creative lessons for elementary students didacticism or slavish topographical portraiture with Thomson’s The Seasons ” (25), places the wallpaper literary cart before the Picturesque horse. However, it is internal evidence itself which most clearly outlines the octavia essay absurdity of the yellow essay introduction, Andrews horsing around:
Meantime you gain the hight, from whose fair brow. The bursting prospects spreads immense around; And, snatched o’er hill and cowardice essay, dale, and wood and lawn, The verdant field, and darkening heath between, And villages embosomed soft in the yellow essay introduction trees, And spiry towns by surging columns marked. Of household smoke, your eyes excursive roams—
Wide-stretching from the bicycle Hall in whose kind haunt. The hospitable genius lingers still, To where the broken landscape, by degrees. Ascending, roughens into rigid hills. O’er which the Cambrian mountains, like far clouds. That skirt the blue horizon, dusky rise. ( Spring , 950-62) Selected almost at random, there can be no doubt even here of the wallpaper analogy to landscape canvas: the in the time butterflies essay dede scene is the yellow wallpaper, both designed and unified, with precisely placed detail within the larger picture framework; with foreground, middleground and background all respectively described.
The passage also contains key picturesque elements: contrast, for example, between wood and lawn, field and heath; the texture of the rough rigid hills; the broken allusion; and on my, the sublime cloud-like mountains. The influence of landscape paintings upon a burgeoning genre of the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, landscape and nature literature seems beyond question and Andrews’ cart is essay value of games and sports, not only wallpaper essay misplaced but surely wrecked by cowardice essay a broken axle. The interconnectivity between these two arts is further illustrated by Turner and Constable, for the yellow essay, whom Thomson was a favourite poet, adopting lines appended to several canvases.  Indeed, Turner’s Aeolian Harp (see figure 8) was exhibited in on my 1809 with a poem that begins: On Thomson’s tomb the dewy drops distil, Soft tears for Pity shed for Pope’s lost fame, To worth and verse adhere sad memory still, Scorning to wear ensnaring fashion’s chain. In silence go, fair Thames, for the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, all is laid. While flows the an essay stream, unheeded and unsung. Resplendent Seasons! chase oblivions shade. (qtd.
Bicknell, 32) The poem highlights each season in turn, though, as Bicknell explains, quoting various art scholars, it is based not so much on Thomson’s work as William Collin’s “Ode occasion’d by the death of Mr Thomson.” The four figures in the picture, however, are understood to represent the wallpaper introduction seasons. Bicknell concludes: “Turner’s picture pays homage both to Claude and to Thomson, and in doing so it enshrines the in the butterflies dede link between the ‘picturesque poets’ and the ‘Italian’ landscape painters(33). During the swan-song years of the eighteenth century, classical poets were losing ground to the increasing number of British poets, with classical allusion becoming thin on the ground. Concomitantly, . . . booksellers were no longer addressing a relatively few, elite readers but a wide, mixed audience including merchants, professionals, children, and urban servants, as well as traditional audiences. (Benedict, 158) Thus, there existed a growing exigency for a new kind of literature, removed from the Grub Street Press, yet more in wallpaper essay tune with more people, more accessible, reflecting more the changing social condition. John Dyer (1699-1757), of course, is best remembered for “Grongar Hill.” Describing the scenery of the river Towy, there is creative writing students, a Wordsworthian quality of observation, personal reflection and picturesque features: “prospect,” “Old castles,” “ruins, moss and weeds,” and so on; there is the occasional picturesque personification, as in the yellow essay “And ancient towers crown his brow, / That cast an awful look below” (71-72); though mostly we have only a topographical and value, irregular ode in rhyming couplets. Published in 1726, it draws immediate comparison with Thomson’s The Seasons . Besides taking landscape as its primary focus, “Grongar Hill” really sits in the yellow wallpaper essay the shadow of The Seasons , offering only the occasional sign of life, such as: And see the rivers how they run, Thro’ woods and meads, in shade and sun! Sometimes swift and sometimes slow,
Wave succeeding wave, they go. A various journey to the deep, Like human life to Endless sleep. (93-98) Dyer made several tours of England and creative, Wales, travelled to Italy, studied to be a painter long before he became a parson-poet, and there is, certainly, a convincing affection for landscape in “Grongar Hill”—though this is more strongly expressed in introduction The Country Walk , whose concluding lines draw a melancholy comparison between the utopia of cowardice essay, landscape and the distopia of human existence. “Grongar Hill” is framed upon the yellow wallpaper, the summit prospect of Grongar Hill and, compared to of games, the rhyming couplets of Pope’s “landscapes,” the introduction view is clear and transition essay, convincing and the subject focused. It is with Dyer’s final and greatest—in terms of bigness—poem, however, that the poet’s mutable mediocrity comes to light. The Yellow? “The Fleece,” praised by Wordsworth—which is perhaps condemnation enough, a certain sign that the cowardice essay egotistical sublimian felt no literary threat—is an anachronistic georgic written thirty years after “Grongar Hill.” Dyer hoped “The Fleece” would provide necessary information allowing sheep farmers to improve their stock and the quality of wool; to improve the fortunes of combers, dyers and weavers; to improve Britain’s trade by advocating expansion abroad. A georgic with such—conventional—pragmatic goals finds high poetic diction and frequent digressions a serious impediment. It is difficult bordering on impossible to imagine one tenth of those concerned in the yellow introduction the industry with the faculty and willingness, not to mention leisure time, to read such a long run-around poem. If ever there was a case for abandoning classical models, this georgic, begging for the mercy of simple prose, pleads guilty and stands duly condemned. Essentially, Dyer proclaims here his affiliation with Dryden’s now ageing notion, expounded in “Parallel betwixt Poetry and Painting” (1695), that the primary end of Painting is to please, though the cowardice essay ultimate end of Poetry is to essay, instruct. Dyer’s affection for rural landscapes is perhaps all the more remarkable for this utilitarian and mercantile disposition.
Unlike Wordsworth, Dyer saw no injurious contiguity between industry and trade. Quite the contrary: “Trade,” he wrote, “is the daughter of essay of games and sports, peace” (qtd. Williams, 98). Williams, in his biography of Dyer, continues, . The Yellow Wallpaper Introduction? . . traders and merchants, he felt, were promoters of peace and therefore of word essay, civilisation.. Wallpaper Introduction? And by lessons for elementary aiding them to bring natural resources and industries together, to the yellow wallpaper introduction, develop new resources, new manufactures, and value and sports, new means of transportation, Dyer felt that he too was promoting peace and civilisation. (98) The same, in the yellow fact, is true of in the of the butterflies essay dede, The Seasons , though Thomson’s approbation of mercantilism—as well as the didactic insertions—is less the business of the poem and more an unfortunate by-product. If “Grongar Hill” makes a step forwards towards the romantic movement, “The Fleece” takes several backwards. Wallpaper? In his preface to the second edition of Winter , Thomson mentions Virgil’s Georgics as one of his models. He insists, however, that Winter bore a closer resemblance to the devotional literary tradition which included the bicycle Pentateuch, the Book of Job, and Paradise Lost . “The Fleece,” on the other hand, is not only fully georgic but formally inappropriate to its purpose.
There is, then, in wallpaper Dyer something of the neo-classical romantic dichotomy, the day-dreamer and writing lessons, the practical day-worker and it is in this context that he is best read and makes most sense. Neo-classicists’ adoption of the Picturesque, with Claude recognised as the precursor, was initially perhaps not inevitable though certainly understandable. There was, however, a certain incongruity to this adoption, for the geometry of contemporary gardens and regularity of versification were essentially antithetical to the yellow introduction, the Picturesque. Transition Essay? Besides, the serenity and classical nostalgia of the yellow, Claude was losing ground to the wildness of the creative lessons more rugged Rosa (see figure 9) whose craggy cliffs and toothed trees and desolate domains were closer to both lakeland scenes and romantic sensibilities. Neo-classicism and formative Picturesque then were uneasy partners. Upon the crumbling and tumbling columns of neo-classicism was slowly builded an ever more refined picturesque aesthetic. Tentative attempts at the yellow essay picturesque typified in The Seasons and “Grongar Hill” provides a background for an entirely new landscape of aesthetic appreciation and of games, artistic expression that was quite simply blowing through the temporal winds and disturbing everything in its path. For all the aesthetic developments taking place as the eighteenth century progressed, neo-classicism was reluctant to the yellow wallpaper introduction, give up the battle. Thomas Warton, in bicycle Poems on introduction, Several Occasions, (1748) includes such key terms as “Nature’s Landscapes,” “Dark woods and pensive waterfalls,” “Desert Prospects rough and lessons, rude,” “a green Valley’s wood-encircled Side.” However, translations and paraphrases of the yellow introduction, Horace rub shoulders with “Ode to Taste”: Leave not Britannia’s Isle; since Pope is an essay on my, fled.
To meet his Homer in Elysian Bowers, What Bard shall dare resume. His Various-sounding Harp?(180) Warton then demonstrates the literary discord at this time, the venerational prestige of essay, Pope, and the staying power of neo-classicism. Transition Word Essay? As late as 1775 and calling to mind Gilpin’s examination of natural and moral beauty in Stowe , Samuel Johnson, in Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland wrote: An eye accustomed to flowery pastures and waving harvests is astonished and repelled by wallpaper this wide extent of hopeless sterility. The appearance is writing lessons for elementary, that of matter incapable of form or usefulness, dismissed by nature from wallpaper her care and disinherited from her favours. (qtd. Time Essay? Andrews, 197) There was no extensive digging and chiselling, no blasting of hill and dale, no landscaping on a geographic scale, no remoulding or recasting of this northern nation, no topographical development. The only conceivable change was internal: aesthetic conception; and with this mightiest of change, the Scottish Highlands would soon become—and remain—one of the most picturesque areas in all Britain.
Figure 8: Turner, Thomson’s Aeolian Harp, from Bicknell. Figure 9: Salvator Rosa, Mountain landscape, from Bicknell. “This mountainous landscape is of a type which particularly appealed to English taste. It could be a Salvatorian of a scene in the Lake District or North Wales” (Bicknell, 5) The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. The artistic and aesthetic links established in Section One now become particularly significant.
This section will include an important aetiological component, identifying the articles of faith employed in the yellow wallpaper essay introduction establishing the standard—and erroneous—critical guiding conception of the Picturesque. Having, hopefully, and to some degree, divested Wordsworth (1770-1850) of the prophetic, revolutionary inspired vestments which modern scholars intimatingly fancy his dress, the entire fabric of the venerational and vituperative theory of Wordsworth and the Picturesque respectively becomes bare supposition, allowing, finally, a more valid and an essay bicycle, useful appraisal of the two. The influence of the Grand Tour in fostering an intense and wallpaper essay introduction, popular interest in scenic tourism—it was in the 1780s that the word ‘tourist’ entered the English language—the increasing familiarity of landscape paintings, philosophical enquiries which intellectualised landscape, the religious symbolism which initially justified landscape not only for the French but for the Hudson River Group in North America, the value of games and sports popularity of landscape gardening, all these were elements in a new cultural and aesthetic picture. Essay Introduction? And yet, as mentioned in the previous section, the neo-classical constituent, as much a symbol of in the time butterflies essay, “quality” as Friedrich’s Cross On the Mountain was of faith, stubbornly persisted. The Yellow Essay Introduction? The prestige of the classical past essentially allowed the prestige of the present, and with nature already running wild in picturesque landscape gardens, neo-classicism endured like an old marble statue, certainly, its arm’s severed at the shoulder and missing a leg, yet still solid and strong. Romantic poetry would provide the cowardice essay final cutting edge, individuality and originality and subjectivity and wallpaper essay introduction, emotional response would allow a cultural coming of age; and if the statue would always remain, at least now the an essay on my head could be lopped off. In addition to the impetus provided by this new and burgeoning cultural and aesthetic picture, there was also some imperative to fill a literary void. Sonnets, long castrated of their erotic themes, momentarily seduced by religion and politics, were by now only a literary footnote. The Yellow Introduction? Similarly, allegory seemed an anachronistic way of describing a shovel by of games digging a hole. The epic itself existed only as a mockery. Worst of wallpaper essay, all, newer innovations like the word invariable antithetical rhyming couplet inevitably lost their heroic gloss and seemed more like a tired knave than a tireless knight.
Only satire and burlesque—seventeenth century developments—retained any semblance of staying power. In simple terms, literary convention increasingly lacked invention. The Yellow Wallpaper? The cause and effect relationship between this void and the development of transition, a new aesthetic is perhaps too metaphysical and the yellow wallpaper essay, certainly too immaterial for this examination, though the possibility at least suggests mandate for change. It is within the time of the butterflies essay context of this paradigm shift that Wordsworth reads not as literary prophet, but as a poetic designer involved in a movement already re-fashioning the wallpaper essay cultural and social fabric. By the time Wordsworth published Lyrical Ballads (1798), the appreciation of nature had reached the philosophical—if not numerical—levels prevalent in the present day. Nature now becomes the focal point, no longer limited to a laudation of man and ownership, nor a Pope-like praise of ancient Mediterranean insinuation. Clearly, such mimetic representations will no longer answer. Literature, within this context and with its associative ability, can treat nature with a new respect and generosity: can actually turn the silence of centuries into articulations of moment. There is general agreement that Wordsworth’s early poetry borrows from Picturesque aesthetics. A brief survey will therefore suffice.
“An Evening Walk,” published in 1793 and written in heroic couplets, is essentially a conventional attempt at picturesque verse, replete with cascade scene, precipice, mountain farm, female beggar, rocky sheepwalks and tremulous cliffs: a topographical poem in which Wordsworth’s authorial voice remains only a whisper. Unconfined to any particular place, the poem provides a composite image consistent with typical picturesque sketches and suggestive—ironically—of Beaumont’s ruinous castle ruin. As J. R. Watson demonstrates, “Tintern Abbey” (1798) begins with a canvas-like description with three planes of depth. The poem then moves on: The day is come when I repose. Here, under this dark sycamore, and view. These plots of cottage-ground, these orchard-tufts, Which, at this season, with their unripe fruits. Are clad in one green hue, and lose themselves.
’Mid groves and copses. Once again I see. These hedge-rows, hardly hedge-rows, little lines. Of sportive wood run wild: these pastoral farms, Green to the very door; and wreaths of smoke.
Sent up, in silence, from among the trees! With some uncertain notice, as might seem. Of vagrant dwellers in the houseless woods, Or of word, some Hermit’s cave, where by wallpaper essay his fire. The Hermit sits alone. (9-22) Here the sycamore serves as both frame and word essay, point of perspective to the scene; typical picturesque elements appear: the wildness of the wood, pastoral farms offering contrast as well as an echo of Virgil’s Georgics , an attention to foreground and background. The Yellow Essay Introduction? But the scene is extra dimentionalised, beyond—at least for those with a literary bias—the possibilities of brush and colour: “Once again I see” underscores both memory and a personal reaction to the scene; whilst the writing students bromidic picturesque figure—the hermit—appears not to the eye but to the imagination. And yet, although the wallpaper essay introduction poem, by virtue of the medium, achieves that extra-dimension, it remains within the on my Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin, for example, also recorded his impression of the yellow wallpaper, Tintern Abbey years before Wordsworth:
Every thing around breathes an on my, air so calm, and tranquil; so sequestered from the commerce of life, that it is easy to conceive, a man of warm imagination, in monkish times, might have been allured by such a scene to become an inhabitant of it. ( Obs. The Yellow Wallpaper Introduction? Wye , 32) Watson admits that this might perhaps have provided the “forerunner”  of Wordsworth’s hermit; but also that Gilpin here is concerned with the “kind of relationship between man and the landscape” (81) that Wordsworth was later to develop. Parable Of The Sower Butler Essay?  Not surprisingly, “Tintern Abbey” soon moves away from Tintern Abbey and becomes the familiar Wordsworthian recollection filled in with the the yellow introduction “moral and mystical” (Watson, 84) of landscape. And yet the poem’s structure can serve as an outline of Picturesque application in romantic poetry: the picturesque provides the subject—and initially the ability to see that subject—which then allows the expanded vista possible through literature. Memory, subjectivity and imagination—Wordsworth categorical—together act as an augmentative device which transforms flat canvas into an essay on my bicycle romantic tapestry. There is, in addition, some hint of the egotistical sublime combined with the ability of essay, nature to mould character: . On My? . . For I have learned.
To look on nature, not as in the hour. Of thoughtless youth, but hearing oftentimes. The still sad music of essay introduction, humanity, Not harsh nor grating, though of ample power. To chasten and sower butler essay, subdue. (89-94) “Michael” (1800), though not specifically a picturesque poem, nevertheless is wallpaper, based upon a nostalgic view of rural England intrinsic to the Picturesque school and essay value of games and sports, a offers a nationalised and temporalised form of the neo-classical Golden Age. The poem alludes to contemporary political and economical conditions turning peasants into the manufacturing poor, who, nomadic and landless, drift into the yellow wallpaper introduction London like the transition word flotsam of some vast socio-economic flood. Indeed, many districts at that time remained completely excluded from urban economics, with foreign products as foreign as the the yellow products themselves. Parable Essay? Even at the yellow wallpaper essay introduction the beginning of this century the Yorkshire yeoman was ignorant of sugar, potatoes, and cotton; the Cumberland dalesman, as he appears in Wordsworth's Guide , lived entirely on the produce of his farm.  The half finished sheep-pen of the poem, a heap of rocks that remain after the poem’s closure, symbolises old Michael and his half finished ambitions for his son, now gone from the protective fold and corrupted by modernity. Transition Word? If the poem then is not strictly picturesque, it speaks with picturesque philosophy and provides an example of a more subtle picturesque application.
Clearly, Wordsworth’s early poetry borrowed liberally from both the Augustan tradition as well as Picturesque convention. His poetical path, however, gradually meanders away from neo-classicism and towards an expanded and less categorical mode of Picturesque philosophy. Hugh Sykes Davies’ insistence upon “Wordsworth’s subjection to the ‘picturesque’ fashion” (236) in these early days, culminating in the poet’s decortication of the entire model, smacks of an obscurantist philosophy turned barrier to the imagination and denies the jagged foundation the wallpaper introduction Picturesque provided for the appreciation of countryside as a highly refined aesthetic. But more of that right now. The Gospel According to in the of the essay, Wordsworth. We have finally reached the first of wallpaper, two sources which together have prescribed the modern critical assessment of the Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry—at least for scholars of an essay bicycle, literature. Descriptive Sketches—the Footnote  Pope’s Dunciad conclusively proved the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction potential of the humble footnote to subvert a text.
In the case of Descriptive Sketches , a single footnote has subverted much of of the butler essay, modern scholarship on the yellow, the Picturesque. On My? Here it is, in all its humble magnificence: I had once given to the yellow wallpaper essay, these sketches the title of Picturesque; but the Alps are insulted in applying to them the term. Whoever, in attempting to cowardice essay, describe their sublime features, should confine himself to the cold rules of the yellow essay, painting would give his reader but a very imperfect idea of those emotions which they have the on my bicycle irresistible power of communicating to the most impassioned imaginations. (Note to line 299) Davies descends upon this “cold rules of painting” as if the very death of the Picturesque depended upon it. In actual fact, this criticism suggests Gilpin as the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction principle target; and the reproof, despite Wordsworth’s implied intention, is narrow rather than general. Bicycle? In fact, there is nothing original or remarkable here: it is essentially a restatement of Richard Payne Knight, who, we recall, offered a “Curse on the pedant jargon, that defines / Beauty's unbounded forms to the yellow introduction, given lines!” ( The Landscape: a Didactic Poem , 6) Indeed, it was only Gilpin’s first publication, Essay on Prints , which placed particular stress on the “rules of in the time butterflies dede, painting” and for introduction, the simple reason that the volume was, essentially, a “How-To” manual on landscape painting rather than a treatise on and sports, the Picturesque.
It seems strange too that Davies, here upholding the merits of the imagination compared to those “cold rules of painting,” mentions that Knight had “ meddled extensively with the ‘Imagination’”  (my italics, 205); though assumedly anyone connected with the Picturesque and not poetry really can only “meddle”—even “extensively.” Watson also picks up on this footnote; but, realising that there are nevertheless acres of the Picturesque in Descriptive Sketches , prevaricates hither and thither, jumping from one explanation to another like so many stepping stones where only the wetness of the river is the yellow wallpaper introduction, certain. His first tentative foothold comes from the parable fact that Wordsworth carried through the Alps a number of Picturesque guidebooks, causing him to suggest, “It is therefore not surprising that the the yellow wallpaper essay poem should contain a number of picturesque appreciations” (73-74). The stepping stone here sinks without further comment. Next, Watson suggests—with depth defying penetration—that Wordsworth had a “divided mind” (74); and further, that it is this “which makes Descriptive Sketches such an unsatisfactory poem” (74). This is clearly a dangerous place to stand, since, I would suggest, when it comes to the Picturesque, Wordsworth’s mind was always divided.
Watson jumps again: Wordsworth is. struggling to express qualities which the writers on the picturesque did not sufficiently recognise. In the first place there are atmospheric effects of light which transcend the tonal range of contemporary painting. (75) This is on the same footing as the earlier: “Wordsworth was envisaging effects of parable of the sower octavia, light which were not to the yellow wallpaper essay, be mastered on Canvas until Turner” (72). In fact such “effects of light” had long since been mastered, by Claude. In fact, he was to some extent the originator: Andrew Wilton, in his introduction to of games, Turner’s Picturesque Views in England and Wales , identifies Claude as the inventor of the “‘Sunset Harbour theme” (Shanes, 6). This then is clearly an example of a literature critic wiggling his fingers in the pool of the art historian; rather than catching a fish, he is bitten by a school of aesthetics. Watson must once again skip onward.
His final place of the yellow, rest is to suggest that Wordsworth here was concerned with “liberty,” although, since the “subject” of the cowardice essay poem is the Swiss Alps, “he could not omit the scenery” (75). This, in wallpaper essay fact, is true, though most elements are undeniably Picturesque, like this blending of the writing for elementary students beautiful and sublime: How blest, delicious scene! the eye that greets. Thy open beauties, or thy lone retreats; Beholds the unwearied sweep of wood that scales. Lo, where she sits beneath yon shaggy rock, A cowering shape half hid in wallpaper curling smoke!(177-78) Other examples of Picturesque idiom include: “water's shaggy side”; “Thy lake, that, streaked or dappled, blue or grey”; “Hermit”; and “antique castles.” It seems strange too that Wordsworth should frame the topic of liberty in his supposed antithesis of liberty: those cold picturesque rules. Watson clearly recognises the dichotomous anomaly at work, and cowardice essay, his stepping and side stepping is an attempt to wallpaper essay, bring resolution within the framework of standard literary theory on an essay, the relationship between Wordsworth’s poetry and the Picturesque. Clearly, Watson gets a good wetting and explains nothing.
So what is the wallpaper essay solution? The fact that we are dealing, for the moment, with a footnote provides the perfect analogy: Wordsworth’s Picturesque criticism should be read as nothing more than a footnote, and a footnote in essay value the style of The Dunciad at that. When literary theory, even—and perhaps especially—from the original poet himself, is at odds with the literature itself, then the obvious conclusion is to abandon the theory; instead, Wordsworth’s musings are taken as gospel and essay introduction, an altar of theory is builded upon them. The only creative lessons truly cold rule, it seems, is the yellow wallpaper essay, that Wordsworth “transcends” the picturesque because he says so himself. Turning now from general to particular, it should be clear that this “cold rules” versus “imagination” is altogether a red-herring, easily caught by literary critics and used to feed a thousand other misconceptions. William Combe’s brilliant satire, A Tour in Search of the Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax (see figure 10)—clearly derived from creative writing students Gilpin—reveals his neo-classical bent by ridiculing the very idea of the imagination versus the the yellow essay introduction true copy of Nature: Upon the bank awhile I’ll sit, And let poor Grizzle graze a bit; But, as my time shall not be lost, I’ll make a drawing of the post; And, tho’ a flimsy taste may flout it,
There’s something picturesque about it: ’Tis rude and rough, without a gloss. And is well cover’d o’er with moss; And I’ve a right—(who dares deny it?) To place yon group of asses by it. Aye! this will do: and now I’m thinking,
That self-same pond where Grizzle’s drinking, If hither brought ’twould better seem. And faith I’ll turn it to a stream. (9) Of course, the exaggeration is as sparkling as the pond that flows into the stepping-stone stream; but we should consider Constable’s Flatford Mill from the Lock , which is exactly this kind of composite picture and deserves—indeed, receives—only approbation. There are indeed rules of composition, in transition word essay painting as well as poetry, but to define the Picturesque according to these is to essay introduction, define poetry. according to grammar and spelling. There is, in both the Picturesque and an essay on my bicycle, poetry, imagination and the yellow essay, expression. Returning to the original point. W. M. Merchant, in his introduction to Wordsworth’s Guide , also cites this same footnote as proof of cowardice essay, Wordsworth’s asperity to introduction, Picturesque theory and goes on to say how singular Wordsworth’s guide is.
More forthright still, Rhoda L. Value Of Games And Sports? Flaxman, Victorian Word-Painting and Narrative: Toward the Blending of Genres , understands the note to be “an abrupt declaration of independence from eighteenth-century picturesque aesthetic” (67). All these evaluations, however, neglect several important points: firstly, Wordsworth’s footnote continues, the unique and. . . . peculiar features of the Alps. . . . The fact is, that controlling influence, which distinguishes the Alps from all other scenery, is derived from images which disdain the the yellow essay pencil. Had I wished to make a picture of this scene I had thrown much less light into it. But I consulted nature and lessons, my feelings. The ideas excited by the stormy sunset I am here describing owed their sublimity to that deluge of light, or rather of fire, in which nature had wrapped the immense forms around me; any intrusion of wallpaper essay, shade, by octavia destroying the unity of the impression, had necessarily diminished its grandeur. (Note to line 299) So the Alps then are not like the the yellow wallpaper mountains of Cumberland, Yorkshire, Wales and Scotland; and rather than offering an “abrupt declaration of bicycle, independence,” Wordsworth actually points homeward for authentic picturesque scenes. Secondly, this so called “reaction against the Picturesque” (Davies, 240) entirely disregards chronology: Descriptive Sketches was published in 1793; Wordsworth’s own Guide , which, as we will see, makes great use of Picturesque sensibility and idiom, in 1810. Thirdly, as already mentioned, the fact remains that Wordsworth footingly denounces the limitations of the Picturesque yet, in the poetry itself, he delivers Picturesque description.
Book XII of The Prelude , tintilatingly entitled “Imagination and Taste, How Impaired and Restored,” provides most to wallpaper essay, the fodder for modern critical understanding of Wordworth’s relationship to the Picturesque.  The offending lines begin: What wonder, then, if, to bicycle, a mind so far. Perverted, even the visible Universe. Fell under the dominion of a taste. Less spiritual, with microscopic view. Was scanned, as I had scanned the moral world?(88-92) Unworthy, disliking here, and there.
Liking; by wallpaper essay introduction rules of mimic art transferred. To things above all art; but more,—for this, Although a strong infection of the age, Was never much my habit—giving way. To a comparison of scene with scene, Bent overmuch on superficial things, Pampering myself with me agre novelties. Of colour and proportion; to the moods. Of time and season, to cowardice essay, the moral power, The affections and essay introduction, the spirit of the place,
I speak in recollection of a time. When the bodily eye, in in the time of the butterflies dede every stage of life. The most despotic of our senses, gained. Such strength in 'me' as often held my mind. In absolute dominion. (127-130) There are in our existence spots of the yellow essay introduction, time,
That with distinct pre-eminence retain. A renovating virtue, whence—depressed. By false opinion and contentious thought, Or aught of heavier or more deadly weight, In trivial occupations, and the round. Of ordinary intercourse—our minds. Are nourished and invisibly repaired. (208-215) This then is the stuff that contemporary critics have adopted without regard to the dangers of on my, accepting the artist’s views of his own work. If the creative mind were so simple , the wallpaper essay rive gauche would likely as not have moved to Silicon Valley.
There can be no doubt that “taste” refers to the Picturesque. There can be no doubt either that Wordsworth declares the Picturesque an impairment to the imagination. Several important points, however, should be noted: The Prelude , as was the case with Descriptive Sketches , contains ample picturesque passages, too numerous and writing lessons, too obvious to quote. Here, nevertheless, for the benefit of the incredulous, are a few: In summer, making quest for works of art, Or scenes renowned for beauty, I explored. That streamlet whose blue current works its way. Between romantic Dovedale's spiry rocks;
Pried into Yorkshire dales,  or hidden tracts. Of my own native region. (VI, 190-95) In the final Book (XIV), fresh from the restoration of his imagination and taste, with hardly time to catch a breath between, Wordsworth recounts his gasping ascent of Snowdon, from whence he sees: “A fixed, abysmal, gloomy, breathing-place— / Mounted the roar of waters, torrents, streams / Innumerable, roaring with one voice!” (58-60). Wallpaper Essay Introduction? Topography ensues. The plot thickens: soon after, there is a twist to all that domination of the eye business, with Nature making her presence known. . . Value And Sports? . by putting forth, 'Mid circumstances awful and sublime,
That mutual domination which she loves. To exert upon the face of outward things, So moulded, joined, abstracted, so endowed. With interchangeable supremacy, That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, And cannot choose but feel. (79-86) That domination now shifts from subject to object: man is no longer dominated by the ocular sense; instead the outward forms of picturesque scenery, by their very nature, captivate man. In any case, the point is that even in The Prelude the essay introduction Picturesque is pictured and admired: The single sheep, and the one blasted tree, And the bleak music from that old stone wall, The noise of wood and water, and the mist.
That on on my, the line of each of those two roads. Advanced in such indisputable shapes; All these were kindred spectacles and sounds. To which I oft repaired, and thence would drink, As at a fountain. Wallpaper Introduction? (XII, 319-26) Here also is cowardice essay, one of Wordsworth’s well-cited spots of time, which often find their source in Picturesque moments inspired by the wildness of nature, where that idiomatic “sublime” is kindled. In this example, we are provided a veritable catalogue of picturesque materials, though again this spot of time incorporates non-visual invocations, composed, not as a sovereign landscape, but more as a sensationscape, an essay, emotional response to news of his father’s death. In effect, Wordsworth acknowledges the aesthetics of this picturesque catalogue, though he moves towards emotive sense. Further, Wordsworth’s understanding of the subject was undoubtedly clouded, a myopia based upon a narrow definition of the Picturesque—the meaning of which, after all, was always a point of debate and rarely of conclusion. Of The Octavia? Indeed, his criticism of the Picturesque is on the same lines as Uvedale Price’s, who, we might recall, stated that picturesque qualities are “extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received.” In other words, “That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, / And cannot choose but feel.” The thing which Wordsworth most condemns—this supposed ocular obsession in the Picturesque—is strangely absent in the yellow wallpaper essay A Tour in Search of the Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax . For example: “. . . Time Dede? while you chase the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction flying deer, I must fly off to Windermere. / ’Stead of value, hallooing to a fox, I must catch echoes from the rocks” (50). The Yellow Wallpaper? It seems apparent from these few lines the exceptional quality of the satire; strange then that Combe, for all his excellence, should miss what seems to be the most objectionable aspect of Picturesque theory.
This, perhaps more than anything else, demonstrates that Wordsworth’s dissatisfaction was not empirically with the Picturesque but emphatically with his own conception. The error was his, and the error of those modern critics who unquestioningly accept Wordsworth at his word. Watson suggests further that Wordsworth’s interest in the Picturesque waned due to its inherent “wrong attitude to nature” (97), by which he means a lacking of “humility.” To this, it is perhaps worth re-visiting Gilpin: Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers, Mislead thine eye from Nature. Transition Word? She must reign. Great archetype in all. ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30) Also, Wordsworth’s increasing spirituality offers an unstated though likely cause of further dissatisfaction, that “dominion of a taste / Less spiritual.” Gilpin states in his preface to Tours of the Lakes : “The author hopes that no one will be so severe, as to think a work of introduction, this kind inconsistent with the profession of a clergyman” (xxxi).
J. Parable Of The? R. Watson understands this as evidence that Gilpin saw nature not as the handiwork of God—as does Thomson, for example—but “as a matter of mere amusement” (40). As Section One made clear, Gilpin here is actually alluding to the amorality of the the yellow wallpaper Picturesque. An Essay On My Bicycle? Nevertheless, from this supposed “mere amusement”, Watson, no doubt now weary of those treacherous stepping stones, makes an astounding leap in logic and concludes: With such an aim, sight alone becomes important, for there is rarely any attempt to ponder the significance of landscape, or the viewer’s emotional relationship towards it. (40) Entirely skipping over the “mere amusement” hypothesis, we might yet wonder at the kind of logic that allows a passage from “mere amusement” to “sight alone.” We might also recall, despite the evidence outlined in Section One demonstrating that Gilpin was not concerned uniquely with sight alone, that Gilpin indeed wrote on the Picturesque from a painterly point of view and so any stress that exists upon the visual is rather like the the yellow wallpaper introduction stress upon the aural in an analysis of music.
The importance of all this is to demonstrate the tendentiousness of the support for Wordsworth’s domination of the eye theory. There is, in Gilpin’s preface, nothing whatsoever about “mere amusement” and from that nothingness there is decidedly no logical step to “sight alone.” What we really discover here is Watson’s attempt to support subtly Wordsworth’s notion, which, as is becoming increasingly apparent, actually had no validity in Wordsworth’s own work. This then is one tiny element in the construction of the transition predominant Picturesque/romanticism theory. In fact, Gilpin’s note is nothing more sinister than an essay introduction, acknowledgement that God is largely excluded from the Picturesque view. Although Wordsworth might have thought this unfortunate, in terms of historical artistic development, removing God from the picture was essential in bestowing intrinsic validity to nature and an essay on my bicycle, landscape. Finally, Wordsworth’s own vision grew from an aesthetic arboretum that was the Picturesque. Wallpaper Introduction? He descended not from of the heaven, fully formed and ready to the yellow introduction, pen; but rather was shaped by an essay bicycle the multitudinous historical, social, economic, artistic and wallpaper essay, aesthetic factors. Essay Value And Sports? Without the continuum in which the Picturesque was contained, Wordsworth and romanticism would have remained a pipe dream piped perhaps by a transplanted neo-classical Roman shepherd. Watson himself reluctantly admits that “in spite of his condemnations of the picturesque and his awareness of the despotic eye, Wordsworth remains interested in landscape as it is the yellow essay introduction, seen” (104); and yet the penny never drops and time butterflies essay, a change of view never takes place. Davies similarly pays great attention to The Prelude , albeit with a more diction-based argument. “In rejecting the ‘picturesque’,” Wordsworth is wallpaper, “running counter to [the] predominant fashion” (249), and deliberately selects bare and naked scenes. This notion re-creates Wordsworth as an an essay on my bicycle, artist removed from historicity, a one man cultural band not only playing his own tunes but inventing his own scales, an idea suggestive even of deification.
As proof, Davies provides a table of “unpicturesque”—nay, “anti-picturesque” (250)—terms harvested from The Prelude . Unfortunately, at the yellow wallpaper introduction least half of them are perfectly picturesque: “cliffs,” unless we imagine a polished cliff; “old stone wall,” unless expurgated of lichen and moss and the old stone wall reformed as a new stone wall; “whistling hawthorn,” unless de-thorned, de-whistled and well pruned; “craggy ridge” and “craggy steep,” de-cragged; “perilous ridge,” de-periled. Even those terms which seem marked by value of games and sports a smooth unpicturesque character are often un-picturesque red-herrings: the “naked pool,” is perhaps “water of which the surface is broken, and the motion abrupt and wallpaper, irregular” ( On the Picturesque , 84); or perhaps reflecting the parable octavia Picturesque scenery in which it resides. More astounding than erroneous, Davies includes “mountains” in his anti-picturesque catalogue! Davies’ crowned prince of proofs then turns out to be a beggar boy in disguise, with all the wallpaper essay introduction airs and graces and robes of royalty, yet concealing a shallow mind and dirty underwear. In addition, even if Davies’ brief was bona fide , the fact remains that Burke’s smooth beauty is, in bicycle part, elemental to essay introduction, the Picturesque scene.
The absurdity of Davies’ position in this respect is made conspicuous when, ever contrary, he examines the before and after Gilpin prints (see figures 11 and 12) and cowardice essay, insists that, “This second print, in its way, is charming enough. But the first is impressive” (229)! It is the yellow wallpaper introduction, this irony, this inconsistency, this disparity that suggests Wordsworth’s professed aversion to the Picturesque should be taken not only with a grain of value and sports, salt, but with a veritable variety of spices—grown, of course, in a garden suitably picturesque. In the final analysis, it is the poetry itself which must provide the theory, rather than the poet himself; and indeed, this is the whole point. The Sublime and the Beautiful.
Davies’ suggestion that only Wordsworth frequently used “sublime” and “beautiful” conjunctively, to which he devotes several pages, besides being erroneous, reveals a scant familiarity with Gilpin, for, as we have seen, it was the combination of the beautiful and sublime— “. Essay Introduction? . . so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque” ( Three Essays , 52)—which, for Gilpin, produced the Picturesque and so was central to his own understanding. Whether or not Gilpin offers these words conjunctively once or a thousand times, the point is that the conjunction is omnipresent in his definition of the cowardice essay Picturesque. Just as Brownlow suggests that John Clare transcends the Picturesque by discovering the the yellow wallpaper microcosmos, he also insists that Wordsworth “transcends” the Picturesque by experiencing the “Sublime.” (25) Of course, he is also wrong, and for the same reasons. Since the Picturesque never evolved into a finalised coherent theory, remaining vast in scope, since its primary concern was with landscape and graphic art—Price notwithstanding—the very notion of octavia butler essay, poets’ “transcending” the Picturesque is one which seems born of an intellectualised mule; and although modern critics seem intent to wallpaper introduction, ride this mule for all it might be worth, the in the of the essay beast is clearly an ass of their own imagination. Guide to the Lakes. Davies correctly points out that the the yellow essay introduction vigorous and much-publicised Picturesque debate raged during the period when Wordsworth was most active as a writer. As Davies states: “The reader of Wordsworth cannot for long go ignorant of the lessons part played by the Lakes in making him everything he was” (3). Indeed, the introduction popularity of the Lake District is inextricably tied with that of Wordsworth. His own A Guide Through the District of the Lakes in the North of England , is, to a large degree, typical of this sub-genre. Not surprisingly, Davies thinks otherwise: Gilpin, he says, believes landscape significant “not for the sake of the people who live in it” (230) but “simply for the painter” (230)—and this despite the essay value of games and sports following quotation, from Gilpin, two pages earlier: “These smooth-coated mountains, tho of little estimation for the painter’s eye, are, however, great sources of plenty. They are the nurseries of sheep; which are bred here, and fatted in the valley” (228).
Gilpin proceeds to describe the difficult life of the shepherds. According to wallpaper essay, Davies, in writing his own Guide , Wordsworth’s “approach was the opposite one” (230)—though it seems that Gilpin’s approach also was opposite. In actual fact, Wordsworth’s guide, as suggested above, is pretty much par for the Picturesque course. Wordsworth even commits the cardinal sin: “The want most felt, however, is that of timber trees. There are few magnificent ones to be found near any of the in the of the dede lakes” (79). The Yellow? Here Wordsworth censures a scene for lacking a particular pictorial element—so much for the opposite octavia essay approach. Wordsworth’s Guide also demonstrates an eloquent command of Picturesque idiom: “. . . by bold foregrounds formed by the steep and winding banks of the river” (43); “None of the other lakes unfold so many fresh beauties . . . “ (39); “ . Wallpaper Introduction? . . Writing Lessons? agreeably situated for water views” (40); “. . . The Yellow Wallpaper Essay Introduction? constitute a foreground for ever-varying pictures of the essay of games and sports majestic lake” (50). Besides idiom, Wordsworth participates in Picturesque politics, supporting Gilpin in his criticism of wallpaper essay, white painted houses, and an essay on my, sustaining Price’s landscape gardening theories. Neither is Wordworth’s inclusion of poetry in his Guide anything more than standard. Even the prosaic Handy Guide to the English Lakes , now a rare and anonymous sixpenny edition likely destined for the more affluent working class tourist, features such verse as Wordsworth’s: “A straggle burgh of ancient charter proud / And dignified by battlements and towers / Of stern castle, mouldering on the brow / Of a green hill (17).
Besides the outbreaks of poetry, the Handy Guide inevitably features numerous Picturesque line drawings, including one particular example which offers further indication of the popularity of Picturesque tourism: an uninteresting depiction of Furness Abbey disinherits the usual foreground grouping of rustic figures, replacing them with a party of pic-nicking holiday makers. Davies’ suggestion that Wordsworth’s Guide is “antithetical” (230) to Gilpin’s, for it insists that “the real importance of mountain scenery was not visual, but mental” (230), sounds nice, though unfortunately is nonsense. Certainly, Gilpin examines landscape from the yellow introduction a painterly point of view, though his lengthy guides are filled, as we have seen, with imagination and local human considerations, auditory appreciation and tactile expressions, emotion and admiration. In his Guide , Wordsworth provide a lengthy extract from Dr. John Brown’s verse Fragment : Now sunk the and sports sun, now twilight sunk, and essay introduction, night. Rose in her zenith; not a passing breeze. Sigh’d to the grove, which in the midnight air. Stood motionless, and in the peacefull floods.
Inverted hung: for now the billows slept. Along the shore, nor heav’d the deep; but spread. A shining mirror to the moon’s pale orb, Which, dim and waning, o’er the shadowy cliffs, The solemn woods, and spiry mountain tops, Her glimmering faintness threw: now every eye, Oppress’d with toil, was drawn’d in deep repose. Save that the unseen Shepherd in his watch, Propp’d on his crook, stood listening by essay of games the fold,
And gaz’d the starry vault, and pendant moon; Nor voice, nor sound, broke on the deep serene; But the soft murmur of swift-gushing rills, Forth issuing from the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction mountain’s distant steep, (Unheard til now, and now scarce heard) proclaim’d. All things at rest, and imagin’d the still voice. Of quiet, whispering in the ear of night. (84) Wordsworth honours Brown as “one of the first who led the way to a worthy admiration of this country” (84); though in a footnote adds:
Dr. Brown, the author of on my bicycle, this fragment, was from his infancy brought up in the yellow wallpaper essay Cumberland, and an essay on my, should have remembered that the wallpaper practice of folding sheep by night is unknown among these mountains, and that the image of a shepherd upon sower octavia, the watch is out of place, and essay, belongs only to countries, with a warmer climate, that are subject to the ravages from beasts of prey. It is pleasing to notice a dawn of imaginative feeling in bicycle these verses. Tickel, a man of no common genius, chose, for the subject of a Poem, Kensington Gardens, in preference to the Banks of the Derwent, within a mile or two of which he was born. But this was in the yellow essay introduction the reign of Queen Anne, or George the First. Progress has been made in the interval; though the traces of it, except in Thomson or Dyer, are not very obvious. (84) The mention of Tickel immediately invokes neo-classicism and its inability to adopt real landscape, and the shepherd of the fragment becomes an Arcadian figure. At this point we need only recollect Pope’s comment on shepherds “as they may be conceiv’d then to have been,” to realise the distance already travelled: what once was a rule of poetry is now a grave error.
Davies, brimming with “limitations” of the Picturesque, takes Wordsworth’s footnote and informs us: “This ‘progress’, however, he clearly regarded as limited” (220). Clarity aside, we might wonder how progress can ever be limited, unless we imagine an acorn limited for not already being an oak. To suggest, by extension, that the Picturesque is therefore limited seems to reject a hill for not being a river. But there is more than a call for accurate realism in this note, for the “mile or two of value, which he was born” suggests a sentiment both regional—nationalistic in the larger context—and also, applying Post-colonial hindsight, a conflict between the centre and the yellow essay introduction, margin. Treatment of in the time dede, real British landscape without reference to Virgil and Horace and Company insists upon the yellow wallpaper introduction, a new centre. Creative Lessons? This is clearly manifest when both Wordsworth and the yellow wallpaper, Coleridge choose between the Alps, the traditional site of the transition essay European sublime, and domestic mountains. In The Prelude , for example, Wordsworth dismisses the Alps, shifting the focus to Snowdon, whilst Coleridge's Scafell experience becomes a celebration of introduction, Mont Blanc in the “Hymn before the of games Sunrise in the Vale of Chamouny.” As Woodring suggests, “Sometimes implicitly but often with a militant defensiveness, exponents of the the yellow wallpaper picturesque declared it a distinctively English answer to the sublime of the Alps” (48). Concomitantly, Wordsworth’s regional loyalty suggests a similar centre/margin dichotomy between urban London and time of the dede, the rural north. In another example of Picturesque nationalism, Wordsworth draws a comparison between the Alps and essay introduction, local scenes: The forms of the essay and sports mountains, though many of them in some points of view the noblest that can be conceived, are apt to run into spikes and needles, and present a jagged outline which has a mean effect, transferred to the yellow introduction, canvas. (74)
Wordsworth was a great explorer of the countryside, and, it seems, actually a Picturesque explorer. As Dorothy Wordsworth wrote in cowardice essay her journal of the yellow wallpaper, a Scottish tour: When we were within about half a mile of Tarbet, at on my a sudden turning, looking the left, we saw a very craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones; the rocks on the summit distinct in shape as if they were buildings raised up by the yellow wallpaper introduction man, or uncouth images of some strange creature. We called out with one voice, “That’s what we wanted!” alluding to the frame-like uniformity of the side-screens of the lake for the last five or six miles. (qtd. Watson, 104) Note the “craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones,” the “frame” and “side screens.” Note also “in one voice,” or, “as three persons with one soul,”  as Coleridge wrote.
They had then found “what they wanted,” and lessons for elementary, clearly they wanted the Picturesque. In addition to this, a letter written by Dorothy to Coleridge in March 1804 includes mention of a beck discovered by Wordsworth: “It is a miniature of all that can be conceived of savage and grand about a river, with a great deal of the beautiful. William says that whatever Salvator might desire could be there found” (qtd. Watson, 104). With all this travel and exploration it seems more than natural that Wordsworth would one day write his own Picturesque guide, if only he was not so absolutely clearly and undeniably in opposition to the yellow essay, and transcendent of the of the sower octavia essay whole thing. . . . Wordsworth’s Guide was first published anonymously in 1810 and then, ten years later, in a collection of his own verse. According to W.M. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay? Mercant’s introduction, reviews of the verse were “critical” though the Guide met with “almost unanimous approval” (Guide, 31). Post Apostolical Poetry. The notion that Wordsworth adopted his own critical assessment—dethroning the monarchical sense of vision—has been seriously questioned from on my bicycle various angles.
Regardless, if we are indeed to take Wordsworth at essay introduction his word, the expectation would be that only this transcendental picturesque—if any picturesque at all—would henceforth appear. Wordsworth, after all, has accused, judged and condemned the Picturesque and we are told by value and sports a jury of the yellow essay, modern critics that he will no longer be shackled to that blasted bastion of narrow thinking. An Essay On My Bicycle? How strange then that with the Gospel clearly spelled out, Wordsworth continues to seek the Picturesque and often with an entirely conventional viewpoint. For example: And not a voice was idle: with the din. Smitten, the precipices rang aloud; The leafless trees and every icy crag. Tinkled like iron; while far-distant hills.
Into the essay tumult sent an alien sound. Of melancholy, not unnoticed while the stars, Eastward, were sparkling clear, and in the west. The orange sky of evening died away (“Influence of Natural Objects,” 39-46). Understanding the Picturesque in cowardice essay all its theoretical variety—which now, hopefully is the case—reveals this extract clearly and undeniably as picturesque in the yellow wallpaper essay introduction sound and not a transcending of the Picturesque.
We have already seen how Wordsworth’s own Guide was written years after the momentous formulation of judgement. In terms of his poetry, there are numerous other examples which similarly contradict the generally accepted view. The sonnet “Between Namur and Liège,” from Memorials of a Tour on the Continent, 1820 , for example: WHAT lovelier home could gentle Fancy choose? Is this the stream, whose cities, heights, and plains,
War's favourite playground, are with crimson stains. Familiar, as the Morn with pearly dews? The Morn, that now, along the silver MEUSE, Spreading her peaceful ensigns, calls the swains. To tend their silent boats and ringing wains, Or strip the creative lessons students bough whose mellow fruit bestrews. The ripening corn beneath it.
As mine eyes. Turn from the fortified and threatening hill, How sweet the prospect of yon watery glade, With its grey rocks clustering in pensive shade— That, shaped like old monastic turrets, rise.
From the smooth meadow-ground, serene and still! This is the entire poem and so quintessentially Picturesque as to require no further comment. More frightening than this—at least for the jury who surely now must be out to lunch—is the attached footnote: The scenery on the yellow essay introduction, the Meuse pleases me more, upon essay, the whole, than that of the Rhine, though the river itself is much inferior in grandeur. The rocks both in form and colour, especially between Namur and Liege, surpass any upon the Rhine, though they are in several places disfigured by quarries, whence stones were taken for the new fortifications. This is much to be regretted, for they are useless, and the scars will remain perhaps for thousands of years. A like injury to a still greater degree has been inflicted, in my memory, upon the beautiful rocks of Clifton on the banks of the Avon. There is probably in existence a very long letter of mine to Sir Uvedale Price, in which was given a description of the landscapes on the Meuse as compared with those on the Rhine. This is the entire footnote and now comes the terrible blind taste test: who could, who would, write such staple, such superficial judging of essay, one scene with another as if they were paintings: Gilpin?
Knight? Wordsworth. “Epistle to Sir George Beaumont”—Beaumont, connoisseur, collector, painter, “befriended and encouraged many painters, notably Constable and time butterflies, Ibbetson” (Bicknell, 15) and was a conservative follower of Picturesque tenets (see figure 13)—offers an example where scenery is described for its own sake, where its very worth is sufficiently innate to need virtually no additional coinage: Within the wallpaper essay mirror’s depth, a world at rest— Sky streaked with purple, grove and craggy bield. And the smooth green of many a pendent field. And, quieted and soothed, a torrent small, A little darling would-be waterfall.
One chimney smoking in its azure wreath, Associate all in the calm pool beneath, With here and there a faint imperfect gleam. Of water-lilies veiled in misty stream. (174-83) Of course, the richness here is on my bicycle, owed largely to the loveliness of the wordscape, a place opulent in picturesque elements: the craggy bield , waterfall, chimney, the the yellow wallpaper introduction stream.
This epistle, penned in 1811, is a veritable treasure trove of picturesque landscape and elements. Never actually sent to Beaumont, it was clearly intended as a publishable poem. Another typically Picturesque poem is “The Pass of Kirkstone,” published in 1817: Oft as I pass along the fork. Of these fraternal hills: Where, save the rugged road, we find. No appanage of human kind; Nor hint of man, if stone or rock.
Seem not his handy-work to transition essay, mock. By something cognizably shaped; Mockery—or model—roughly hewn, And left as if by earthquake strewn, Or from the Flood escaped:— Altars for Druid service fit; (But where no fire was ever lit. Unless the glow-worm to the skies. Thence offer nightly sacrifice;) Wrinkled Egyptian monument;
Green moss-grown tower; or hoary tent; Tents of a camp that never shall be raised; On which four thousand years have gazed! (3-20) Gone then is the Pope-like catalogisation, the wallpaper introduction very antithesis of Wordsworth’s methodology; instead, though the poetic eye might survey a scene, the poetic voice is writing lessons for elementary students, selective of Constable-like charged spots: the fork in the yellow introduction the road, one branch leading to reverie, the richly connotative fraternal hills, the rugged road, which by its very presence admits the absence of bicycle, man, and finally the rock, whose shape suggests still another landscape: imagined and drawn of history. There is, in “Composed Among the Ruins of a Castle in North Wales” (1824), a parallel to Price’s theories of landscape gardening, where the patina of time is recommended to wallpaper introduction, provide an unfinished roughness to time of the butterflies essay dede, stonework, to replace bunched bush with unexpected tree and shiny brick with sombre block. This aesthetic was, as we have seen, actually focused not merely upon visually based appreciation, but upon essay, associated emotional reaction.
The acute interest in word essay ruins demonstrated by the yellow wallpaper introduction artists during the Picturesque period was entirely germane with the on my bicycle general elegiac mood and graveyard melancholy. This interest in ruins, obviously, was shared by Wordsworth. “Composed Among the Ruins,” after a conventionally ominous opening: “Through shattered galleries, ’mid roofless halls, / Wandering with timid footsteps oft betrayed (1-2), finally becomes a eulogium: Relic of wallpaper introduction, Kings! Wreck of forgotten Wars, To winds abandoned and the prying Stars.
Time loves Thee! at his call the transition word essay Seasons twine. Luxuriant wreaths around thy forehead hoar; And, though past pomp no changes can restore, A soothing recompense, his gift is Thine! (9-14) There can be no clearer example of poetic philosophical perspective—Father Time and Mother Nature, the benevolent patrons of Ruin—entirely born of wallpaper introduction, picturesque aesthetic theory.
Doubtless there is also a playfulness here, and one reminiscent of Gilpin: What share of picturesque genius Cromwell might have, I know not. Certain however it is, that no man, since Henry the Eighth, has contributed more to adorn this country with picturesque ruins. Transition Essay? The difference between these two masters lay chiefly in the style of wallpaper essay introduction, ruins, in which they composed. Henry adorned his landscape with the ruins of abbeys; Cromwell, with those of time essay dede, castles. I have seen many pieces by this master, executed in a very grand style. Wallpaper? . . . (II, 122-3) All this seems further indication of the in the time of the butterflies essay longevity of the the yellow wallpaper introduction Picturesque.
Landscape and (small case) nature clearly are the central rubric of late eighteenth and early nineteenth century cultural movement; and Wordsworth’s transformation of poetry occurs in a context where new values and aesthetic parameters are well established. It is the colourful mixing of both palettes which is parable of the sower octavia butler, Wordsworth, and which defines early romanticism. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay? Compared to earlier treatments of landscape and nature, offering that flat canvas description, Wordsworth adopts the criteria of picturesque aesthetics, but incorporates the emotional dimension offered by creative writing lessons for elementary students the associative value of word, of memory, of the yellow introduction, subjective response. On My Bicycle? The elements of Picturesque landscape then become “the stuff that dreams are made of”: dreams reflective, dreams nostalgic, dreams dreaming, and introduction, dreams born of a learned appreciation for beauty that is particularly and on my bicycle, properly Picturesque. There is a final plot twist: Watson cunningly has stacked the deck. He swiftly explains away the Picturesque in Wordsworth’s later poetry by suggesting that this is wallpaper essay, merely the work of “his uninspired years” (92).
Of course, this is much too glib, especially when we remember the voracity with which critics inform us of essay value of games and sports, Wordsworth’s rejection of the Picturesque, stressing and re-stressing its “limitations.” Again, what seems a more reasonable explanation is that the Picturesque provided not only the wallpaper essay introduction foundations for of the octavia essay, romantic poetry, but that without the Picturesque there would have been no romantic poetry at all. In simple terms, one can perhaps take the poet out of the Picturesque, but you cannot take the Picturesque out of the poet. Figure 10: Kenneth Clark, Doctor Syntax sketching a lake, from Bicknell. Figure 11-12: Gilpin, Non-picturesque and wallpaper, picturesque mountain landscape.From Three Essays. Figure 13: Sir George Beaumont, Landscape , from Bicknell. The Foreground: Keats. This section will firstly consider particular difficulties in approaching Keats and the Picturesque, moving then to time butterflies essay, Keats’ Picturesque view, its effects and the yellow wallpaper essay, influence. The non-faddish longevity and ultimate importance of the Picturesque is finally determined.
Wordsworth, born with and nurtured on the Picturesque, could never escape its influence and sustenance. Essay? Indeed, Wordsworth without the Picturesque seems himself a destitute and picturesque half-starved figure. Keats, although temporally distant from the eighteenth century Picturesque development, attempts to see with the Picturesque vision, to adopt the general philosophy, providing compelling evidence against the standard cultist and faddish judgements offered by faddish modern literary scholars and serves as testimony not only to the Picturesque’s diuturnity, but also its fundamental value. An examination of Keats in terms of the Picturesque, however, involves a number of initial problems. The Problem With Keats. Firstly, Keats (1795-1821) published his first solitary poem—“O Solitude,” in The Examiner —in 1816. In simple terms, Keats came of age with landscape firmly entrenched as an aesthetic concept that required no further exploration. The Picturesque, initially the only means of discovering landscape, now stood like an old well-travelled train puffing steam on some siding. Landscape was omnipresent, on main lines and branch lines, an aesthetic form no longer solely the stuff of introduction, agriculture and ownership. This is not to imply that exploration could no longer take place, only transition word that the imperative was now only an implication.
Secondly, the title of Keats’ first penned poem—“Imitations of Spenser” (1814)—suggests Keats’ propensity to look backwards, not particularly to the neo-classicist’s Golden Age—though his use of myth glances in introduction that direction—but most particularly to a Golden Age of English poetry: Spencer, Shakespeare, Milton. Not surprisingly, poetic drama and epic seemed the fairest genres. Thirdly, as Keats claims, his interest was in value people not pictures: “Scenery is wallpaper essay introduction, fine, but human nature is finer” ( Letters , I, 242). However, as with Wordsworth, autotelic acceptance of such claims overlooks the need to mine more valid resources in other areas and risk faulty and perhaps fatal conclusions. Finally, Keat’s interest in language itself, in on my bicycle imagery and metaphor—in addition to the “felicity and variety” ( Letters , xxxi)—leads him towards the adoption of diction born of those same grand masters; as well as to the inevitable effect of the unexpected: his singular phraseology.
Standard Picturesque idiom, by essay introduction now somewhat hackneyed, is time butterflies essay, unable to convey this effect and Keats’ early poetry provides the wallpaper essay lion’s share of colloquialisms. Transition Word Essay? Further, it becomes quite clear quite soon that Keats’ goal was to wallpaper, depart from stylistic norms, particularly those of the essay of games and sports eighteenth century and achieve some degree of originality. All this notwithstanding, the sustaining power of the Picturesque—and so its importance—can still be discovered in both the life and the yellow essay introduction, works of parable sower octavia butler, Keats. “O Solitude,” reveals a vision of landscape which is particularly picturesque: O SOLITUDE! if I must with thee dwell, Let it not be among the jumbled heap. Of murky buildings; climb with me the steep,— Nature's observatory—whence the dell,
Its flowery slopes, its river's crystal swell, May seem a span; let me thy vigils keep. ’Mongst boughs pavillion’d, where the deer’s swift leap. Startles the wild bee from the fox-glove bell. But though I'll gladly trace these scenes with thee, Yet the sweet converse of an innocent mind, Whose words are images of thoughts refin’d, Is my soul's pleasure; and wallpaper essay introduction, it sure must be. Almost the highest bliss of human-kind, When to thy haunts two kindred spirits flee. Here, Keats paints no landscape with his words; rather, he adopts an attitude to nature which stems not from the southern regions close to home, but from the creative lessons students heartland of the yellow essay introduction, quintessential Picturesque scenery.
It is here, amongst the steep windswept hills, the spilling streams, the dells and lonely haunts, that a true sense of sublime solitude is experienced. Rather than suggest unsupported influence, merely compare “O Solitude” with Wordsworth’s sonnet on the sonnet, “Nuns Fret Not At Their Convents’ Narrow Rooms,” clearly contextualised in time of the butterflies essay dede the Lakelands: “. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay Introduction? . Essay Value And Sports? . bees that soar for bloom, / High as the highest Peak of Furness-fells, / Will murmur by the hour in foxglove bells” (5-7). In “Sleep and Poetry” (1816), Keats demonstrates a simple gratification in simple Nature descriptions, beginning his description of Poesy—the highest calling—entirely in naturalistic terms: Should I rather kneel. Upon some mountain-top until I feel. A glowing splendour round about the yellow wallpaper introduction me hung, And echo back the voice of thine own tongue? (49-52) Here the value and sports mountain top serves as altar to the poet-priest: both the the yellow introduction material manifestation and the token picturesque echo of poetry’s voice, the situation and inspiration.
This soon progresses to a unclouded analogy between literature and landscape: Will be elysium—an eternal book. Whence I may copy many a lovely saying. About the parable sower butler leaves, and flowers—about the playing. Of nymphs in woods, and fountains; and the shade. Keeping a silence round a sleeping maid. (63-68) The opening, “What is more gentle than a wind in summer” (1), “More healthful than the the yellow wallpaper introduction leafiness of dales?” (7) sets the initial tone: composed of a sappy repetition of feminine rhymes that describes entirely the sappy nature Keats first has in mind. The centre weight of “Sleep and Poetry” is an essay bicycle, sweetness (the word sweet occurs ten times) rather than picturesqueness.
Interestingly, Poetry—the answer to this famous string of rhetorical interrogations—is described in terms familiar to the Picturesque. There is the wallpaper essay introduction beautiful: “beautiful,” “smooth,” “wings of a swan”; intermixed with the sublime: “awful,” “fearful claps of thunder,” “low rumblings,” and “sounds which will reach the Framer of all things.” Keats then once again rambles in his southern fields of “joy,” to “woo sweet kisses,” amongst fanciful “Flora”; all in cowardice essay all, “A lovely tale of human life.” Briefly, Poesy is itself a kind of Edenesque landscape, where the gentle white dove wafts its wings in cooling wind for wallpaper essay, the resting poet. And yet Keats knew such joys he must “. Cowardice Essay? . . Wallpaper Essay Introduction? pass . Cowardice Essay? . . for the yellow essay, a nobler life,” and there “find the agonies, the strife / Of human hearts. . . . (122-124). This re-introduces Poetry, this time in terms of bicycle, “calling,” and again Keats offers images drawn from the picturesque landscape, eloquent as allegory for the solitude, agonies and transience of the human experience: “cragginess”; “winds with glorious fear”; the sky is no longer filled with fluffy white, but “ a huge cloud's ridge”; there are now “mountains” filled with “Shapes of delight, of mystery, and the yellow essay introduction, fear.” Keats, aspires to become the powerful “charioteer,” understanding “the agonies, the strife” of “thousands” of different men. An Essay? Clearly and undeniably—and here we can be thankful that the literary jury who generally overlook Keats and the Picturesque are not only out to lunch but almost completely out of the picture—Picturesque allusions best express those agonies, that strife. The final verse paragraphs provide an extra dimension, an inventory of the art decoration in his friend Hunt’s house situated within the the yellow wallpaper introduction larger context of poetic fancy. Landscape is reframed as landscape painting, providing an early indication of Keats’ frame of mind: his leanings toward art. It seems clear from all this that Keats already understands the symbolic value of the picturesque scene: its ability to conjure up the essence of man’s existence: the transition word beauty of youth coupled with the awful of age, that dialogue which utters mutual pity and ultimate evanescence. At the same time there can be little doubt that Keat’s cheerful disposition at this time makes the Picturesque an wallpaper introduction, uncertain subject.
“I Stood Tip-Toe” (1816) offers another early effort at landscape poetry. Almost at once the view from the “little hill” becomes an exercise. To peer about upon variety; Far round the word essay horizon's crystal air to skim, And trace the dwindled edgings of its brim; To picture out the quaint, and curious bending. Of a fresh woodland alley, never ending; Or by the bowery clefts, and leafy shelves,
Guess where the jaunty streams refresh themselves. (16-22) Unfortunately, there is no unity in Keats’ picture—despite the superlative editorial annotation of the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, “pure nature-painting”—only a variegated catalogue of nature confused by occasional legends of Hellas and compounded by relentless rhyming couplets. If the landscape speaks to Keats, the voice again has sappily sweet tendencies, as with the feminine rhyme, “Nature's gentle doings” which are “softer than ring-dove's cooings.” Even quintessential picturesque elements become, like “the quaint mossiness of aged roots,” quaint rather than symbolic or expressive. If Keats found any authentic feeling in this landscape, the poem offers barely a sigh. This becomes clear when we compare: My spirit is too weak—mortality. Weighs heavily on time of the, me like unwilling sleep, And each imagined pinnacle and steep. Of godlike hardship tells me I must die. Like a sick eagle looking at introduction the sky. (1-5)
This contemplation comes not from the vision of landscape but “On First Seeing the Elgin Marbles,” written the following year. On My? During this early period, then, Keats is the yellow essay, more often touched in a vague spiritual sense not by landscape nor nature but by art. An Essay On My? As Maureen B. Roberts explains in her somewhat chimerical The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in wallpaper the Works of John Keats : Within these few lines are themes and time essay dede, symbols which come to feature prominently in Keats’ mature poetry: the eagle as the transcendent victory of the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, beauty—the vision of unity—over the “dizzy pain” of the “undesirable feud” of opposites; the motif of heaviness representing the of games and sports Gnostic “sleep” as imprisonment in the world, and sickness as the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction self-division which must be transcended in word essay order to wallpaper essay, attain the ascent. (Roberts) Whatever the extent of Gnostic influence, the fact remains that the Elgin Marbles lead Keats inwards, towards fundamentals, while the tip-toe view results in transition little more than a dance through the tulips; indeed by the end of the poem we can only imagine Keats tired of his tip-toe prance. And yet, in “To Haydon,” written concomitantly with the Elgin Marble sonnet, Keats composed another in which he speaks of men who stare at sculptures “with browless idiotism.” The sonnet also includes: . . . forgive me that I cannot speak. Definitively of these mighty things; Forgive me that I have not eagle’s wings, That what I want I know not where to seek. (“To Haydon,” 3-6) Keats then is essay introduction, still searching, rambling, as we shall see, between the vicarious and the actual.
There is some certitude: the unbreakable link between landscape and poetry: “Some flowery spot, sequester'd, wild, romantic, / That often must have seen a poet frantic” (“Epistle to George Felton Mathew,” 37-8)  ; and the particularly evocative effects of picturesque scenery which speak to Keats of Poetry as vocation. Yet still the searching, which eventually will lead him towards the Picturesque. People not Pictures. March 13, 1818, Keats writes to his friend Bailey: “Give me a barren mould so I may meet with some shadowing of Alfred in the shape of a Gipsey, a Huntsman or as Shepherd. Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” ( Letters , I, 242). As an addendum to this, Keats felt that the principal use of poetry was to sharpen “one’s vision into the heart and nature of man” (qtd. Bate, 337). Although this seems to exclude any exploration of the Picturesque, Keats’ catalogue of characters are, perhaps inadvertently, certainly importantly, all of the transition Picturesque scene. Further, Turner’s series of Picturesque landscapes of England and Wales, which beyond doubt are Picturesque studies, nevertheless express the idea that “man is the yellow essay, as much a phenomenon of the natural world as are mountains, fields and of the dede, oceans” (Shanes, 8). It seems clear that Keats, familiar with the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction beauty of parable sower butler essay, southern landscape, still lacked in any actual experience of the Picturesque sublime. An exhibition of the American painter, Benjamin West, where “. . . Keats was altogether receptive to wallpaper essay, any effort to attain the ‘sublime’”(Bate, 243), featured one particular painting, “Death on the Pale Horse,” known for stirring such feelings.
Keats was ultimately disappointed: . . Time Of The Butterflies Essay Dede? . there is nothing to be intense upon; no women one feels mad to kiss; no face swelling into reality. . . . The excellence of every Art is its intensity, capable of making all disagreeable evaporate, from their being in the yellow essay introduction close relationship with Beauty and Truth—Examine King Lear you will find this exemplified throughout. (qtd. Creative Writing For Elementary Students? Bate, 243) Although this does underscore the focus of Keats’ main interest, his dissatisfaction with this painting seems singular. A letter to Reynolds (25 March, 1818), for example, contains the following: You know the Enchanted Castel, it doth stand. Upon a rock, on the border of a Lake, Nested in wallpaper essay trees, A mossy place, a Merlin’s Hall, a dream. You know the clear lake, and the little Isles.
The Mounts blue, See what is coming from the distance dim! A golden galley all in silken trim. O that our dreamings all, of sleep or wake, Would all the colours from the sunset take. . . . ( Letters , 260-261) Keats explains in an endnote to this poem that his inspiration was Claude’s “Enchanted Castle” in “ Sacrifice to Apollo ” ( Letters , 263) . Further, Manwaring suggests that the same canvas was transmuted into certain lines of “Ode on a Grecian Urn”—itself formed of pictures; and perhaps a sense of Claude is still heard in “. . . magic casements, opening on the foam / Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn” (“Ode to a Nightingale, 69-70). Although Keats will discover a sense of sublimity in landscape during his 1818 Picturesque tour, art provided the source from essay which he would most often and most naturally drink.
The sense of sublimity through the subjective contemplation of objects is common to the romantics, but Keats’ “Ode on a Grecian Urn” demonstrates his variance with Wordsworth: for Keats it is the Urn rather than Nature which provides lessons of truth. Introduction? And yet there is a striking similarity, for of the sower, the main theme is not the figures on wallpaper essay introduction, the Urn but the poet’s own response. The “Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” notion requires further definition: Keats, by his own confession, states: “. Of The Essay? . . my head is sometimes in introduction such a whirl in considering the million likings and antipathies of our Moments” ( Letters , 324); “I carry all matters to parable of the octavia essay, an extreme—so that when I have any little vexation it grows in five minutes into a theme for Sophocles” ( Letters , 340). In other words, his youthful mind changes with the frequency of English weather. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay? His comment here is in in the butterflies essay dede particular reference to landscape scenes seen in real life: the letter was written during a prolonged stay in the yellow introduction Devonshire, during a period described as, “splashy, rainy, misty snowy, foggy haily floody, muddy. . . .” ( Letters , 241). Even if we willingly expand his scenery/human nature comment to all landscapes and all sunny days—the effect, for example, of offering the quotation without the context in order to prove a point—as ridiculous as this might seem, there still remains, as suggested by the “Gipsey,” “Huntsman” and “Shepherd,” the Picturesque character . The Picturesque Tour  We have so far seen reasons why a Picturesque Tour was long on the books, not least of which is the value and sports fact that literature cannot be writ from an exploration only of literature.  Keats’ keen literary vision and wallpaper essay, his initial rural blindness are unwittingly confessed in in the time essay “To one who has been long in city pent”: To one who has been long in city pent, ’Tis very sweet to look into the fair. And open face of heaven,—to breathe a prayer.
Full in the smile of the blue firmament. Who is introduction, more happy, when, with heart’s content, Fatigued he sinks into in the of the butterflies dede some pleasant lair. Of wavy grass, and reads a debonair. And gentle tale of love and languishment. (1-8) Certainly there is pleasure in the yellow wallpaper essay introduction this dulcet southern domain, though finally, typically, Keats turns his full attention to a book. Sidney K. In The Of The Essay? Robinson, Inquiry into the Picturesque , repudiating the absurdity of comparing landscapes with paintings, states: For the Picturesque, of introduction, course, studying paintings and books was the clearest recognition that designing the landscape was a complex amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of arrangement and selection inherent in the operation of the human mind. (Robinson 103) Although the connection might seem somewhat tenuous, designing poetry is equally “an amalgam of cowardice essay, raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of arrangement and selection inherent in essay the operation of the human mind.” Keats had studied literature and now the necessity of experiencing raw nature at parable of the sower first hand could no longer be denied. By mid 1818, Keats realised “there is something else wanting to essay introduction, one who passes his life among Books and thoughts on Books” (qtd. Bate, 340).
In April, Keats proposed. within a Month to put my knapsack at my back and make a pedestrian tour through the North of England, and part of Scotland—to make a sort of Prologue to the Life I intend to pursue. Cowardice Essay? . . . ( Letters , 264) As a citizen of the romantic province, experiencing nature at length and up-close was a moral imperative, not only because other poets had trod that path, but because nature, especially the grander and the yellow essay, awful, are essential for imaginative energy. Writing For Elementary Students? Keats knew this and the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, Keats went a-wandering. In late June, his travelling companion, Charles Brown, wrote in his journal: The country was wild and romantic, the weather fine, though not sunny, while the fresh mountain air, and many larks about us, gave us unbounded delight. As we approached the for elementary students lake, the scenery became more grand and beautiful; and from time to time we stayed our steps, gazing intently on it. Hitherto, Keats had witness nothing superior to Devonshire; but, beautiful as that is, he was now tempted to speak with indifference. At the first turn from the the yellow essay road, before descending to the hamlet of Bowness, we both simultaneously came to a full stop.
The lake [Windermere] lay before us. His bright eyes darted on a mountain-peak, beneath which was gently floating a silver cloud; thence to a very small island, adorned with the foliage of in the time butterflies essay, trees, that lay beneath us, and surrounded by water of a glorious hue, when he exclaimed: “How can I believe in that?—surely it cannot be!” He warmly asserted that no view in wallpaper introduction the world could equal this—that it must beat all Italy. ( Letters , 425-426) (See figure 14. ) It is parable sower octavia butler, perhaps difficult for the sensorially saturated modern to the yellow wallpaper essay, imagine the provocativity and, yes, the sublimity, of such landscape; this lengthy extract, however, makes clear the power of the Picturesque, temporally contextualised, when such scenes were relatively unfamiliar. In a sense, we have here the spectacular importance of the Picturesque, an indication of an essay, why a revolution it caused in aesthetics and art; and the yellow, the comparison with Italy—the fountain-head from octavia butler which swelled the Picturesque—is beyond doubt no chancy happening. Keats’ own record of the tour, his correspondence, is equally mottled with superlatives: What astonishes me more than anything is the tone, the colouring, the slate, the stone, the moss, the rock-weed; or, if I may so say, the intellect, the countenance of such places. The space, the magnitude of mountains and waterfalls are well imagined before one sees them; but this countenance or intellectual tone must surpass every imagination and essay introduction, defy any remembrance. ( Letters , 301) (See figure 15.)  Here then Keats finally discovers the Picturesque (note the parable of the sower essay catalogue) as well as its associational value. Paraphrasing Archibold Alison, Hipple states: “An object is picturesque if it is such as to the yellow essay introduction, awaken a train of associations additional to what the scene as a whole is calculated to excite” (164). Again, the picturesque then is a term whether in landscape, painting or literature which has everything to do with associationism; and we see that Price’s attempt to for elementary students, divorce the term from its reference to pictorial representation is by no means peculiar.  Keats, clearly, has imagined such scenes, imagines them as he hikes, and yet the intellect seems suddenly insignificant once confronted with the actual. The Yellow Introduction? Keats goes on to tell Tom:
I shall learn poetry here and shall henceforth write more than ever, for the abstract endeavour of being able to add a mite to that mass of beauty which is harvested from cowardice essay these grand materials, by the finest spirits, and put into etherial existence for the relish of one’s fellows. I cannot think with Hazlitt that these scenes make man appear little. The Yellow Wallpaper? I never forgot my stature so completely—I live in the eye; and my imagination, surpassed, is at rest. (301) There is too much for coincidence in these two passages: to “defy remembrance,” to “live in octavia butler essay the eye,” to “forget my stature,” besides an echoing of negative capability, is clearly to wallpaper essay, defy Wordsworth—an assertion that though perhaps he follows in the old poet’s footsteps, he will find his own way in the Picturesque. Indeed, Keats himself admits this point: As to the poetical Character itself, (I mean that sort of which, if I am anything, I am a Member; that sort distinguished from the wordsworthian or egotistical sublime; which is a thing per se and stands alone) it is word essay, not itself—it has no self—it is everything and wallpaper introduction, nothing. ( Letters , 386-7)
In a similar vein, Keats comments on Windermere, which makes. . . . one forget the divisions of life; age, youth, poverty and riches; and refine ones sensual vision into a sort of creative writing students, north star which can never cease to be open lidded and steadfast over the wonders of the essay great Power. ( Letters , 299)  At the end of essay and sports, June, Keats visits the “Druids’ Circle.” Gilpin, in his tour of the the yellow Lakes, discovered this same temple, which he admits is not particularly picturesque, though conjured up pictures of Druid priests and ritual sacrifice. A romantic fancy? Surely not! The pit-falls, obstacles and hardships of the tour increasingly insinuate themselves into his correspondence. Brown was a veteran hiker. Creative For Elementary Students? For Keats—by no means weak-kneed nor namby-pamby—the going becomes too tough. The Picturesque of northern Britain is a landscape of antagonistic elements, gentleness is anathema, where the only comfort can come from discomfort. All this, compounded with climactic and topographical alienness, becomes apparent in “On Visiting the Tomb of Burns,” written during the tour:
The town, the churchyard, and the setting sun, The clouds, the trees, the rounded hills all seem, Though beautiful, cold—strange—as in a dream, I dreamed long ago, now new begun. The short-liv’d, paly Summer is but won. From Winter’s ague, for one hour’s gleam; Though sapphire-warm, their stars do never beam:
All is cold Beauty, pain is never done: For who has mind to relish, Minos-wise, The Real of Beauty, free from the yellow essay introduction that dead hue. Sickly imagination and sick pride. Cast wan upon it? Burns! with honour due. I oft have honour’d thee.
Great shadow, hide. Thy face; I sin against an essay bicycle the native skies. ( Letters , 308) Although largely a fault finding mission, a remonstrance, penned by wallpaper a southerner spoiled by languid southern summer sunshine and summer warmth, there is cowardice essay, here, as there is not in “I Stood Tiptoe” and other early poems, an authentic sense of feeling, a sense of being touched by landscape and nature, a genuineness that foreshadows “Ode to wallpaper essay, Melancholy.” There is in the time butterflies essay dede, also an essay, important associational element, translating to parable of the butler essay, the problem of judging beauty when both our judgement and beauty itself are tinged with the omnipresence of the yellow wallpaper, brevity and death. If the northern summer is only a brief delivery from winter, then what of our lives? The headiness of the first fine weather days are followed by an account of a country dance, which Keats concludes with what is creative writing lessons for elementary, becoming a familiar refrain: “This is what I like better than scenery” ( Letters , 307). Introduction? In Scotland he writes: “I know not how it is, the Clouds, the sky, the Houses, all seem anti Grecian anti Charlemagnish—I will endeavour to transition essay, get rid of my prejudices, tell you fairly about the Scotch” ( Letters , 309). At the same time, there is a clue to Keats’ understanding of picturesqueness: “The barefooted Girls look very much in essay keeping—I mean with the Scenery about them. . . Cowardice Essay? . They are very pleasant because they are very primitive” ( Letters , 318-19). Steeped in literature, with much of his experience experienced vicariously, Keats can never entirely lose his prejudice. As hinted above, Keats takes great delight in picturesque characters: Imagine the worst dog kennel you ever saw placed upon two poles from the yellow essay a mouldy fencing—In such a wretched thing sat a squalid old woman squat like an ape half starved from a scarcity of an essay bicycle, Biscuit in its passage from Madagascar to the cape,—with a pipe in her mouth and looking out with a round eyed skinny lidded, inanity—with a sort of the yellow wallpaper, horizontal idiotic movement of her head—squat and lean she sat and puffed out the smoke while two ragged tattered Girls carried her along. ( Letters , 321-2) Notice the cowardice essay skill with which Keats intensifies the the yellow wallpaper picturesque effect: the mixed dog/ape metaphor, the octavia butler alliteration and repetition.
This, certainly, is a different Picturesque, though nonetheless Picturesque. The detachment we witnessed in Wordsworth—that frequent remoteness from the real trials and tribulations of country life—is also manifest in Keats. John Clare, Keats’ contemporary, similarly notes: . . . his descriptions of scenery are often very fine but as it is the case with other inhabitants of great cities he often described nature as she appeared in his fancies not as he would have described her had he witnessed the things he describes—Thus it is he has often undergone the stigma of Cockneyism what appears as beautys in the yellow wallpaper essay introduction the eyes of a pent-up citizen are looked upon as conceits by those who live in the country—these are merely errors but even here they are merely the errors of poetry—he is often mystical but such poetical licences have been looked on as beauties in Wordsworth Shelley and in Keats they may be forgiven. (qtd. Watson, 23) The idea that such romanticisms are “merely errors of poetry” is on my bicycle, indicative of the times, a kind of the yellow wallpaper, Claudian perspective where both the Picturesque and poetic vision could often turn a blind eye to parable, social reality and see instead a dislocated ideal. The subject then is not merely inaccuracy in “descriptions of the yellow wallpaper essay, scenery” but the general anti-utilitarianism of romantic poetry. This, it seems, is much more “comic and faddish” (Brownlow, 43) than learning to appreciate landscape through painting.
It is also entirely common to all the romantic poets. Again, to quote Clare: And een the fallow fields appear so fair. The very weeds make sweetest gardens there. And summer there puts garments on so gay. I hate the plow that comes to dissaray. And man the only object that disdains. Earths garden into deserts for his grains. Leave him his schemes of gain—tis wealth to me.
Wild heaths to trace—and not their broken tree. Which lightening shivered—and which nature tries. To keep alive for poesy to time, prize. (Clare, 80) Interestingly, however, such romanticism of country life is often omitted during the tour, where Keats comes face to face with the squalor—and a foreign squalor to such a southerner—of poverty and often describes it in empathetic or political terms: On our walk in Ireland we had too much opportunity to see the worse than nakedness, the rags, the dirt and misery of the poor common Irish—A Scotch cottage, though in that some times the Smoke has no exit but at the yellow essay the door, is for elementary students, a palace to an Irish one. ( Letters , 321)
There is perhaps some implication that a philosophical shift occurs in moving from poetry to prose, as if the picturesque vanishes with the replacement of smock for Wellington boots and overalls, a justification for the might of wallpaper introduction, “modern” prose. The subject of Keats’ complaint was also the subject of essay, a Picturesque sub-category: the Gainsboroughesque “cottage Picturesque,” where sublimity is replaced by romantic rusticity, where such squalor is the yellow wallpaper, marked by its absence: in essence, a gentle Picturesque (see figure 16 ). In a gasping effort at for elementary students brevity, much has been overlooked. In summary, Keats’ correspondence during the tour is overgrown with the Picturesque, from poems such as “Ailsa Rock” (see figure 17) and “Ben Nevis,”—which, in its stumbling uncertainty, seem neither a Ben nor a Nevis—to comments such as “evey [sic] ten steps creating a new and beautiful picture—sometimes through little woods—there are two islands on the Lake each with a beautiful ruin—one of them rich in ivy ( Letters , 338).  In early August, after covering 642 horizontal and vertical miles in sometimes cold wet conditions with sometimes poor food and indifferent accommodation, after suffering a fortnight from a cold and wallpaper introduction, sore throat, Keats abandoned the tour and left his friend to continue alone. 
Watson—in his singular modern study of essay value of games, Keats and the Picturesque, which continues the standard criticism instituted with Wordsworth—provides a succinct panorama of the refracted light of influence the Picturesque tour radiates over Hyperion , and there is no need therefore to offer excessive focus.  In summary, Watson points out that the power of the poem stems from Keats’ “mythologising imagination” and the sublime “terrifying landscapes which form the background for the colossal figures” (155). The Yellow Essay Introduction? But the parable of the essay picturesque, in addition to background, also serves as a form of characterisation, externalising the internal: . Essay? . . Bicycle? where their own groans. They felt, but heard not, for the solid roar. Of thunderous waterfalls and torrents hoarse. Pouring a constant bulk, uncertain where. Crag jutting forth to crag, and rocks that seem’d. Ever as if just rising from a sleep, Forehead to forehead held their monstrous horns; And thus in a thousand hugest phantasies. Made a fir roofing to this nest of woe. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay Introduction? (II,6-14)
On similar lines, “The quiet sublime imbues the sorrow-worn face of time of the butterflies essay dede, Moneta within the temple of Western memory built by Keats in The Fall of Hyperion ” (Woodring, 40). There are, however, a few additional points which Watson fails to note. Firstly, the poem opens with Saturn and Thea postured “. . . The Yellow Essay? motionless / Like natural sculpture in cathedral cavern” (I.85-86). The scene is represented through copious visual images at the expense the auditory. Recollecting, “I live in the eye” from his picturesque tour, there is some hint of the visual memories which form the scenery of Hyperion’s stage.
The “fallen divinity” of Saturn exists in a mythico-historical landscape formed of the transcendental imagination and nature experienced during the tour: the “thousand hugest phantasies.” Watson’s closing comment—“ Ode to Autumn originated in the Hampshire harvest-time, not on essay value of games and sports, a Lakeland mountain; and the nightingale, like Keats, sings only in the south of England” (157)—scores high marks for the yellow wallpaper essay, rhetorical tune and poetic twang; unfortunately, it is falsely based upon value of games and sports, the premise that the Picturesque is heterogeneous to Hampshire as well as drawing attention to his ornithological dullness. Following the Picturesque Tour, Watson states: “. . . and there, apart from Canto I of The Fall of Hyperion , Keats turned his back upon the picturesque for ever” (157). Although, again, rhetorically right and conforming to essay introduction, the standard ignominiously moulded analysis of the Picturesque, this is not, in actual fact, the case. Lessons For Elementary? The influence of Claude’s Sacrifice to Apollo on “Grecian Urn” and “Ode to a Nightingale” has already been mentioned. In more general terms, and as Bate mentions: “It is interesting to note the number of spontaneous phrases and the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, images in his letters now that are later echoed in the poetry, especially in the Odes“ (358). Although instances are numerous, a couple will prove the point.
In terms of diction, compare: “There is no great body of an essay on my bicycle, water, but the accompaniment is delightful; for it ooses out from the yellow wallpaper introduction a cleft in perpendicular Rocks, all fledged with Ash. . .” ( Letters , 306) with, “ Fledge the wild-ridged mountains steep by steep” (“Ode to Psyche,” 55). In terms of a specific memory, compare the excursion to Ambleside waterfall: “. . . it is of games and sports, buried in trees, in the bottom of the valley—the stream itself is interesting” ( Letters , 300), with, “. Essay Introduction? . . over the still stream, / Up the hill-side; and now 'tis buried deep / In the next valley” (“Ode to transition word essay, a Nightingale,” 76-8). The Picturesque continued to work through Keats’ poetry: not always clearly; but the lines still are drawn. Recalling Keats’ comments on first seeing Windermere, which included “refine ones sensual vision into a sort of north star,” we move easily to its later transmutation: Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art- Not in lone splendour hung aloft the night, And watching, with eternal lids apart, Like nature’s patient, sleepless Eremite, The moving waters at their priestlike task.
Of pure ablution round earth’s human shores, Or gazing on the new soft-fallen mask. Of snow upon the mountains and the moors; No-yet still stedfast, still unchangeable, Pillow’d upon my fair love’s ripening breast, To feel for ever its soft fall and swell, Awake for the yellow essay, ever in a sweet unrest,
Still, still to hear her tender-taken breath, And so live ever-or else swoon to death. ( Complete Poems , 329) One of the problems of looking at Keats in a Picturesque context, as mentioned above, is his unwillingness to adopt standard phraseologies, choosing instead to create fresh imagery. Although this is cowardice essay, indeed a “problem,” it is also a solution. Knight was perhaps the essay most adamant proponent of “novelty” in an essay Picturesque scenes. A vast expanse of lawn is boring not simply for its smoothness, but for its lack of surprise. Abrupt variation produces mixture through novelty.
Richard Payne Knight recognised the salutary effect of “irritation” as an interruption of sensations that had become “stale and vapid” through repetition. (Robinson, 7) It seems fair therefore to suggest that poetic coinings—“large dome curtains,” ( Hyperion ) and “massy range” ( Fall of Hyperion ), for example—are a form of such abrupt variation producing mixture through novelty. The Yellow? In a sense, Keats’ poetical methodology stems directly from the lessons of the in the time butterflies dede Picturesque, at least in terms of “the noble metaphor, when it is placed to Advantage, casts a kind of Glory round it, and darts a Lustre through the whole sentence” (qtd. Robinson, 9). That dart of the yellow, lustre provides the interruption, the irritation, the unexpected that is “novelty.” This is key not only to the Picturesque but to much of Keats’ better poetry. Although perhaps out on strechified limb, in danger of barking up the wrong tree, the suggestion merely provides some indication of the less obvious influence of the Picturesque. Hipple points out that the term “picturesque” can and essay value and sports, is used solely as a literary term: “Blaire,” he says as a case in point, “repeatedly praises epithets, figures and descriptions as ‘picturesque’ as conjuring up distinct and forcible images.” (186) Indeed, compared with Robinson’s analogy between the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction complexity and mixture of the Picturesque and identical constituents of the 18th century Whig party, (“Compositions of Politics and Money”)—the picturesque here seems more associated with the wig than the party—the claim seems modest enough.
The Liberty of the Picturesque. The difficulty of cowardice essay, defining romanticism, which we have deliberately over-looked, stems of course from the diversity of poetry, of wallpaper essay, styles, of influences and essay value of games, of diction of romantic poets. That variety is itself a product of the times and the yellow wallpaper, the liberty that the Picturesque supported—liberty both in of the butler the political and introduction, personal sense. Knight, in Progress of a Civil Society , points out the connection between the picturesque landscape garden—and by extension, the Picturesque in general—and the composition of society: As when in formal lines, exact and true, The pruner’s scissors shear the cowardice essay ductile yew,
Amused, its shape and the yellow essay introduction, symmetry we see, But seek in vain the likeness of a tree; And while the artist’s pleasing skill we trace, Lament the on my loss of every native grace: So when too strictly social habits bind, The native vigour of the the yellow wallpaper roving mind, Pleased, the well-ordered system we behold. Its justly regulated parts unfold,
But search in vain its complicated plan. To find the native semblance of a man, And, ’midst the charms of parable sower octavia butler essay, equal rule, deplore. The loss of graces art can ne’er restore. (qtd. Robinson, 134) In a sense, an examination of the introduction Picturesque in the context of writing for elementary students, its influence on romanticism—even when fairness, as here, is the ultimate goal—does a certain injustice to the subject and filters out much of the important material. Thus, for wallpaper essay, example, the parable of the octavia essay liberating effect seems somewhat arbitrary.
Hipple, in The Beautiful, the essay Sublime and the Picturesque , occupies a unique position in modern Picturesque analysis, going beyond the positivism of art historians and suggesting that the Picturesque is consequential in and of itself. Although Hipple rarely ventures beyond summary and conflation of individual Picturesque theories, his treatise is comprehensive, detailed and offers an important concluding point: The aestheticians of this period [eighteenth century] all found their subject to be psychological: the essay of games and sports central problem for them was not some aspect of the cosmos or of particular substances, nor was it found among the characteristics of human activity or of the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction modes of symbolic representation; one and all, they found their problem to be the specification and discrimination of certain kinds of feelings, the determination of the mental powers and susceptibilities which yielded those feelings, and of the impressions and ideas which excited them. Cowardice Essay? (305) Although the Picturesque, despite Hipple’s unqualified assertion, does indeed concern itself with particular substances: the elemental material of a scene; and with human activity: the hiking and the yellow essay introduction, picturesque tours, the picturesque guide books and plain and simple painting and poetry; and with modes of symbolic representation: the butterflies Picturesque itself is a mode of symbolic representation; Hipple’s stress upon the psychological basis is nevertheless an important point, especially when we look forward to the psychological aspect of romantic poetry. One of the wallpaper difficulties with the Picturesque is that it never became a unified system; the saving grace of the essay value of games and sports Picturesque is wallpaper essay, that it never became a unified system.
It is fundamentally concerned with the native vigour of the roving mind, allowing for nature and art to stroll arm in arm, allowing and writing lessons for elementary students, even insisting upon the liberty of variety and change: the liberty then of Wordsworth and Keats. Keats, for all his youth and gentle disposition, found the essay introduction Picturesque health threatening to walk through and almost anomalistic to incorporate in his verse; as a serious poet with ambitions of immortality,  he nevertheless realised its essentiality to his artistic development. As Robinson explains: “Picturesque colors are not fresh, delicate ones of spring, but those of autumn whose age and decay bespeak fullness and repose tinged with memory and the sharpness of abrupt terminations” (101). Keats then is seeking, not for transition essay, something to save his life, but his immortality. Keats never reached an wallpaper essay introduction, age when these colours could clearly be seen and so we find glimpses here and there and the constant desire to “bid these joys farewell”: those bright colours of youth.
Figure 14: Joseph Farington, Windermere, from Watson. Figure 15: Joseph Farington, The Waterfall at Rydal , from Watson (visited by Keats) Figure 16: Francis Wheatly (1747-1801), Girls washing in a stream, from of the butterflies dede Bicknell. Figure 17: Ailsa rock, from introduction Bate. Four years after the death of Keats, engraver and publisher Charles Heath and Turner came “to an agreement that Turner would produce a large quantity of water-colours over a number of years, from which Charles Heath would choose 120 to be line-engraved and subsequently published under the title of “Picturesque Views in England and Wales.”(Shanes, 5) The Picturesque, even at this date, remains a vital force that warrants the attention of England’s finest artist. Indeed, “Turner was undoubtedly at the height of his mature creative powers during the years of of the butler essay, this series”(Shanes, 17)
The implied perception of the romantic movement as a reaction against wallpaper essay eighteenth century neo-classicism or, at the other extreme, as spontaneous literary combustion torched by Wordsworth’s egotistical sublime is prescriptivism unleashed, offering barely the bare bones of a story. It is neither immaterial nor coincidental that the 1770s—the decade of Wordsworth’s birth—also saw the beginnings of English landscape painting as a major genre, signifying not only a general artistic reaction but also attraction . The eighteenth century saw landscape modified from traditional perceptions of ownership, agriculture and for elementary, trial and trouble to aesthetic material. This then is the general Picturesque canvass. The Yellow Wallpaper Introduction? The Picturesque movement, in providing the of games initial way of the yellow introduction, seeing landscape actually encouraged the viewing of landscape, opening the scenery of parable butler, England to enthusiastic travellers in search of the the yellow wallpaper Picturesque and word essay, finally revealing what had always been there though never before seen. This suddenly seen landscape was no longer lit by the yellow introduction the golden light of octavia essay, a fanciful Golden Age; no longer mottled with classical sylvan shadows, where Pope’s “Fair Thames, flow gently from thy sacred spring, / While on thy banks Sicilian Muses sing”; no longer a continuation of the Works and Days of introduction, Hesiod nor theories of Theocritus: now the Island’s landscape might be seen in common light, casting its own shadow, peopled by common people born and of the essay dede, bred, the works and days of a new age.
In addition to this aesthetic revolution, the heightened status of essay introduction, landscape provided an environment in which nature, the individual elements of landscape—already of increasing importance by virtue of developments in the natural sciences—might find its aesthetic value enlarged. The Picturesque movement proved its importance and viability by its very popularity and success. Picturesque theory intellectualised landscape, transforming it into something that could only be truly appreciated through learning, just as neo-classicism had done previously, though now it was no longer classical learning but aesthetic learning that was sought; and the focus was decidedly the landscape itself rather than a superimposed classicism. It this manner, it was increasingly intellectually acceptable to study landscape, in painting, in poetry, and in pastime. As Christopher Hussey suggests in The Picturesque : The picturesque view of nature was the new, the an essay only, way of deriving aesthetic satisfaction from landscape.
Previously, Englishmen had simply failed to connect scenery and essay, painting in their minds. They had liked certain views and certain lights, just as all men like sunshine and verdure, for their own sakes. But landscape as such gave them no aesthetic satisfaction. (2) The notion of complete detachment from an on my bicycle, aesthetic appreciation of scenery—essentially the unfamiliarity of the familiar—seems, at essay least at first glance, rooted in a certain outlandishness. Of Games And Sports? Additional proof comes from Wordsworth himself, who lodged for a time near Derwentwater. under the roof of a shrewd and sensible woman, who more than once exclaimed in my hearing, “Bless me! folk [picturesque tourists] are always talking about the yellow introduction prospects: when I was young there never was sic a thing neamed.” (qtd. Essay Of Games And Sports? Andrews, 153-4) On a hike through Wales, Uvedale Price came upon a series of natural cascades and expressed his delight to the landowner: He was quite uneasy at wallpaper the pleasure I felt, and in the time of the essay, seemed afraid I should waste my admiration. “Don’t stop at these things,” said he, “I will shew you by and by one worth seeing.” At last we came to a part where the brook was conducted down three long steps of hewn stone: “There,” said he, with great triumph, “that was made by essay introduction Edwards, who built Pont y pridd, and it is reckoned as neat a piece of mason-work as any in the country.” (qtd. Robinson, 11)
Neither is this detachment merely a fact of by-gone days: During a recent journey to England, crossing the North Yorkshire Moors in the company of a local retired farmer, I was struck immediately by of the sower essay the picturesque landscape: a region of sudden chasms, blasted trees and wallpaper essay, weathered rocky outcrops, of bumbling uncertain stone cottages and barns and value of games, shaggy sheep. My companion was indifferent to its charms. Suddenly, all about the meandering road, we came upon wallpaper essay, an area quite changed, unusually verdant, with thick hedge-rows and trees full grown and writing lessons students, full leafed--and decidedly less picturesque. The farmer suddenly came to life. “I did all this,” he began, with an all embracing wave of his hand. “It used to be like all the rest, now’t bar rocks. Look at it now though.” For the next several miles he lectured on his “improvements,” singing praise of its cultivated nature and even claiming to have caused changes in local climate! Soon we re-entered the picturesque and protected national park. “Now, just look at that,” he scoffed with a disdainful shake of his head. “It’s bloody awful.” The Picturesque was, further, a ubiquitous movement which sought to understand the essay nature of aesthetic perception and to provide prescriptions which essentially affected an entirely new appreciation for time butterflies essay dede, the wild wilderness of places such as the Cumbrian Lake District.
Finally, we should not discount the political and social overtones: the wallpaper license it provided for lessons for elementary, liberalism, for variety, for change, for introduction, originality. For all its seriousness, Picturesque musings were wont to wander into regions of absurdity, sometimes finding their way into the real world, as with Charles Hamilton’s hiring of a hermit to sit in his back garden hermitage; or the estate village of essay dede, Old Warden in Bedforshire where, in the early nineteenth century, the residents were cajoled into wearing red cloaks and tall hats to harmonise with the red paint work and charming dormers of their cottages. In the fictional world, this absurdity was also made apparent: A lecture on the picturesque immediately followed, in which his instruction were so clear the she soon began to see beauty admired by him, and her attention was so earnest, that he became perfectly satisfied of her having a great deal of wallpaper introduction, natural taste. He talked of fore-grounds, distances, and second distances--side-screens and perspectives--lights and shades;--and Catherine was so hopeful a scholar that when they gained the top of creative for elementary, Beechen Cliff, she voluntarily rejected the the yellow whole city of Bath, as unworthy to make part of bicycle, a landscape. (Austen 138)
Indeed, the very pith of Picturesque theory might, to the cynical—and especially literary minded—modern, seems daubed with inanity, for it sought to mix landscape and painting, allowing the appreciation of a real scene for its likeness to art, rather than art for wallpaper, its likeness to sower butler essay, a real scene—a notion which Hugh Sykes Davies, Wordsworth and the Worth of Words , finds particularly “unnatural.” The important thing to remember here, however, is that this was, plain and the yellow wallpaper introduction, simple, the only way into landscape, the only way to see the invisibly visible. Parable? Such satire stemmed from the excesses of the Picturesque movement and the jocularity sometimes manifest in the debate, and the yellow wallpaper essay, is not a suggestion of ignis-fatuus . Further, as Hussey explains, “the picturesque interregnum between classical and romantic art was necessary in order to enable the imagination to form the habit of parable sower butler, feeling through the eyes” (4). It is unfortunate the modern reading of the Picturesque has turned a blind eye to the real meaning of Picturesque and adopted the more authoritative expression of Wordsworth himself as well as satirical expression by writers such as Austin and William Combe. And yet the ridiculous that some have found in the yellow wallpaper essay introduction the Picturesque is found equally in those that find it. J. An Essay Bicycle? R. Watson, for example, provides a fitting conclusion: after a quotation in which Coleridge writes of a rocky climbing episode, he writes: “In both Wordsworth and Coleridge there is an exhalation at the danger and the yellow wallpaper, excitement . Word Essay? . . the danger was there. The Yellow? . . . Gilpin penetrated into the valley beyond Rosthwaite, but did not consider it practicable to go further” (186). So there we have it: the romantic poets were much braver than those mere writers on the Picturesque! And this is good. Watson admits, however, that Coleridge “exaggerated the dangers in his letter” (187)! Equally, the idea that the Picturesque had already run its course well before Wordsworth offered the final denunciating blow is patently absurd.
We have already seen how Keats required some close experience of the cowardice essay Picturesque in order to further develop his poetic potential. We can remove further, both temporarily and geographically: Blake Nevius, in wallpaper essay his slim volume, Cooper’s Landscapes , argues convincingly that the Picturesque strongly influenced his pictorial sense and description subsequent to his 1826-1833 stay in Europe: What Cooper as a visual artist learned from his travels on the continent is apparent in cowardice essay the later romances. The Yellow Introduction? His sharper awareness of pictorial values to on my bicycle, be sought in the natural landscape and of the means by which these values could be introduced into wallpaper introduction imagined landscape is most evident . . Creative Writing For Elementary Students? . in the forest romances written after his return. (89) We move forward in time, we cross the wallpaper essay Atlantic, we leap from poetry to butterflies, prose, yet still the Picturesque remains, exerting its influence. The Picturesque, popularised by the illustrated guides, general debate, fashionable sketching tours, the national fealty of Gainsborough’s work and essay introduction, so on, portrayed a populist and recognisable landscape. Moving away from seventeenth and in the time of the, early eighteenth century depictions of myth-laden Italian scenes, the Picturesque embraced rustic England and adopted a visual idiom from common life. Bermingham’s suggestion that the concomitant “. . The Yellow Wallpaper Essay? . improvement in real landscape, increasing its agricultural yield, raised its commercial and monetary worth” (1), provides a pragmatic exegesis for the new picturesque fashion and underscores changing cultural values.
If agricultural developments—enclosure, consolidation of small holdings and cowardice essay, so on—endowed land with new nummary worth, they also caused the the yellow introduction physical transformation of large tracts of countryside, working at time butterflies odds with the the yellow wallpaper increasing sense of cultural and aesthetic worth. As a result, remote rustic regions such as Cumbria’s Lake District, were discovered as “ . . . the image of the homely, the essay stable, the ahistorical” (Birmingham 9). If at wallpaper essay the last of the century—beginning with Cowper—there came poets and painters who . Parable Butler Essay? . . found beauty in hedge-rows and corn-fields, and in Hampstead and Mousehold Heaths, it was because of a long training in seeing landscape pictorially,—a training which of necessity began with the most elaborate and heightened forms of landscape, with the the yellow essay introduction richest and most obvious appeal, and on the most vast and impressive scale. (Manwaring, 232) The importance of the Picturesque stems from the on my fostering of an intellectual approach to the appreciation of architecture, gardening and the yellow essay introduction, scenery which in turn opened up new vistas of artistic subjects. Value Of Games? The emphasis upon feeling and associational values which grew from analysis of the sublime and beautiful and blossomed in the Picturesque finally allowed those new vistas to be expressed in subjective and the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, romantic terms. Romanticism, then, was, to a large degree, the transition word natural development of the yellow, Picturesque aesthetics. Of course, the story continues: Ted Hughes, (1930-) born in West Yorkshire and appointed poet laureate in parable of the sower 1984, has written several volumes which testify to the renewed interest in topographical poetry.
And all my holiday snapshots are Picturesque. Andrews, Malcolm. The Search for introduction, the Picturesque: landscape aesthetics and tourism in Britain, 1760-1800 . Cowardice Essay? Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1989. Austen, Jane. Northanger Abbey . New York: Dell, 1962.
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Beauty, Horror and Immensity: Picturesque Landscape in Britain , 1750-1850. Cambridge: The Museum, 1981. Brownlow, Timothy. John Clare and Picturesque Landscape . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Combe, William. Essay Value Of Games And Sports? Doctor Syntax his three tours: in the yellow search of the picturesque, of consolation, of a wife . London: F. Warne, 1890. Davies, Hugh Sykes. On My Bicycle? W ordsworth and the Worth of Words.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Dayes, Edward, A Picturesque Tour in Yorkshire and Debyshire . London: J. Nichols Son, 1825. Denham, John, Sir. The Poetical Works . Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1969. Dyer, John. Poems . The Yellow? Ed.
Edward Thomas. Lampeter: Llanerch Enterprises, 1989. Gilpin, William. Essay on Prints. London: 1781. ---. Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape. London: Printed for cowardice essay, R. Blamire, 1792. ---.
Observations, relative chiefly to picturesque beauty; made in. the year 1772, on several parts of essay introduction, England; particularly the mountains, and lakes of Cumberland, and Westmoreland . London, Printed for an essay, R. Blamire, 1792. ---. A dialogue upon the gardens of the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Cobham at wallpaper introduction Stow in Buckinghamshire . Los Angeles: Williams Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1976. --- . Essay Of Games? Observations on the River Wye . Richmond: The Richmond Publishing Co.
Ltd, 1973. Greenshields, E.B. Landscape Painting and Modern Dutch Artists . Toronto: Copp, Clark, 1906. Gray, Thomas. The Yellow Essay Introduction? Complete Poems of Thomas Gray. Oxford: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1966. Handy Guide to the English Lakes . Kendal: T. Wilson, undated. Hipple, Walter John. The Beautiful, the Sublime, and the Picturesque in Eighteenth-Century British Aesthetic Theory. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1957.
Hughes, John. The Poetical Works of cowardice essay, John Hughes . Wallpaper Introduction? Edinburgh: At the Apollo Press, 1779. Hussey, Christopher. The Picturesque: studies in a point of view . Value Of Games? London: Cass, 1967. Johnson, Ben. Essay Introduction? “To Penshurst” The Norton Anthology of English Literature . Ed. Abrams, M.H. Creative Writing Lessons For Elementary? London: W. W. Norton Company, 1975. Keats, John.
Complete Poems and Selected Letters . New York: Odyssey Press, 1935. ---. The Letters of John Keats 1814-1821, Volume One. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958. Knight, Richard Payne. The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in Three Books Addressed to the yellow wallpaper, Uvedale Price . London: Printed by W. Bulmer and time, Co., Shakespeare Printing, 1794. Nevius, Blake.
Cooper's Landscapes: an essay on the picturesque vision. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. Pope, Alexander. The Yellow Introduction? The Poems of Alexander Pope. Ed. John Butt. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. Price, Uvedale. On the Picturesque . Edinburgh: Caldwell, Lloyd, 1842. Roberts, Maureen B., The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in the Works of John Keats . Word Essay? 1997. http://www.cgjung.com/articles/keats1.html. Robinson, Eric , ed.
Selected Poems and essay, Prose of John Clare . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967. Robinson, Sidney K. Inquiry into the Picturesque . Chicago: University of creative lessons for elementary students, Chicago Press, 1991. Ruskin, John. (www.stg.brown.edu/projects/hypertext/landow/ruskin) Serle, John. A Plan of wallpaper introduction, Mr. Pope's Garden . Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1982. Turner, J. Writing For Elementary Students? M. W. Essay Introduction? (Joseph Mallord William), Turner's Picturesque Views in England and Wales, 1825-1838 . Ed. Eric Shanes. London: Chatto Windus, 1983. Thomson, James.
The Seasons and The Castel of Indolence . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. Watson J. Cowardice Essay? R. Picturesque Landscape and English Romantic Poetry . London: Hutchinson Educational, 1970. Watkin, David. The English Vision: the picturesque in architecture, landscape, and garden design . New York: Harper Row, 1982. West, Thomas. A guide to the yellow essay introduction, the lakes, in value of games and sports Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire . 4th ed. London : W. Richardson, 1789. Williams, Ralph M. Poet, Painter and Parson the Life of John Dyer.
New York: Bookman Associates, 1956. Woodring, Carl. Nature into Art : cultural transformations in nineteenth-century Britain . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989. Wordsworth, William. Guide Through the District of the Lakes in the North of England . London: Oxford University Press, 1970. ---. Poems.
The poetical works of Wordsworth . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982. As the title suggests, this is a cross disciplinary study. What might seem, initially, a grand tour—with hefty baggage—into remote realms outside literature proper is, in fact, a survey of the foundations of romanticism. Up until the 19th century, French Salon duries in the yellow wallpaper state-run competitions adhered to a strict hierarchy of subjects determined in 18th century Rococo and Neo-Classical art: history and religious subjects, portraiture, still life and, lastly and leastly, landscape. Even the French Academy's coveted Prix de Rome for art students had no landscape category until 1817, when historic landscapes with some narrative event were reluctantly allowed. As David Watkin, The English Vision , points out, a similar state existed in the area of architectural paintings: . . . the celebrated architectural competitions for the Grand Prix awarded by the French Academy and later by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts: from the transition essay first competition held in 1702 up until 1962 no site was ever specified.
In England, however, the simple outline elevation in the form of a diagram on an otherwise blank background gradually gave way to drawings which show the building in wallpaper essay introduction its setting and eventually, as in the work of Blore for example, to fully developed water-colours of landscape in which the house appears as an incident. (x) When eighteenth century Britons referred to “Poussin” it was normally to on my bicycle, Gaspard Dughet and not his now more famous brother-in-law, Nicolas Poussin. Other influential artists, though less important to Picturesque developments, were Tintoretto, Ruisdael and Hobbema. One such example, as E. L. Wallpaper Essay Introduction? Manwaring notes, is Jonathan Richardson’s An Account of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs, Drawings, and Pictures in Italy, France, c. Students? (1722) which became, for some time, a standard guide. The section on landscape pictures, tellingly, features a prefatory note explaining precisely what landscape pictures are! cite - Manwaring 62 63. Watkin essentially makes the same point, though contextualised within the standard literary bias: The history of amateur sketching in the nineteenth century in the manner of De Wint and Cox affords another example of the the yellow introduction way in which a particular mode of vision became established as a thing so “natural” that its artificiality and bicycle, its debt to the theories of Sir Uvedale Price were generally forgotten. (xi) Roundhay Park—its central stately mansion now a noble pub—in my own home town of Leeds, still features a mock ruin. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay Introduction? Over-grown with bramble, nettles, grass and dandelion, it is generally understood—by locals and visitors alike—to be as ancient as it is picturesque. See Manwaring, (8). Johnson’s dictionary, although avoiding the difficulty of defining Picturesque , actually employed it to cowardice essay, define other words. Strange then that Burke’s Inquiry is as familiar to academics as the Gospel, whereas Gilpin ideas have become the Apocryphia. The very success of this codification played a prominent role in making banal the very theory it sought to the yellow essay, sanctify.
The importance of the imagination and subjective vision in landscape painting goes back at least as far as Claude. Samuel Palmer wrote: “When I was setting out for Italy I expected to see Claude’s magical combinations; miles apart I found the disjointed members, which he had “suited to cowardice essay, the desires of his mind”; these were the beauties, but the beautiful ideal Helen was his own” (qtd. Greenshields, 16). Gainsborough’s rustic figures were influenced by introduction those of Wynant. (1620-1684) . Amongst the sagging shelves of on my bicycle, picturesque guide-books were those by Thomas Gray, James Clark and wallpaper essay, Thomas West. Besides Landscape and An Analytical Enquiry into the Principles of parable of the octavia butler, Taste , Knight published books ranging in subject from sexual symbolism to Greek philology. This note by Knight is reprinted as a preface to Price’s The Landscape . Importantly, the dominance of the ocular sense which, in introduction reference to the Picturesque, so bothered Wordsworth and is often adopted in literary analysis in reference to essay, Gilpin was most singular to Knight; and essay introduction, was, in word fact, a cornerstone of the debate between Knight and Price. For a detailed historical analysis of the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, enquiries into the sublime and the beautiful, as well as the debt owed by Blake to Joseph Addison, see Walter John Hipple’s The Beautiful, the Sublime and the Picturesque . Somewhat ironically, Wordsworth once rebuked his friend Beaumont for value of games, painting-in an the yellow, imaginary ruined castle in one of his favourite views. Constable was born in Suffolk, and though he found the Lake District too solitary a place, it was there, in 1806, that he met Wordsworth and Coleridge. See Bermingham for reproduced illustrations. C. Meeks, The Railroad Station, An Architectural History.
Early pastoral romances—Sidney’s Arcadia (1580-1582) , for cowardice essay, example—were resplendent in romance, requiring their courtly readers to possess a familiarity not with nature but classical texts and the conventions of courtly behaviour and are thus excluded from this study. Besides the forced confinement of the heroic couplet, Abraham Cowley in Pindarique Odes (1665) set the example for deliberate irregularity, breaking the chords of the standard Pindaric precedent in wallpaper an effort to cowardice essay, stimulate more intense feeling. This is typical Pope: compare, for the yellow wallpaper essay, example, The Temple of Fame : Here naked Rocks, and empty Wastes were seen, There Tow’ry Cities, and the Forests green: Here sailing Ships delight the wond’ring Eyes.
There trees . . . (15-18) Only myopic—perhaps: Lines 79-80 of Pastorals: Summer : “Your praise the tuneful birds to heaven shall bear,/And list’ning wolves grow milder as they hear.” In a footnote, Pope explains: So the verses were originally written. But the author, young as he was, soon found the absurdity which Spenser himself overlooked, of introducing Wolves into England. Essay Of Games? (131) Pope’s modesty here, of course, is the yellow essay introduction, overshadowed by the impressive achievement of sower essay, discovering something even Spenser missed. A fortunate discovery too, for the absurdity of the wolves was noticed by the “ Naiads ,” “Jove,” and “Satyrs” to name only a few native English characters included in the poem. Notwithstanding Wordsworth’s recognition of Thomson as the essay first poet since Milton to offer new images of “external nature.” Gilpin, in particular, was fond of quoting Thomson in his various tours.
The quotation in Section One, from The Castel of Indolence , Canto I, XXXVIII, sufficiently demonstrates Thomson’s familiarity with the lessons for elementary great European painters of landscape which, as we have seen, played a crucial role in the development of the English Picturesque school. Constable, for example, quoted several lines from “Summer” for the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, his Salisbury Cathedral from the parable of the sower Meadows . Topographical poems from as early as John Denham’s Cooper’s Hill , published in 1642, which provides a very early example of a genre that was to win increasing popularity, invariably involve the poet ascending a peak, surveying the whole and then painting a word picture of the yellow wallpaper essay, interesting prospects. After Wordsworth’s death, a volume of Keat’s poems was discovered amongst his possession, a gift, the pages still uncut. Read an unwillingness to use the word source . Of course, between the lines we discover the implication that Gilpin developed nothing. My own parents, as Yorkshire as Yorkshire Pudding, received, as children of the 1930s, the rare gift of transition essay, a rare orange for Christmas, finding it to be the ultimate in the yellow wallpaper exotic luxury! Davies’ enclosing imagination within the confines of transition word, quotation marks subtly suggests that Knight meddles with something that was not, in actual fact, imagination, but some pale imitation, a phantasmagoric and fraudulent imagination, an imagined imagination. Watson’s discomfort is the yellow introduction, palpable, etched in octavia every repetition of the problem: “Yet the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction pugnacity of the note needs some explaining” (72); “Yet the poem also contains a direct attack on the picturesque in its footnote” (74); “Yet, as we have seen, the poem also contains an explicit rejection of the habits of picturesque viewing” (77). Turning to The Prelude , Watson offers the standard glib solution: another “yet”: “Yet the essay energy and power of the experience seen in the light of memory transforms the picturesque scene into introduction something much more powerful” (76). Even Wordsworth’s initial premise, that the “jagged outline . . . has a mean effect, transferred to canvas,” is essay value of games, perhaps a sentiment more nationalistic than artistic. Indeed, the influence of this book extends beyond Wordsworth into other critical examinations of the Picturesque and literature, forming the general thesis, for example, of Brownlow’s study of Clare, who rides the contemporary critical aversion to the Picturesque like a hobby-horse in the Grand National to the point where either the beast dies a sudden death or the the yellow essay race is cancelled: “The Romantics . . . inherited the picturesque way of looking at nature, but realised that it, in turn, had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of feeling” (16).
On a personal note, I would mention that the Yorkshire Dales are in fact much more picturesque than the Lake District—as are its native inhabitants. It is typical of Davies’ double-dealing study that these particular pictures are excluded from his pages. Compare this to Wordsworth’s complaint, quoted above, that the picturesque eye sees “Less spiritual, with microscopic view.” Davies also draws attention to Wordsworth’s familiarity with other Picturesque guides, including those of Thomas Gray, Dr. John Brown, Thomas West and writing for elementary, James Clark. In addition: John Harris [“English Country House Guides, 1740-1840,” Concerning Architecture, ed. J. Summerson, 1968.] has catalogued as many as ninety guides . . . including no less than thirty-one editions of the yellow essay, guides to a single house, Stowe. We can thus see how far the Picturesque had helped to cowardice essay, foster a literary and intellectual approach to the appreciation of architecture, gardening and wallpaper, scenery. (vii) Wordworth’s almost exclusive employment of in the of the butterflies, his own poems, however, might be considered—by some—as egotistically sublime. Although the essay introduction edition is undated, an advertisement section features a blurb from a Kendal photographer citing an award won at the Edinburgh International Photographic Exhibition in 1890-91. Cowardice Essay? Such is the wallpaper essay longevity of bicycle, this “faddish cult.” This picturesque apperception took place in 1803. Wallpaper Essay Introduction? The Prelude was begun in 1799, and completed in the summer of 1805.
The conclusion is as obvious as it is unavoidable. We might even waggishly hazard that this superlative picturesque experience took place during the very period of Book XII’s composition. Although Watson provides the cowardice essay fairest literary based analysis of the Picturesque, it is nevertheless incredible that he includes such evidence yet still endorses conventional assumptions. Keats, as a schoolboy, began a translation of the Aeneid . Alternatively, as Walter Jackson Bate informs us in his minute biography, Keats felt that Pope was “no poet, only a versifier” (49). The notion of originality is the yellow essay introduction, itself a legacy of the writing for elementary romantic ethos: originality becomes vital in art and in the yellow introduction life; experimentation with new experiences, diction, systems of in the time butterflies, thought all become the hallmark of the true romantic genius. Indeed, critics’ unwillingness to give the essay Picturesque the importance it deserves as both the inaugurator of an essay bicycle, a new aesthetic vision and the yellow essay, as a factor of lasting literary influence stems, perhaps, from the romantic desire to see originality rather than acknowledge the temporal continuity of artistic development.
Wordsworth’s preface to Lyrical Ballads disdains overworked poetical diction, though his adoption of Picturesque terminology speaks of following rather than leading. Thomas Gray, in “The Progress of in the time butterflies essay, Poesy” (1754), expresses a similar bond between poetry and landscape: Awake, Aeolian lyre, awake, And give to rapture all thy trembling strings. From Helicon's harmonious springs. A thousand rills their mazy progress take:
The laughing flowers, that round them blow, Drink life and fragrance as they flow. Now the the yellow wallpaper essay rich stream of music winds along. Deep, majestic, smooth, and strong. Thro' verdant vales, and Ceres' golden reign: Now rolling down the steep amain, Headlong, impetuous, see it pour; The rocks and nodding groves rebellow to the roar. Cowardice Essay? (I.i.1-12)
The central image here is Poetry in general global expansion, finding echo in both the objects of nature and poets of various ages. Interestingly, even though Keats himself occasionally uses the word Picturesque in his correspondence; even though his companion Brown, in Walks in the North , offers the clear sign-post: “Here are the beautiful and sublime in unison,” ( Letters , 428), Bate, in his tomeish biography, avoids such inkish sully. Keats’ early literary life was marked by constant frustrations: “. . . I have not an Idea to put to paper—my hand feels like lead . . Essay? . I don’t know what to write” (qtd. Bate, 342). Indeed, Keats shortly hereafter saw the first waterfall of cowardice essay, his entire life. Perhaps suffering still from wallpaper introduction a mind “in such a whirl in considering the million likings and antipathies of our Moments,” Keats, in a letter filled with similar portrayal, ironically concludes: “. . . An Essay On My Bicycle? descriptions are bad at all times” ( Letters , 301). Compared to John Hughes’ comment (Section Two), this represents by no means a development in the poetic continuum as Keats’ leanings towards the essay dramatic. Supporting this, and in the context of the picturesque: “Turner undoubtedly had what John Gage has perceptively called ‘an almost obsessive readiness to associate ideas’” (Shanes, 21). Indeed, Keats’ “negative capability,” unless we suspect that he, like Coleridge, was—to quote Edgar Allen Poe—”buried in metaphysics” seems a direct challenge to Wordsworth.
The notion itself germinated from a lecture on Shakespeare given by cowardice essay Keats’ friend, Hazlitt, who stated that Shakespeare. was the the yellow introduction least of an egotist that it was possible to be. Of The Butterflies Essay? He was nothing in himself; but he was all that others were, or that they could become. He had in himself not only the germs of every faculty and the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, feeling, but he could follow them by anticipation, intuitively, into all their conceivable ramification . . . He had only to think of anything in order to become that thing, with all the circumstances belonging to it. (qtd. Bate, 260) It is cowardice essay, no surprise that Keats should whole-heartedly adopt the idea, not only since there is the yellow wallpaper introduction, no superior poet to cowardice essay, emulate, but because it was so oppositional to the crowned King of romantic poetry: Wordsworth. Perhaps in revolt against the popular, Keats, as in this instance, makes a studious, though far from the yellow essay introduction successful, effort to parable octavia butler, avoid the word picturesque , even when the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction description itself spells out the word. Word? Also, ruins are the single most common scenic feature of the tour.
In 1739, on a tour of the Alps, Thomas Gray cunningly wrote: Mont Cenis, I confess, carries the permission mountains have of being frightful rather too far; and its horrors were accompanied with too much danger to give one time to reflect upon their beauties. (qtd Woodring, 34) In 1803, Coleridge, overwhelmed and the yellow wallpaper essay, over-tired, abandoned a tour with William and Dorothy Wordsworth. Proof, perhaps, that the on my sublime can get the better of the wallpaper essay egotistical. A continuation, perhaps, of the question, “How is writing, it they did not [various picturesque and sublime scenes] beckon Burns to some grand attempt at Epic” ( Letters , 331).
The reappearance of the the yellow essay Druid Circle is taken as a given. “. . . to one whom you understand intends to be immortal” ( Letters , 305).
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The Yellow Wallpaper Symbolism - UK Essays
Treating a College Admissions Essay Like a First Date. This week, The Choice is in the room, panning for tips, at the annual College Board Conference. High school counselors and admissions officers are always reaching for analogies to the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, convey to students (and parents) the purpose of a college admissions essay. Transition Word Essay! But it was a revelation to wallpaper introduction, me, at cowardice essay, least, when Chad Hemmelgarn, an English teacher at Bexley High School in Columbus, Ohio, put it this way: “It’s kind of like a first date. You’re telling us the the yellow wallpaper, stuff that makes you special.” Mr. Hemmelgarn was speaking this afternoon as part of a panel on the junior-year experience at “Forum 2009 New York,” the annual convention of the on my bicycle, College Board in the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, New York City. Over the an essay on my bicycle, next two and essay, a half days, hundreds of counselors and admissions officers will attend dozens of sessions on all aspects of the high school and college-admissions experience. In a series of posts on The Choice, several Times colleagues and in the time of the essay, I will attempt to the yellow, pass on tips and perspectives from those meetings that we think will be useful to applicants and parents, as well as counselors and admissions officers.
For example, at writing for elementary students, the panel on essay, the junior year, Mr. Hemmelgarn and Stephanie Krosnosky, a college counselor at transition essay, Bexley, suggested that juniors begin their college quest with several seemingly simple steps. The Yellow Wallpaper! These included using a single sheet of paper to collect the dates of cowardice essay, all the standardized tests they intended to take, which they would then post on the family refrigerator so that “mom and dad” would make sure they didn’t oversleep that day. But it was on the subject of the college essay that I thought the two gave particularly strong guidance. Wallpaper Essay Introduction! For example, Mr. Hemmelgarn requires his juniors to write 25 sample college essays — using actual questions from the University of Chicago and essay, Ohio State, among others — in 25 weeks, at home. Wallpaper Introduction! His mantra? “Practice makes better.”
Mr. Hemmelgarn then reviews with each student the four or five essays that he or she believes might best be developed into their actual college essays in their senior year. For readers of creative writing lessons students, The Choice who are juniors (or their parents), I see no reason why the the yellow essay introduction, same exercise couldn’t be repeated by any junior on one’s own — with a counselor or favorite teacher then enlisted as a sounding board. Mr. Hemmelgarn said he divides the in the time of the essay, essay questions into several categories, including “Why you?” and the yellow wallpaper, “Why us?” As an of games example of “Why you?” — or why might a particular college want you — he referred to essay introduction, an actual prompt on the Common Application that directs an applicant to “evaluate a significant experience, achievement, risk you have taken or ethical dilemma you have faced and its impact on you.” Part of the transition, advice he gives his students, he said, is that they not write a hackneyed paragraph about wallpaper essay, a family trip “that changed my life.” Unless, of course, it did. One counselor in the audience immediately raised her hand to say that one of her high school students was in the process of writing just such an essay — about learning Flamenco in Spain — that promised to be unique and memorable. The boy’s theme (and yes, it was a boy)? “When am I ever going to do that again?”
Mr. Hemmelgarn said he approved — because the essay sounded like it would meet another of his criteria: “What can you write that’s going to set you apart from everyone else?” As an example of the of the essay dede, question of “Why us?” Mr. Hemmelgarn pointed to the following question from an actual application: “Why are you considering The Ohio State University?” In counseling his students on how to approach their answer, Mr.
Hemmelgarn said he tells them that colleges “want to hear a little about themselves.” And that, he said, usually requires some research. One other tip from Mr. The Yellow! Hemmelgarn: When an butler essay applicant is wallpaper introduction asked a question like, “Indicate a person who has had a significant influence on you,” as appears on the Common Application, what the college is time of the butterflies dede really seeking is something about you (as in the yellow wallpaper, how you are similar to the person, or different.) “The college is not accepting grandpa,” Mr. Hemmelgarn said. Cowardice Essay! “They want to know what qualities of grandpa do you have.” Do readers of The Choice have similar advice to pass along?
Please use the comment box below to let us know. Comments are no longer being accepted. My advice to all is to be yourself. Let your writing reflect who you are and how you approach problems in your life. Write that, and the college that recognizes individuality (something I highly prize) will come calling with financial aid. Wallpaper Essay Introduction! I don’t care what the colleges are looking for, YOU know what YOU are looking for, and you know what type of person you are. If the value of games and sports, college wants you for you, they’ll admit you.
My younger brother is a high school junior, and he has Asperger’s. Wallpaper! While my parents are focusing on helping him find schools that will accommodate his condition, I want to encourage him to transition word, make his applications to wallpaper essay introduction, those schools as good as they can be. I anticipate that he will find the college essay especially difficult, since he’s never been good at “selling himself” in the way that colleges ask you to. Does anyone know of resources to help students on the autistic spectrum navigate the college admissions process? 25 admissions essays over the course of 25 weeks is ridiculous overkill. As those of you who read my recent article (http://www.satsuccesssecrets.com/5-lies-about-sat-prep/) know, I’m not a big fan of the College Board. However, this is some really good information about how to make the most of your college admissions essay. By the lessons for elementary, time you write your essay, there are only the yellow wallpaper, 3 parts of your college application that you have control over: your senior mid term exams, your last chance at the SAT, and your college essay. Everything else is already in the books.
I’ve been working with kid applying to college for a long time, and I strongly recommend taking this advice to heart and sower essay, really putting your mind to answering the wallpaper, questions, “Why you?” and in the essay dede, “Why us?”. It can really make a difference. Yeah, I agree. That is completely ridiculous. Essay Introduction! Nice idea–but if your kid was like my kid, he was already doing homework on most Saturday nights. So were the other highly competitive kids in his class. In The Essay! (Believe me, this was not my idea–he was just incredibly driven. And he did get into the top college he wanted, so I guess it was worthwhile–at least he thinks so!). Yes, it’s good to write a good college essay, but not if it comes at the expense of the grades that are going to get you into that great college you want to go to! My daughter has written eight different essays so far for scholarships and the yellow introduction, applications, and she is only half-way through the process. I wish she had generated more ideas when she was a junior.
A possible resource is Realizing the parable octavia, College Dream with Asperger Syndrome by Anne Palmer and/or Succeeding in Colleg with Asperger Syndrome by John Harpur, Maria Lawlor and Michael Fitzgerald. My wife and I had suggested a topic to our daughter but her essay came out the yellow introduction, forced. A few days later, she surprised us us with an essay value of games essay on another topic that was literate and the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, flowed naturally. This took place over the summer when the cowardice essay, pressure was much less. She is wallpaper essay seeking admission to schools where she has a good chance of being accepted, anyway, based on her high school record and interests. The world does not start with Yale and end with Harvard. Her essay is clearly in the ballpark and it is done. Let’s not hype these kids into more stress than they already have. Aim for appropriate and well-written and avoid the hackneyed. (Bravo to Nicola for Comment No. 1.) As aparent who just completed the an essay on my, college application with my daughter, I have two peices of advice.
One, have students start drafting their essays during the summer before senior year. It is a time where they have little pressure. Second and most important, have someone other than a parent review the essay. The Yellow! No matter how hard we try, parents are jaded when it comes to on my bicycle, their kids. Have someone who does not know your child review the essays. The feedback can be valuable. I agree with Sam (#3).
And I’m also a writer and writing teacher (as well as a college counselor). Sure, students should be honing their essay writing (and reading) skills, but it seems myopic to repeat this exercise that many times, especially since students would also be well served by wallpaper essay introduction working on essay dede, critical writing and reading, as well as the personal essay. For those applying to Harvard or Yale: the the yellow introduction, essay is the first date, the interview is the essay of games, second date and the third date is when your parents make a huge donation to the school. I’m so glad I went to college 40 years ago. I’m also glad I went to wallpaper essay introduction, college a while ago (only 10 years ago), but I never felt the pressure these kids feel. I love your tips here. Such good advice. Creative! One of our student bloggers over at myUsearch wrote a great article about the college essay she wrote to get into Yale. Hope this helps: http://myusearchblog.com/the-college-essay-you-in-500-words-or-less. Also, beware the introduction, over-edited-overworked-by-five-critics essay result where the fresh original voice of the 17-18 year old applicant has been lost.
As a parent, I make it a point to go back to the very first draft quite often, and ask (out loud) “what was catchy about this essay idea to being with?” and “is it still there in this current draft?”. This also means that one should not actually write anything for the applicant (you know who you are, parents!) — not only is essay and sports it unethical, it also puts the essay introduction, idea in your voice, not theirs. Discussing ideas around the dining table (on cell phone, more realistically?), is fair and good I think, much as they would do with a teacher in school. I remember writing my college essays. My high school class started with 269 members. We graduated 180. Cowardice Essay! Only about half went to college. The Yellow! I remember seeking advice from a guidance counselor about liberal arts colleges, and word, he told me not to get my hopes up because I likely wouldn’t get a good enough scholarship to attend. I ended up getting nearly full rides to everywhere I applied, and a full ride to the yellow, school that I did attend. Transition Essay! I never showed my guidance counselor my essays, because if he was so stupid as to suggest that I would not get scholarships as an Appalachian student from a poor school district with an ACT composite of the yellow wallpaper introduction, 32 who had qualified for one of the national forensic competitions 3 out of an essay, 4 years, then he was probably too stupid to offer valid critique.
I suppose that what I’m saying is that I’m jealous of high school students who come from the yellow wallpaper introduction, a world where their parents and teachers are supportive of cowardice essay, their college application efforts. Essay! Instead, coming from a poor rural school district, I got teachers who accused me of plagiarism when I showed them my writing and guidance counselors who told me I’d never get into Bryn Mawr. I’m wondering which is cowardice essay more common for American high school students. Sam, 25 admissions essays over the yellow introduction, the course of time of the dede, 25 weeks is the yellow wallpaper essay so not ridiculous overkill. Parable Of The Octavia! It’s a lot like a real job, innit?
An intro to the world of work, you might say. My daughter began her college essay, “All my life there have been bugs.” She had fun with it. She is now a junior at Swarthmore College. Wow – my essay was nothing like that. Wallpaper Essay! I think it was about a favorite book I read, and why I liked it. Geez, like a first date?
I’m not marrying my college. And really, I can write an essay (or a cover letter) gushing about on my, U of Fill-in-the-blank, or XYZ, Inc. Wallpaper Essay! but I’m just gonna copy and paste five other names into that space, and everyone knows it. This whole process is butler becoming too overwhelming and the yellow essay, too emotionally charged. I took the SAT once, sent my scores and transcript, got two teachers to write recommendations, wrote my essay (ONE essay was written ONCE), and sent my app in. An Essay Bicycle! End of story. The best advice my daughter received was to have confidence in her essay and not worry about WHAT SHE SHOULD do! A first date?? Are you kidding? Robert Frost once said that people who don’t understand comparisons aren’t safe to cross the the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, street.
I’d say that people who pick up a silly comparison and and sports, consider it seriously are in even more danger. How absolutely ridiculous to have junior write that many college essays. When it’s time for kids to write the college essay, it’s time for kids to wallpaper essay introduction, consider the cowardice essay, topics. The summer before senior year is the time to the yellow introduction, start thinking–at the very earliest. On another note, you might want to investigate the of games, merit of this practice at Bexley by asking the students who were subjected to that regimen of the yellow introduction, college essay writing. You might be surprised at creative writing students, their answers.
25 essays over 25 weeks is the yellow wallpaper introduction “like a real job”? Try a second job. If you’re talking about a job, how about the job of being a high school student? — that’s what I wish students were focused on, instead of the of the sower octavia butler, fetishized industry of college admissions. In a way, I like that idea, but I’m not convinced that 5 essays over 5 weeks won’t accomplish a good chunk of the same idea. 25 over 25 weeks extends from the spring of junior year, when kids should really be focused on their schoolwork, into the beginning of senior year, when kids should be focused on the most college-like tasks they’ll have to take on during high school (assuming, that is, that their school is giving them enough of a challenge). I’m also a teacher of writing, but mainly I’m a teacher of teenagers. I’m sickened when I hear such overwhelming tasks and pressures put on students who are busy with being students and kids. As suggested by #1, 5, 17, 18, and 19, you will end up in the yellow wallpaper essay, a college that is suitable for you, and you will be fine. As a high school drop-out, I had no school counselors advising me about my college essays; I was oblivious re: need to tell a story that set me apart from my peers. etc. etc. etc.I applied to only one university, a US News #038; World Report top 20. I got in, and graduated in May ’09. Writing Lessons For Elementary Students! My first semester, I audaciously asked an admissions officer, why me, and not someone more worthy, she stated that my essays were forthright and free of the usual highly edited and coached quote unquote drivel.
My advice re: writing good admissions essays: do not under any circumstances show your parents, or any present or former teachers your essays until after you get accepted, be humble, don’t show off. (Sorry: didn’t make my disagreement clear enough [#21]. The teacher who did 25 in 25 weeks did it during the school year, for his English course. Wallpaper Essay! My concern was with people trying to replicate that without it being a teacher assignment — in other words, on top of the creative writing students, existing schoolwork. I quibble with the effort required even within a class, and wonder what else those students were working on during those 25 weeks, but I respect the teacher’s inclination to the yellow wallpaper, have his class write extensively and reflectively.)
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The Yellow Wallpaper essay - GCSE English - Marked by Teachers com
adolescent essay adolescence adolescent - formation pour Infirmier de Secteur Psychiatrique - cours de Mr Giffard - I l n'y a pas si longtemps, l'adolescence n'tait pas reconnue par la collectivit. The Yellow Wallpaper? C'tait un tat individuel, de mme que le troisime ge . Transition Word Essay? Aprs la seconde guerre mondiale, et particulirement dans les cultures occidentales, l' adolescence est devenue phnomne de socit. The Yellow Wallpaper Introduction? C'est un tat la fois enfantin et srieux. Writing Lessons? La provocation de la part des adultes est apparue chez les artistes avant et pendant la seconde guerre mondiale (romantisme, dadasme. Wallpaper? ), revendication contre toutes les institutions de la socit (famille, tat, glise, arme, cole). Parable Of The Butler Essay? A partir de 1950, les adolescents reprennent leur compte toutes ces revendications, tous ces tats d'me. The Yellow? En 1960, mergence de la musique pour les exprimer. Word? En 1970, en plus de la musique, l'opposition au monde adulte s'exprime par la politisation (concerts de soutien ou de protestation, chanteurs engags politiquement). The Yellow Wallpaper? 1980, accs gnralis aux drogues que l'on partage pendant les concerts ou avant les manifestations. 1990: le refus des habitudes familiales s'exprimera travers un comportement diffrent, par exemple au niveau des conduites alimentaires ou de l'habillement.
Entre 2000 et 2010, la grande incertitude face au chmage, la difficult de se loger, ainsi qu'une moindre protection de la part des familles ou de la socit des adultes les conduisent recrer leur monde virtuel autant pour s'isoler de ceux-ci (jeux vido, ordinateurs) que pour se retrouver entre eux (Internet, tlphone portable). Essay Value Of Games And Sports? Les adolescents deviennent par ce biais dpendants de la technique et des mdias. The Yellow Wallpaper? Chez la fille : dveloppement des seins, de l'appareil gnital. Transition Word Essay? Prise de poids. Premires rgles. Wallpaper? En 1940, les premires rgles chez les europennes venaient vers 17 ans. Actuellement, l'ge moyen est vers 12 ans et 6 mois, car les conditions de vie sont plus confortables et les adolescentes s'affirment plus tt; Chez le garon : premires pollutions nocturnes, mue de la voix, pilosit, croissance osseuse et staturale; Chez les deux : re-modelage de l'image du corps , de faon continue.
Fixation sur l'aspect corporel extrieur: poque trs narcissique. An Essay On My? Tendances diverses l'excs. The Yellow Wallpaper Introduction? Trs peu d'hygine. An Essay On My Bicycle? Grande instabilit. Durant les premires annes de vie, la pense du petit enfant tait magique. Essay? A la priode de latence il a acquis une logique concrte. An Essay On My? Vers 12 ans, le jeune adolescent va pouvoir raisonner de faon dductive, posant des hypothses et rpondant dans l'abstrait. The Yellow Wallpaper? Cela est dsormais possible grce la naissance de la pense formelle, ou hypottico-dductive . Ayant acquis cette pense formelle, il en usera l'excs.
Il n'a pas besoin de l'exprience. An Essay? C'est la priode o on the yellow wallpaper essay introduction refait le monde, poque trs crative mais sans support dans la ralit. Transition Word Essay? Il a acquis l'intellect adulte . Wallpaper Essay? On distinguera 3 phases. Phase d'opposition : chez la fille, elle survient entre 12 et 13 ans et chez le garon entre 12 et 15 ans. Elle commence par un effondrement total de tout l'acquis moral et social de la priode de latence. An Essay On My Bicycle? C'est un mouvement rgressif au cours duquel l'adolescent est imprvisible, avec refus de tout ordre tabli, vols, provocations.
Il y a la fois l'incapacit domestiquer les dsirs, et la recherche du plaisir dans la transgression de l'interdit. The Yellow Essay Introduction? On note aussi un mpris de tout ce qui reprsente l'ordre. Writing? Ceci a pour but une certaine prise de conscience de soi . The Yellow Wallpaper Introduction? Priode du Je n'veux pas !; Phase d'affirmation du Moi : chez la fille entre 13 et 16 ans, et chez le garon entre 15 et 17 ans. In The Of The Butterflies Essay? C'est une priode de revendication, de Je veux !, avec demande d'indpendance, de libert. Wallpaper Essay Introduction? C'est l'poque du conflit des gnrations. Il y a laboration de systmes nouveaux et meilleurs pour la socit. Cowardice Essay? Priode de l'adolescence o on the yellow discute beaucoup. For Elementary? Mgalomanie, affabulation, idalisation.
Gnrosit et gosme; Phase d'insertion : chez la fille entre 16 et 18 ans, et chez le garon entre 18 et 20 ans. L'adolescent s' identifie l'adulte de faon stable, avec moins d'idalisation. The Yellow Wallpaper? Il ralise son indpendance affective, et construit son indpendance conomique. Cowardice Essay? Il accepte rellement et sans ambivalence de se passer de ses parents. Wallpaper Introduction? Cette phase d'insertion est facilite avec l' accs au travail , et les relations de couple . Of The Butterflies Dede? Elle est freine quand la prcarit ou le chmage s'installent. Il faut savoir que de plus en plus d'adolescents se retrouvent dsormais la rue, sans domicile fixe ( S.D.F. Wallpaper Introduction? ) et sans travail rgulier: c'est un phnomne relativement nouveau, et qui prend de l'ampleur depuis le dbut du 21 me sicle. Remaniement de la personnalit affective. Value Of Games? Vis--vis des parents, l'adolescent doit effectuer le deuil des imago parentales . Wallpaper? Le travail de deuil est un processus qui permet de ne pas finir avec ce qui est mort. Octavia Butler Essay? Il s'agit ici d'une rupture d'avec l'image que les parents reprsentent pour l'adolescent.
Ce processus se fait en plusieurs tapes. Wallpaper Essay Introduction? Tout commence avec le retour de ce qui a t refoul dans l'inconscient durant la latence, c'est dire les pulsions infantiles . Of The Sower Butler Essay? Ce retour est massif et incontrlable pour l'adolescent, faisant chouer le Moi dans ses tentatives d'quilibre. The Yellow Wallpaper Introduction? Il est anxieux, dprim, dpressif , inhib. Essay Value? Il fait des actes antisociaux . The Yellow Wallpaper Essay Introduction? L'aspect dfensif ne russit pas retenir l'aspect motionnel. Le ct oral se traduit par de la boulimie, de l'anorexie, et de l'avidit sur tous les plans. Parable Sower Octavia Essay? Les pulsions anales reviennent travers l'agressivit, le non !, modifiant tous ses rapports avec l'ordre, le pouvoir. Introduction? Retour aussi des pulsions phalliques et oedipiennes , se traduisant par une crise d'originalit autant physique que mentale. Cowardice Essay? Ractivation des pulsions oedipiennes vis--vis des parents, crant des sentiments de honte des parents , afin d'viter la pulsion par une attitude inverse.
Critique de ce que sont les parents. Wallpaper Introduction? Plus il se sent dpendant d'eux, plus il sera agressif vis--vis d'eux. Of The Butler Essay? Les parents ne peuvent rien pour l'aider car c'est leur prsence-mme qui cre le conflit. Wallpaper? L'adolescent labore un roman familial: il existe deux couples de parents, l'un riche, noble, puissant et protecteur, assimil des divinits. Writing Lessons? Ce sont les parents du pass, idaliss par l'enfant. Wallpaper Introduction? L'autre couple est humble, commun, soumis aux limites quotidiennes. Cowardice Essay? Ce sont les parents dcouverts par l'adolescent. Ces 2 couples de parents s'affrontent dans l'imaginaire de l'adolescent. The Yellow Introduction? Il brode donc un roman familial dans lequel il retrouvera ses droits et privilges. Word Essay? Cela rvle le processus rgressif vers la relation rassurante des premiers temps de l'enfance et le processus progressif qui permet d'accepter la ralit. Wallpaper Essay? Fantasme de changement de rle : l'adolescent veut prendre la place d'un de ses parents en usurpant les droits de l'adulte.
Il est adulte la place du pre ou de la mre. Essay Value Of Games? Il juge ses parents, les conseille, les infantilise. The Yellow Wallpaper Introduction? Ceci est une condition pour devenir adulte . Cowardice Essay? L'adolescent s'identifie ainsi des images de parents murs. Essay Introduction? Les tapes de la gnitalisation (l'accession la sexualit adulte) La relation Objectale va se focaliser sur des Objets successifs qui vont permettre l'adolescent d'accder la sexualit adulte.
Phase d'homosexualit de groupe : la bande, gnralement unisexue est constitue d'individus semblables. Writing? Il y aura plusieurs types de bandes selon le milieu culturel de l'adolescent. Essay? Plus le milieu est favoris, plus la bande est atypique (sans caractristiques). In The Of The Butterflies Dede? Les bandes sociales sont trs structures, et on the yellow introduction y rentre difficilement. In The Butterflies? Les membres ont alors les mmes idoles, les mmes costumes. The Yellow? Le but de ces bandes est d'viter la solitude, de s'identifier par rapport un modle, une norme, et de prendre en charge les dsirs de l'individu.
Chaque membre du groupe y trouve scurit et revalorisation. Cowardice Essay? Elle permet aussi l'adolescent d'viter la confrontation l'autre sexe; Phase d'homosexualit individuelle : la bande ne suffit plus. Essay Introduction? L'adolescent va chercher un ami, un confident. Cowardice Essay? Le choix est trs narcissique, fait d'idalisation et d'admiration. The Yellow Wallpaper? On se raconte tout vis--vis de la famille, de l'cole.
Amitis trs passionnes, trs brusques, pouvant s'arrter aussi brusquement. Creative Writing? Dans cette phase il peut y avoir exprience homosexuelle vritable et transitoire, comme phnomne d'adaptation faisant le lien entre les parents oedipiens et le choix htrosexuel. Notons aussi l'existence de rites, de complicits; Phase transitoire dpressive : la bande ne suffit pas et mme l'ami intime ne peut pas comprendre. L'adolescent est en proie la mlancolie . La vie est un supplice. Tout est injustice. The Yellow Wallpaper Essay Introduction? La perte des parents est trop forte: la bande et les copains ne suffisent pas. Value And Sports? Vide mtaphysique. Wallpaper Essay? Cration du journal intime dans lequel il transmet son abandon. In The Time Butterflies? C'est un mlange d'gocentrisme aigu et de constant dvouement pour l'humanit. Wallpaper Essay? Ce qui va permettre d'en sortir seront les premires manifestations d'htrosexualit ; Phase htrosexuelle : on se met avoir une certaine curiosit vis--vis de l'autre sexe.
On s'pie, on transition word essay s'auto-observe. L'autre sexe est la fois dnigr et idalis. The Yellow Essay Introduction? Cette htrosexualit est d'abord polygame, avec nombreux flirts. Essay? C'est le moment o les bandes se mixent, et c'est le temps des grandes passions, des grandes dsillusions. Hmorragie des sentiments. The Yellow? Processus de cour: l'adolescent devient coquet, spirituel. Les flirts se succdent, avec de grandes priodes de jalousie et d'admiration. Cowardice Essay? Petit petit, l'htrosexualit devient monogame, les Objets affectifs deviennent stables jusqu' la formation du couple . Introduction? Ds lors l'adolescent peut faire des projets.
Il devient capable de faire concider l'amour romantique et l'amour sexuel. Value? L'adolescence est la dernire 'chance' d'aborder les conflits de l'enfance et de les rsoudre de manire spontane. The Yellow? Si ces mmes conflits survenaient par la suite, ce serait du domaine du pathologique . Cowardice Essay? La personne s'y engluerait gravement. Wallpaper Essay Introduction? D'ailleurs, la plupart des pathologies adultes closent l'adolescence. Essay Of Games? La structure de la personnalit se fait durant les 5 premires annes de la vie, mais on the yellow introduction peut la remanier l'adolescence le plus souvent tout seul, c'est dire avec l'environnement immdiat.
Sinon a s'croule l'adolescence (on parle alors de destructuration de la personnalit ) et le futur adulte aura besoin de l'aide de la sant publique, voire temporairement d'un environnement adapt.
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2004, in San Francisco, St. Luke’s hospital. I was only 7 pounds. Wallpaper! When I was a child I used to enjoy running and use the hula hoop. I also loved to do cartwheels and swing on cowardice essay, the monkey-bars.
When I was born we used to live in a trailer, but then we moved to a house when I was 2 years old. Essay Introduction! I have visited. These are a few of my favorite things Love songs and red roses Chilling and essay of games and sports magazines Donuts and waffles Pizza and shopping Car trips and flying These are some of my favorite things James and Shanwn Oak island and mysteries Videogames and summertime Counter Strike and Call of Duty Karma. process from this study guide. Do you like to write?
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Favorite Funny Inspirational Quotes #1 Here is a test to find whether your mission on earth is finished: If you're alive it isn't. Introduction! Richard Bach (Illusions) Favorite Funny Inspirational Quotes #2 Even if you are on in the of the butterflies, the right track, you will get run over if you just sit there. Will Rogers Favorite. Some people have their favorite places to visit. Wallpaper Essay Introduction! My favorite place to go is Florida.
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I was fourteen years old when I found out I was pregnant. I didn’t really believe it at first; I never thought it. Cynthia Young English III AP – 4th P Walter 2 January 2009 Animal Rights: Do They Deserve It? Since the beginning of time, we have been deliberating on the role animals play in this human-dominated world. Early attitudes toward animals were heavily influenced by religion, especially Christianity. C A Favorite Teacher or Professor Throughout my academic career, I have come across many teachers and creative writing students lecturers who guided me in various subjects of my study. I could learn different things about professional and social life from them. Among all teachers, Mr. Essay! Kamran Karimlou is my favorite professor. about. My favorite line of the on my song is the yellow introduction, when they say, “It starts out easy, something simple, something sleazy, something inching past the edge of the reserve,” because they are talking about an essay on my how things can seem easy at first, but then as more temptations come into the picture, things can get harder.
Johnson English 85a November 30, 2007 Popular Culture What do you like to eat? For me and my group of friends it is a burger, fries and a coke. The Yellow Essay! You might not agree being the fact that it may not be the safest thing to eat, but this is the type of an essay food that brings me closer to my friends.