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International standard paper sizes. Standard paper sizes like ISO A4 are widely used all over the world today. This text explains the ISO 216 paper size system and the ideas behind its design. In the ISO paper size system, the write about, height-to-width ratio of all pages is the square root of two (1.4142 : 1). In other words, the endophytic papers, width and the height of a page relate to each other like the side and the diagonal of a square. This aspect ratio is especially convenient for a paper size. Write An Essay About Cause Of Stress! If you put two such pages next to each other, or equivalently cut one parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces, then the resulting page will have again the same width/height ratio. The ISO paper sizes are based on the metric system.
The square-root-of-two ratio does not permit both the height and beginning ending essay, width of the pages to be nicely rounded metric lengths. Therefore, the area of the pages has been defined to have round metric values. As paper is an essay about usually specified in g/m?, this simplifies calculation of the mass of momma's encounter essay angelou a document if the format and number of pages are known. ISO 216 defines the A series of paper sizes based on write about cause and effect these simple principles: The height divided by the width of all formats is the square root of momma's essay two (1.4142). Write An Essay About Cause And Effect! Format A0 has an endophytic papers area of one square meter.
Format A1 is write an essay cause A0 cut into write compare contrat, two equal pieces. Write About Cause! In other words, the height of A1 is the width of A0 and papers, the width of A1 is half the height of A0. All smaller A series formats are defined in the same way. If you cut format A n parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces of paper, these will have format A( n +1). The standardized height and an essay about cause and effect, width of the paper formats is intro essay a rounded number of write an essay cause and effect millimeters. For applications where the ISO A series does not provide an adequate format, the B series has been introduced to makes you happy cover a wider range of paper sizes. Write About Cause Of Stress! The C series of formats has been defined for envelopes. The width and height of discussion essays australia a B n format are the geometric mean between those of the A n and the next larger A( n ?1) format. For instance, B1 is the cause and effect of stress, geometric mean between A1 and intro, A0, that means the same magnification factor that scales A1 to B1 also scales B1 to A0. Similarly, the formats of the C series are the geometric mean between the A and B series formats with the write and effect of stress, same number.
For example, an makes ending essay (unfolded) A4 size letter fits nicely into a C4 envelope, which in turn fits as nicely into a B4 envelope. If you fold this letter once to A5 format, then it will fit nicely into a C5 envelope. B and an essay cause and effect, C formats naturally are also square-root-of-two formats. Note: The geometric mean of two numbers x and y is the square root of their product, ( xy ) 1/2 , whereas their arithmetic mean is half their sum, ( x + y )/2. For example, the momma's essay angelou, geometric mean of the numbers 2 and write cause and effect of stress, 8 is 4 (because 4/2 = 8/4), whereas their arithmetic mean is a good 5 (because 5?2 = 8?5).
The arithmetic mean is cause of stress half-way between two numbers by addition, whereas the geometric mean is a good essay half-way between two numbers by multiplication. By the way: The Japanese JIS P 0138-61 standard defines the same A series as ISO 216, but a slightly different B series of paper sizes, sometimes called the JIS B or JB series. JIS B0 has an write and effect of stress area of 1.5 m?, such that the area of JIS B pages is the arithmetic mean of the area of the papers, A series pages with the same and the next higher number, and cause, not as in the ISO B series the geometric mean . For example, JB3 is 364 ? 515, JB4 is 257 ? 364, and JB5 is fungi+research papers 182 ? 257 mm. Using the JIS B series should be avoided. It introduces additional magnification factors and is not an international standard. The following table shows the width and height of all ISO A and B paper formats, as well as the ISO C envelope formats.
The dimensions are in millimeters: The allowed tolerances are ±1.5 mm for write an essay about cause of stress dimensions up to 150 mm, ±2 mm for dimensions above 150 mm up to 600 mm, and ±3 mm for dimensions above 600 mm. Some national equivalents of ISO 216 specify tighter tolerances, for instance DIN 476 requires ±1 mm, ±1.5 mm, and ±2 mm respectively for the same ranges of dimensions. The ISO standard paper size system covers a wide range of formats, but not all of essays australia them are widely used in of stress, practice. Among all formats, A4 is clearly the most important one for daily office use.
Some main applications of the most popular formats can be summarized as: The main advantage of the ISO standard paper sizes becomes obvious for users of copying machines: You are in a library and want to copy an article out of a journal that has A4 format. In order to save paper, you want copy two journal pages onto intro yourself essay each sheet of A4 paper. If you open the journal, the an essay about cause and effect of stress, two A4 pages that you will now see together have A3 format. By setting the essay, magnification factor on the copying machine to and effect of stress 71% (that is a good essay sqrt(0.5)), or by pressing the A3>A4 button that is cause and effect available on write most copying machines, both A4 pages of the journal article together will fill exactly the A4 page produced by the copying machine. One reproduced A4 page will now have A5 format. No wasted paper margins appear, no text has been cut off, and write cause and effect, no experiments for endophytic finding the appropriate magnification factor are necessary. The same principle works for books in write about and effect, B5 or A5 format. Copying machines designed for ISO paper sizes usually provide special keys for the following frequently needed magnification factors: The magnification factors between all A sizes:
Not only the operation of copying machines in offices and makes a good ending essay, libraries, but also repro photography, microfilming, and printing are simplified by the 1:sqrt(2) aspect ratio of ISO paper sizes. If you prepare a letter, you will have to know the weight of the cause and effect of stress, content in makes, order to determine the postal fee. This can be very conveniently calculated with the ISO A series paper sizes. Usual typewriter and laser printer paper weighs 80 g/m?. Write About And Effect! An A0 page has an area of 1 m?, and the next smaller A series page has half of this area. Therefore, the fungi+research, A4 format has an area of 1/16 m? and weighs with the common paper quality 5 g per an essay about of stress page. If we estimate 20 g for a C4 envelope (including some safety margin), then you will be able to put 16 A4 pages into a letter before you reach the 100 g limit for the next higher postal fee. Calculation of the a good essay, mass of write about and effect of stress books, newspapers, or packed paper is equally trivial. You probably will not need such calculations often, but they nicely show the beauty of the endophytic papers, concept of metric paper sizes.
Using standard paper sizes saves money and makes life simpler in many applications. For example, if all scientific journals used only ISO formats, then libraries would have to write and effect buy only very few different sizes for the binders. Shelves can be designed such that standard formats will fit in exactly without too much wasted shelf volume. Discussion Essays! The ISO formats are used for surprisingly many things besides office paper: the German citizen ID card has format A7, both the write and effect, European Union and write compare essay, the U.S. (!) passport have format B7, and library microfiches have format A6. In some countries (e.g., Germany) even many brands of toilet paper have format A6. The ISO paper sizes are specified in the standard in a table that states their width and height in millimeters. Following the principles described above, the dimensions could be calculated with the following formulas: However, the actual millimeter dimensions in the standard have been calculated instead by using the above values only at n = 0, and then progressively dividing these values by cause two to obtain the smaller sizes, each time rounding the result to write compare the next lower integer number of an essay about millimeters (floor function). This rounding to the next lower integer guarantees that two A( n +1) pages together are never larger than an A n page. The following programs demonstrate this algorithm in compare essay, several programming languages: iso-paper.c – C version iso-paper.py – Python version.
Sometimes, paper formats with a different aspect ratio are required for labels, tickets, and other purposes. Write Cause And Effect! These should preferably be derived by cutting standard series sizes into 3, 4, or 8 equal parts, parallel with the fungi+research papers, shorter side, such that the ratio between the write an essay cause, longer and shorter side is greater than the square root of two. Some example long formats in millimeters are: The 1/3 A4 format (99 ? 210 mm) is encounter essay angelou also commonly applied for reduced letterheads for short notes that contain not much more than a one sentence message and fit without folding into a DL envelope. For postal purposes, ISO 269 and DIN 678 define the following envelope formats: The DL format is the an essay and effect of stress, most widely used business letter format. DL probably originally stood for essay “DIN lang”, but ISO 269 now explains this abbreviation instead more diplomatically as “Dimension Lengthwise”. Its size falls somewhat out of the system and equipment manufacturers have complained that it is slightly too small for reliable automatic enveloping. Write An Essay Cause And Effect! Therefore, DIN 678 introduced the C6/C5 format as an alternative for the DL envelope.
Window envelopes, A4 letterheads, folding marks and endophytic fungi+research papers, standard layouts. There exists no international standard yet for window envelopes and an essay and effect, matching letterhead layouts. There are various incompatible national standards, for example: Germany: DIN 680 specifies that a transparent address window is 90 ? 45 mm large and its left edge should be located 20 mm from the left edge of the envelope. For C6, DL, and C6/C5 envelopes, the bottom edge of the what, window should be 15 mm from the bottom edge of the envelope. For C4 envelopes, the top edge of the window should be either 27 or 45 mm from the top edge of the envelope. The letterhead standard DIN 676 does not specify the actual content or form of a pre-printed letterhead, it only specifies zones for the location of certain elements. The letterhead format specified in DIN 676 has a 85 ? 45 mm large address field visible through the window, in which the top 5 mm are reserved for printing in a small font the sender’s address and the bottom 40 mm are for writing the write an essay about and effect of stress, recipient’s address. This field starts 20 mm from the left paper edge and a good beginning makes essay, either 27 mm (form A) or 45 mm (form B) from the top. The two alternatives allow a choice of either a small (form A) or large (form B) letterhead layout in the area above the write and effect, address field.
Standard folding marks on the letterhead assist users to insert the letter correctly into write compare, C6, DL, or C6/C5 window envelopes. There is one folding mark (for C6) on write about cause the top edge of the page, 148 mm from the intro yourself essay, left edge. There are also two folding marks on about cause and effect the left edge of the page, either 105 and 210 mm from the bottom edge (form A) or 105 and 210 mm from the top edge (form B). United Kingdom: BS 4264 specifies that the transparent window on a DL envelope should be 93 ? 39 mm large. Yourself! Its top-left corner should be located 20 mm from the left margin and about cause and effect of stress, 53 mm from the top margin of the endophytic, envelope. BS 1808 specifies an 80 ? 30 mm large address panel on the letterhead. Its top-left corner is located 20 mm from the left margin and 51 mm from the top margin of the write cause, page. Essays! The address panel is embedded inside a 91 ? 48 mm large exclusion zone whose top left corner is located 20 mm from the left margin and 42 mm from the top margin of the page. In other words, the area 9 mm above and below and 11 mm right of the address panel should be kept clean of any other printing.
Switzerland: The envelope window is 100 ? 45 mm large and located 12 mm either from the left or the right edge. The distance to the top edge is 48 mm (for C6 and C5/C6) or 52 mm (for C5). Write About Cause And Effect Of Stress! The SNV 010130 letterhead format places the recipient’s address into a 90 ? 40 mm large field 45 mm from the top and endophytic fungi+research, 8 mm from the right edge of the A4 page. [from: H.R. Write An Essay And Effect! Bosshard, 1980, ISBN 3-85584-010-5] Finland: SFS 2488:1994 specifies that for E series envelopes the endophytic fungi+research papers, size of the write about cause and effect of stress, window is 90 ? 30 mm and for the C series 95 ? 35 mm. In either case, the left margin is 18 mm and the top margin 40 mm.
SFS 2487:2000 (“Layout of document text area”) and SFS 2486:1999 (“Forms Layout”) specify that the area for compare contrat the recipient’s address is 76.2 ? 25.4 mm, located 20 mm from the left, and write an essay cause and effect, 10±1 mm plus 25.4 mm from the essays australia, top (the 25.4 mm are for the sender’s information). According to ISO 11180 and Universal Postal Union standards, an an essay about cause and effect of stress international postal address should be not longer than 6 lines with up to a good beginning a good essay 30 characters each. This requires a maximum area of write about cause 76.2 ? 38.1 mm with the commonly used typewriter character width of 2.54 mm (1/10) and a baseline distance of 6.35 mm (1/4). The Universal Postal Union Letter Post Regulations specify a standard position of the address on the envelope, which is within 140 mm from the a good ending essay, right edge, at least 40 mm from the top edge, and is surrounded by at least 15 mm unprinted envelope to the left, right and an essay, below of the fungi+research papers, address text. A widely used international standard A4 document format is the an essay cause, United Nations Layout Key for Trade Documents (ISO 6422). Folding larger pages to a good beginning makes a good A4 for filing. DIN 824 describes a method of folding A0, A1, etc. pages to A4 format for filing. This clever technique ensures that there remains a 20 mm single-layer margin for filing holes, that the page can be unfolded and folded again without being removed from the file, and that the label field at the bottom-left corner of write about and effect of stress technical drawings ends up in correct orientation on top of the endophytic, folded page in the file. ISO 623 specifies the sizes of folders and write and effect, files intended to receive either A4 sheets or simple folders (without back) that are not designed for any particular filing system or cabinet. The sizes specified are those of the overall rectangular surface when the encounter - maya, folders or files are folded, exclusive any margin or tabs. Simple folders without back or mechanism are 220 ? 315 mm large.
Folders and files with a very small back (less than 25 mm) with or without mechanism are 240 ? 320 mm large. Files with wide back (exceeding 25 mm) are 250 ? 320 mm (without a mechanism) or 290 ? 320 mm if they include a mechanism. All these are maximum dimensions. Standardizing folder and file sizes helps to optimize shelf designs and write an essay and effect of stress, provides a uniform look and handling even if folders from momma's encounter essay - maya angelou various manufacturers are used. ISO 838 specifies that, for write cause of stress filing purposes, two holes of 6±0.5 mm diameter can be punched into the sheets. The centers of the two holes are 80±0.5 mm apart and have a distance of endophytic fungi+research papers 12±1 mm to cause and effect of stress the nearest edge of the sheet.
The holes are located symmetrically in relation to write compare contrat the axis of the sheet or document. Any format that is at an essay about cause of stress least as large as A7 can be filed using this system. Not specified in ISO 838, but also widely used, is an upwards compatible 4-hole system. Its two middle holes correspond to ISO 838, plus there are two additional holes located 80 mm above and below these to provide for more stability. This way, sheets with four punched holes can also be filed in ISO 838 2-hole binders. This system is also known under the nickname 888, presumably because the three gaps between the holes are all 8 cm wide. Some hole punches have on their paper guide not only a good beginning makes essay, markings for A4, A5, and A6, but also for 888. The latter helps to punch either the top or bottom two holes of the 888 4-hole arrangement into an A4 sheet. Technical drawing pens follow the same size-ratio principle.
The standard sizes differ by write an essay cause and effect of stress a factor sqrt(2): 2.00 mm, 1.40 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.70 mm, 0.50 mm, 0.35 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.18 mm, 0.13 mm. So after drawing with a 0.35 mm pen on a good beginning a good ending essay A3 paper and reducing it to an essay about of stress A4, you can continue with the essay, 0.25 mm pen. (ISO 9175-1) There seems to be no international standard yet for ruled writing paper. The German standards organization has published DIN 16552:1977-04 (“Lines for handwriting”). That system is widely used, at write an essay of stress least in Germany, by primary school teachers to specify which school exercise books pupils should use at which stage of learning how to write. Writing paper with fine gray 5 mm grid lines seems to be very popular in many countries. All A and B series formats described so far are trimmed paper end sizes, i.e. these are the dimensions of the write compare contrat essay, paper delivered to the user or reader. Other ISO standards define the format series RA and SRA for untrimmed raw paper, where SRA stands for “supplementary raw format A” (“sekundares Rohformat A”). These formats are only slightly larger than the corresponding A series formats.
Sheets in these formats will be cut to the end format after binding. The ISO RA0 format has an area of write cause and effect 1.05 m? and the ISO SRA0 format has an area of beginning makes essay 1.15 m?. These formats also follow the sqrt(2)-ratio and half-area rule, but the dimensions of the start format have been rounded to an essay about and effect the full centimeter. The common untrimmed paper formats that printers order from the paper manufacturers are. The RA and SRA dimensions are also used as roll widths in rotating printing presses. When you prepare overhead projector slides for write compare contrat essay a conference, you might wonder, how large the picture area of the projector that you will have available is. ISO 7943-1 specifies two standard sizes of overhead projector picture areas: Type A is 250 ? 250 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 60 mm) and Type B is 285 ? 285 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 40 mm or cut off diagonally no more than 40 mm). Therefore, if you use A4 transparencies, leave at cause and effect of stress least a 30 mm top and write, bottom margin. Most computer displays have the same aspect ratio as (traditional) TV sets, namely 4:3 = 640:480 = 800:600 = 1024:768 = 1280:960. If you prepare presentation slides, I recommend that you arrange your layout inside a 280 ? 210 mm field and make sure that you leave at least 20 mm margin on the left and right side. This way, you plan for the aspect ratio of a TV/VGA projector and ensure at the same time that you can print on A4 transparencies such that every standard overhead projector will show all parts of your slides.
ISO 7810 specifies three formats for identification cards: ID-1 = 85.60 ? 53.98 mm (= 3.370 ? 2.125 in) ID-2 = 105 ? 74 mm (= A7) ID-3 = 125 ? 88 mm (= B7) ID-1 is the common format for banking cards (0.76 mm thick) and is also widely used for business cards and driver’s licences. Some people prefer A8 (74 ? 52 mm) for business cards. The standard passport format is cause of stress B7 (= ID-3), the German ID card has A7 (= ID-2) format and the European Union driver’s licence is an ID-1 card. One of the oldest written records regarding the sqrt(2) aspect ratio for paper sizes is write compare contrat essay a letter that the physics professor Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (University of Gottingen, Germany, 1742-1799) wrote 1786-10-25 to Johann Beckmann. In it, Lichtenberg explains the practical and write about cause and effect of stress, aesthetic advantages of the sqrt(2) aspect ratio, and of his discovery that paper with that aspect ratio was commonly available at the time. (There are also suggestions that the task to find a paper format that is similar to itself after being cut in half appeared as a question in mathematics exams as early as 1755.)
After introducing the meter measurement, the essay, French government published 1798-11-03 the write an essay of stress, “Loi sur le timbre” (no. 2136), a law on discussion essays the taxation of paper that defined several formats that already correspond exactly to the modern ISO paper sizes: “Grand registre” = ISO A2, “grand papier” = ISO B3, “moyen papier” = ISO A3, “petit papier” = ISO B4, “demi feuille” = ISO B5, “effets de commerce” = ISO 1/2 B5. The French format series never became widely known and an essay about and effect of stress, was quickly forgotten again. The A, B, and C series paper formats, which are based on the exact same design principles, were completely independently reinvented over a hundred years after the yourself, “Loi sur le timbre” in Germany by Dr. Walter Porstmann.
They were adopted as the German standard DIN 476 in 1922 as a replacement for the vast variety of cause and effect other paper formats that had been used before, in order to make paper stocking and document reproduction cheaper and yourself essay, more efficient. (For those interested in historic details of the discussions leading to the standard, there are some DIN committee reports, 1918–1923.) Porstmann’s DIN paper-format concept was convincing, and soon introduced as a national standard in many other countries, for example, Belgium (1924), Netherlands (1925), Norway (1926), Switzerland (1929), Sweden (1930), Soviet Union (1934), Hungary (1938), Italy (1939), Uruguay (1942), Argentina (1943), Brazil (1943), Spain (1947), Austria (1948), Romania (1949), Japan (1951), Denmark (1953), Czechoslovakia (1953), Israel (1954), Portugal (1954), Yugoslavia (1956), India (1957), Poland (1957), United Kingdom (1959), Venezuela (1962), New Zealand (1963), Iceland (1964), Mexico (1965), South Africa (1966), France (1967), Peru (1967), Turkey (1967), Chile (1968), Greece (1970), Simbabwe (1970), Singapur (1970), Bangladesh (1972), Thailand (1973), Barbados (1973), Australia (1974), Ecuador (1974), Columbia (1975) and Kuwait (1975). It finally became both an international standard (ISO 216) as well as the an essay and effect of stress, official United Nations document format in 1975 and it is today used in almost all countries on this planet, with the exception of North America. Endophytic! In 1977, a large German car manufacturer performed a study of the paper formats found in their incoming mail and concluded that out of 148 examined countries, 88 already used the write and effect, A series formats then. - Maya Angelou! [Source: Helbig/Hennig 1988] Note: The Lichtenberg Ratio – used by the standard paper format series – is occasionally confused with the Golden Ratio (which Euclid referred to write an essay about cause of stress as the “extreme and mean ratio”). The Lichtenberg Ratio is a good a good ending defined by the equation a/b = 2b/a = sqrt(2), whereas the Golden Ratio is defined by a/b = (a+b)/a = b/(a?b) = (1 + sqrt(5))/2. While aesthetically pleasing properties have been attributed to both, the cause and effect of stress, Lichtenberg Ratio has the advantage of preserving the aspect ratio when cutting a page into two. The Golden Ratio, on the other hand, preserves the compare essay, aspect ratio when cutting a maximal square from the write an essay cause and effect of stress, paper, a property that seems not particularly useful for office applications. The Golden Ratio was for a while a more fashionable topic in the antique and intro yourself essay, renaissance arts literature and it has a close connection to the Fibonacci sequence in mathematics. Hints for write about cause North American paper users.
The United States, Canada, and in part Mexico, are today the only industrialized nations in fungi+research, which the ISO standard paper sizes are not yet widely used. Write An Essay About Cause And Effect! In U.S. A Good Essay! office applications, the paper formats “Letter” (216 ? 279 mm), “Legal” (216 ? 356 mm), “Executive” (190 ? 254 mm), and “Ledger/Tabloid” (279 ? 432 mm) are widely used today. There exists also an American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1 for technical drawing paper sizes A (216 ? 279 mm), B (279 ? 432 mm), C (432 ? 559 mm), D (559 ? 864 mm), E (864 ? 1118 mm), and there are many other unsystematic formats for various applications in use. The “Letter”, “Legal”, “Tabloid”, and about cause and effect of stress, other formats (although not these names) are defined in momma's essay - maya angelou, the American National Standard ANSI X3.151-1987. While all ISO paper formats have consistently the same aspect ratio of sqrt(2) = 1.414, the U.S. format series has two different alternating aspect ratios 17/11 = 1.545 and write an essay, 22/17 = 1.294. Beginning Makes A Good Ending Essay! Therefore, you cannot reduce or magnify from one U.S. An Essay About Cause And Effect! format to compare contrat the next higher or lower without leaving an empty margin, which is rather inconvenient. American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1m-1995 specifies how to use the ISO A0?A4 formats for write cause and effect of stress technical drawings in intro yourself essay, the U.S. Technical drawings usually have a fixed drawing scale (e.g., 1:100 means that one meter is drawn as one centimeter), therefore it is not easily possible to write about cause and effect of stress resize technical drawings between U.S. and standard paper formats. Endophytic Papers! As a result, internationally operating U.S. Write An Essay! corporations increasingly find it more convenient to abandon the old ANSI Y14.1 formats and prepare technical drawings for ISO paper sizes, like the rest of the world does. The historic origins of the 216 ? 279 mm U.S. Letter format, and in particular its rationale, seem rather obscure.
The earliest documented attempts to standardize U.S. paper format used a completely different format. On 1921-03-28, the fungi+research, U.S. Secretary of Commerce (Hoover) declared a 203 ? 267 mm format to be the standard for his department, which was adopted on 1921-09-14 by the Permanent Conference on Printing (established by an essay about cause and effect General Dawes, first director of the Bureau of the Budget) as the general U.S. government letterhead standard. Independent of that, on 1921-08-30 a Committee on the Simplification of Paper Sizes consisting of momma's printing industry representatives was appointed to work with the write about of stress, Bureau of Standards. It recommended standard basic sizes of momma's encounter angelou 432 ? 559 mm (17 ? 22 in), 432 ? 711 mm (17 ? 28 in), 483 ? 610 mm (19 ? 24 in), 559 ? 864 mm (22 ? 34 in), 711 ? 864 mm (28 ? 34 in), and 610 ? 914 mm (24 ? 36 in). Write An Essay Cause! What became later known as the U.S. Letter format is just the first of these basic sizes halved. Beginning! One hypothesis for an essay cause of stress the origin of endophytic this format series is that it was derived from a then typical mold size used then in the production of hand-made paper. “It does not appear, even in the selection of 8 1/2 ? 11 inch size paper, that any special analysis was made to prove that this provided an optimum size for a commercial letterhead” [Dunn, 1972.]. It appears that this standard was just a commercial compromise at the time to reduce inventory requirements without requiring significant changes to existing production equipment. The Hoover standard remained in force until the government declared in 1980-01 the 216 ? 279 mm format to be the new official paper format for U.S. government offices.
The Canadian standard CAN 2-9.60M “Paper Sizes for write an essay about cause Correspondence” defines the six formats P1 (560 ? 860 mm), P2 (430 ? 560 mm), P3 (280 ? 430 mm), P4 (215 ? 280 mm), P5 (140 ? 215 mm), and beginning, P6 (107 ? 140 mm). These are just the U.S. sizes rounded to the nearest half centimeter (P4. U.S. Ledger). This Canadian standard was introduced in write cause of stress, 1976, even though the discussion essays, Ontario Government already had introduced the ISO A series formats before in 1972.
Even though these Canadian paper sizes look somewhat like a pseudo-metric standard, they still suffer from the write of stress, two major inconveniences of the U.S. formats, namely they have no common height/width ratio and they differ significantly from what the rest of the a good beginning a good essay, world uses. Note: It was proposed for an early draft of ISO 216 to recommended the special size 210 ? 280 mm (a format sometimes called PA4) as an interim measure for write an essay cause and effect countries that use 215 ? 280 mm paper and have not yet adopted the ISO A series. Some magazines and other print products that have to be printed economically on both A4 and U.S. Letter presses use the PA4 format today. What Makes You Happy Essay! Incidentally, this PA4 format has a width/height ratio of 3:4, the same as traditional TV screens and an essay about cause and effect of stress, most computer monitors and video modes. Both the “Letter” and “Legal” format could easily be replaced by A4, “Executive” (if it is really needed) by B5, and “Ledger/Tabloid” by A3. Similarly, the A–E formats can be replaced by momma's encounter essay - maya A4–A0. It can be hoped and an essay about and effect of stress, expected that with the continuing introduction of the metric system in the United States, the ISO paper formats will eventually replace non-standard paper formats also in North America. Conversion to encounter - maya angelou A4 as the common business letter and document format in North America would not be too difficult, as practically all modern software, copying machines, and laser printers sold today in the U.S. Write An Essay Cause! already support A4 paper as a standard feature. Users of photocopiers outside the U.S. and Canada usually take it for granted that the machine is able to enlarge A4 > A3 or reduce A3 > A4, the two paper formats usually kept in machines with two paper trays.
When they use a copier in North America, it often comes as a disappointing surprise when they find out write contrat essay, that magnifying an entire page is not a function available there. The absence of this useful capability is write of stress a direct result of the unfortunate design of the U.S. paper formats. North American copiers usually also have two or more paper trays, but these are mostly used for the two very similar “Letter” and “Legal” formats, wasting the opportunity of offering a highly useful magnifying capability. Any enlarging of a “Letter” page onto essay “Legal” paper will always chop off margins and is therefore of little use. The Legal format itself is quite rarely used, the notion that it is for “legal” work is a popular myth; the about and effect, vast majority of U.S. legal documents are actually using the “Letter” format. Some copiers also offer in addition or instead the next larger “Ledger” format, but that again has a different aspect ratio and will therefore change the margins of essay a document during magnification or reduction. Based on the experience from the introduction of ISO paper formats in other industrialized countries at various points during the 20th century, it becomes clear that this process needs to write about cause of stress be initiated by a political decision to encounter - maya angelou move all government operation to about and effect of stress the new paper format system. History shows that the commercial world then gradually and smoothly adopts the new government standard for office paper within about 10–15 years. It would not be a major operation to fungi+research papers do this in the U.S. and Canada as well, especially considering that most standard software and office machines are already prepared for write an essay cause and effect A4. Write! However, such a project can succeed only if the of stress, national executive has the political will to accomplish this.
The transition period of about a decade is necessary to avoid expensive equipment replacement costs for printers, especially those with older large rotary presses that were not yet designed to be easily retooled for ISO paper sizes. If you purchase new office or printing equipment in endophytic papers, North America, it might be wise to pay attention whether the equipment is suitable for an essay of stress use with A4 paper. When you make inquiries, best indicate to vendors that ISO 216 compatibility of equipment is of concern to you. If you live in the U.S. and have never been abroad, you might not be aware that paper and accessories in fungi+research, the North-American sizes are not commonly available outside North America. They are very difficult to obtain in most other countries and the only practical way to get U.S. “Letter” there is to cut one of the next larger available sizes (usually B4, A3 or RA4). Therefore, do not expect anyone to send you documents in “Letter” format from abroad. If you send documents to any other country, your use of write cause and effect of stress A4 will greatly ease the endophytic fungi+research papers, handling and filing of your documents for the recipient. If you design software that might be used globally, please keep in an essay of stress, mind that the makes you happy essay, vast majority of laser printer users will print onto A4 paper.
Therefore, always make A4 the default setting and write an essay about and effect of stress, the first selection choice in your printing user interface. Remember that it is the paper format used by about 95% of the people on this planet. Due to popular demand, I have prepared an unofficial table with the ISO sizes in inch fractions. Each listed inch fraction has the you happy, smallest denominator that keeps the value within the ISO 216 tolerance limits. Product designers should use the official millimeter values instead. There is also a table in PostScript points. The dominance of the “Letter” format instead of about and effect ISO A4 as the common laser-printer paper format in compare essay, North America causes a lot of problems in daily international document exchange with the USA and write about and effect of stress, Canada.
ISO A4 is 6 mm less wide but 18 mm higher than the U.S. “Letter” format. Word processing documents with an A4 layout can often not be printed without loss of information on “Letter” paper or require you to reformat the text, which will change the page numbering. Fungi+research! “Letter” format documents printed outside North America either show too much white space on the top or bottom of the page or the printer refuses to operate as “Letter” format paper has been selected by the software but is not available. Write About Of Stress! A4 size documents have to encounter angelou be copied or printed with a 94% magnification factor to write an essay cause and effect of stress fit on the 6% less tall “Letter” paper, and “Letter” documents have to essay - maya angelou be printed with 97% size to an essay fit on the 3% less wide A4 format. Universities in endophytic fungi+research papers, the U.S. increasingly use A4 size paper in write about cause and effect of stress, laser printers and library copying machines, because most conferences outside North America require papers to beginning a good be submitted in A4 format and many journals and conference proceedings are printed in write an essay about cause and effect of stress, A4 format. The three-hole 108-mm filing system widely used in the U.S. is what makes you happy essay not compatible with the two-hole 80-mm ISO system used in write an essay about cause and effect, most other countries. The three-hole system could of endophytic fungi+research course also be used on A4 pages, but many files with a three-hole mechanism are only write an essay cause of stress, designed for endophytic U.S. “Letter” sheets and are not tall enough to reliably protect A4 pages. Another disadvantage of the write an essay cause of stress, three-hole system is that it is not suitable for storing formats smaller than U.S. “Letter”. The U.S. Essay! Postal Service standard-size range for first-class or single piece third-class mail weighing up to 28 g includes ISO C6 and of stress, DL envelopes. The U.S. currently use quite a large number of envelope formats.
The U.S. paper industry has managed to come up with a truly bizarre way of fungi+research papers specifying the density of paper. About Cause And Effect Of Stress! Instead of providing you with the obvious quotient of mass per area (e.g., in grams per square meter, ounces per square yard, whatever), they specify the yourself, total mass M of a ream of write an essay cause and effect N pages of some size X ? Y . This means, you have to know four (!) values in order to understand how to calculate the (scalar) paper density M /( N ? X ? Y ). Essay! The problem is that N ? X ? Y depend on the type of paper, but are rarely stated explicitly. Example: “20 lb paper” can mean that a reference ream of 500 pages in format 24?36 in has a total mass of 20 pounds. The particular reference ream size of 24 in ? 36 in ? 500 pages = 278.70912 m?/ream is often used in news-print applications. With 453.59237 g/lb and 278.70912 m?/ream, we get a conversion factor of about 1 lb/ream = 1.63 g/m?. But that factor applies only for the news-print reference ream size 24?36 in, which is by no means universal! Example: If you look instead at U.S. “Letter” office paper, “20 lb paper” means something very different. Here, the write an essay cause of stress, reference ream size is fungi+research usually 17 in ? 22 in ? 500 pages = 120.6449 m?/ream, which corresponds to four actual reams. And so the conversion factor becomes 1 lb/ream = 3.7597 g/m?, meaning that for example 20 lb/ream = 75.19 g/m? and 24 lb/ream = 90.23 g/m?.
It is a big pain if you have to do these conversions yourself and you really should complain to write an essay paper suppliers who still do not manage to communicate simple g/m? values (commonly called “grammage” in both English and French) for essays australia their products. Before I forget it: readers fascinated by the idea of some Europeans using A6 as a toilet paper size might also be interested to hear that the U.S. have for the same application field a standard square format of 4.5?4.5 in = 114?114 mm, which is for cause of stress instance documented in New Jersey Specification No. 7572-01 (May 1997), section 2.3. Below follow some links to various other on-line locations that will help you to enter the ISO paper format world. The Guide to International Paper Sizes by EDS Inc. describes ISO, JIS, and non-metric paper formats Brian Forte: A4 vs US Letter and Paper sizes for screenplay presentation Making Postscript and essay, Acrobat Files International by Jacob Palme explains the problems caused by the difference between U.S. Letter and cause and effect, ISO A4 laser printer paper formats Imperial Paper and Book Sizes Some very nice A4 paper artwork by Peter Callesen.
Although it is still rarely advertised, ISO A4 laser printer and copying paper, as well as suitable files and folders, are available today from a good beginning makes many U.S. office supply companies. A4 paper and supplies have been regularly ordered in write an essay cause, the U.S. for many years, especially by momma's essay - maya angelou companies and organizations with a lot of international correspondence, including patent lawyers, diplomats, universities, and some government agencies. Many of the cause, larger stationery chains do offer at least one type of a good makes A4 paper in their catalogues. Often the only type of A4 paper available is a higher-quality brand: the type of paper one might prefer for write about and effect of stress important documents, such as international patent applications. The U.S.-manufactured laser-printer paper perhaps most widely available in A4 format appears to be “Hammermill Fore MP White” (search for order code HAM103036), but there are others as well.
If the shop assistant is unfamiliar with “A4 paper”, try asking for contrat “210 mm ? 297 mm”, “8 1/4 in ? 11 3/4 in”, “international size”, or “European size” paper. When I first wrote this page in 1996 while I lived in the U.S., most shops there did not keep A4 paper on stock routinely and might have to order it first. Many were only able to order entire boxes of 10 reams (5000 sheets) and write cause and effect, many shop assistants were unfamiliar with the australia, ISO paper-size system. Write An Essay About And Effect Of Stress! I am being told that the situation has improved quite a bit during the last decade and that A4 paper and accessories are now a lot easier to australia obtain, but are still considered specialty items. If you still cannot find any supply for A4 paper in your area, then try for example the following vendors in North America, who have confirmed to cause have A4 paper or related articles on stock for write compare contrat fast delivery: Empire Imports Inc., European Office Supplies, P.O. Box 2728, Amherst, MA 01004-2728, phone 1-800-544-4744, fax 1-800-835-5140, has a very good selection of A4 filebinders, ISO hole punches, A4 paper, etc.
Try their A4 starter kit. European Office Solutions Inc., 6103 Silken Laumann Way, Mississauga, Ontario L5V 1A1, Canada, phone 1-877-929-9713, sells A4 copier paper and many accessories. Office Depot sells Hammermill Fore DP Paper, 8 1/4 x 11 3/4, 20 Lb., 96 Brightness, Ream Of 500 Sheets, Item #: 261782 Staples has recently started to and effect offer A4 paper (e.g., HammerMill Fore MP Premium Multi-Function Paper A4-Size, item no. HAM103036), A4 ring binders, A4 sheet protectors, and other international size office accessories. (You can select “Paper size 8.27 x 11.69” on the U.S. web site to write find A4 products.) OfficeMax sells X-9 Multiuse Copy Paper, 92 Bright, 500 Sheets/Ream, A4, 20 lb.. An Essay About Cause And Effect! Xpedx operate a chain of discussion paper stores in the U.S. (mainly in industrial or commercial areas) and an essay cause of stress, store A4 paper as a regular stock item. IKEA has been reported to sell in write compare, its U.S. Write An Essay Cause And Effect Of Stress! stores not only beginning ending essay, filing cabinets that are designed for both A4 and U.S. Write An Essay About Cause And Effect! “Letter”, but also frames, office paper and other office supplies in both ISO and U.S. format.
Hammermill Fore MP White Office Paper, 20-lb.Sub., 210mm x 297mm, Internat’l A4 Xerox, sells A4 paper (e.g., “Premium Multipurpose 4024, A4” or “Business 4200, A4”, order no. 3R2594) for - maya laser printers and copying machines. GRAYTEX PAPERS, phone 1-800-813-5828, are another US supplier of A3, A4, and A5 papers. Write An Essay Cause And Effect! more on-line paper vendors can easily be found via the makes essay, Yahoo! Internet directory. This is just a small, arbitrary collection of some North American paper vendors that offer ISO format paper or related supplies. This text summarizes and explains the content of the an essay about cause and effect of stress, following international standards: ISO 216:1975, Writing paper and certain classes of printed matter — Trimmed sizes — A and B series. ISO 269:1985, Correspondence envelopes — Designation and sizes. Essay! ISO 623:1974, Paper and board — Folders and files — Sizes. ISO 838:1974, Paper — Holes for an essay about cause and effect of stress general filing purposes — Specifications.
ISO 7943-1:1987, Overhead Projectors — Projection stages — Dimensions. The following standards contain related information but are not covered here completely: ISO 217:1995, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and tolerances for primary and essay, supplementary ranges, and indication of an essay about and effect of stress machine direction. ISO 328:1974, Picture postcards and lettercards — Size. ISO 353:1975, Processed writing paper and certain classes of printed matter — Method of expression of what makes you happy essay dimensions. ISO 416:1974, Picture postcards — Area reserved for the address. ISO 478:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series — ISO primary range. ISO 479:1975, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and tolerances. ISO 593:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series — ISO supplementary range. ISO 618:1974, Paper — Articles of stationery that include detachable sheets — Overall trimmed sizes. These standards are available from. Case postale 56.
1, rue de Varembe. CH-1211 Geneve 20. fax: +41 22 733 34 30. The most comprehensive source of information about the ISO and about cause and effect, North American paper formats and many related standards, as well as their respective histories, is the a good ending essay, book Max Helbig, Winfried Hennig: DIN-Format A4 – Ein Erfolgssystem in Gefahr. Beuth-Kommentare, Deutsches Institut fur Normung, Beuth Verlag, 1988, 144 pages, ISBN 3-410-11878-0,
DIN also produced a brief German prospectus with information about the history of the DIN paper sizes: Die Geschichte der Papierformate.
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Causes and Effects of Stress: Family, Work, Health, and Other Stress
rotman resume format Did you know that your version of Internet Explorer is out of date? To get the best possible experience using our website we recommend downloading one of the an essay and effect of stress browsers below. To prepare for interviews effectively, you should spend an appropriate amount of a good time practicing for behavioural questions and cases/business scenarios, as well as researching the an essay cause and effect industry, company and role. Refer to the DISCOVER section for suggestions on makes a good essay how to research the role, company and industry Watch the Beyond B-School video, “Ace the Interview: Focus on the Company” After reading this section, continue to an essay about and effect, Interview Prep below. “Top Executive Recruiters Agree There Are Only Three True Interview Questions: Can you do the job? Will you love the job? Can we tolerate working with you?
That’s it. Those three. Think back, every question you’ve ever posed to others or had asked of you in a job interview is a subset of what makes essay a deeper in-depth follow-up to of stress, one of these three key questions. Each question potentially may be asked using different words, but every question, however it is discussion essays australia, phrased, is just a variation on one of cause of stress these topics: Strengths, Motivation and Fit.” Tell me about momma's - maya yourself Walk me through your resume Why are you interested in this role?/ Why do you want to work for us?
Why ? Why should we hire you? Demonstrate what you know about the company from readings, interactions with people who work there, etc. Highlight “fit” between your skills/competencies and the requirements and responsibilities of the position. Provide examples where you made a strong contribution through your work and the company benefited as a result. Two typical interview intro questions demystified: “Tell me about yourself.” vs. Write Cause! “Walk me through your resume”. These questions are used frequently by yourself Recruiters as ways to open conversations during interviews.
At first glance, both seem to be asking for and effect a similar kind of discussion answer. Don’t fall into that trap! Your answer should be no more than two minutes. Write About And Effect Of Stress! You want to write compare essay, provide the listener with a high level summary of who you are, what you’ve done and where you’d like to go in your career. It is meant to be a snapshot of you, your core message. You can talk about your current job or previous jobs or why you decided to pursue your MBA/MFin etc. I’m currently in the final year of the MFin program at Rotman, which I’ve been completing while working at Sears. I’ve worked as a Financial Analyst for the last 4 years and now I’m targeting Senior Financial Analyst roles in financial services. In my current role, I’m responsible for building financial models, and write an essay about, managing projects at the business unit level. The MFin has helped me realize that I want to beginning makes a good, broaden my industry expertise beyond retail and work in a role where I’m able to provide strategic financial insights to senior leadership.
“Walk me through your resume.” With this question, a Recruiter is inviting you to give him/her a summary of about and effect your educational and professional life. You can start with where you did your undergraduate degree and then move on - maya angelou to your first job, second job, etc. and then comment briefly on your extracurricular activities. Depending on your years of experience, it might make sense to start with your current position and work backwards – especially if the role you’re in now is the write an essay cause and effect most directly transferable to the job you’re interviewing for. For each job, pick out one or two achievements that illustrate your abilities. Discussion Australia! It is important to customize the answer to this question so it reflects the role you’re being considered for and/or the about of stress company you’re meeting with. For example, if you were being interviewed for you happy a Project Manager role, you’d want to about, pick out achievements that highlight your leadership and/or project management skills. Conversely, if you were interviewing for a communications role, you’d want to makes essay, draw upon previous experiences that demonstrate your capability in an essay about of stress, that area. It is also crucial to explain the reasons why you made each transition in your professional life.
Recruiters like to understand WHY people make decisions to a good, leave employers, switch careers, go back to an essay about of stress, school, etc. Include why you decided to pursue your MBA or MFin. Like the momma's encounter essay first question, there is write about and effect, no right or wrong answer here. A Good Makes A Good Essay! It is your life you’re summarizing. What recruiters are assessing as they listen is how well you synthesize information, how compelling you are in your presentation and what you’re choosing to share with them. The content itself is write of stress, relevant, but the way you present it is as important. Interviewers are looking to get to know you better through these questions and they are making an inference based on yourself the premise that past behavior is the best indicator of about cause and effect of stress future behaviour. “Proof” of your potential is discussion essays australia, demonstrated through your description of how you handled a situation in the past. To prepare for a behavioural interview, identify the key job competencies for the role you are interviewing for write an essay about cause of stress (e.g. leadership, problem solving, time management, team work, relationship building, persuasion, etc.). Think of yourself specific examples – in the last 3 to 5 years – whether at work, school or through volunteer or extra-curriculars where you have demonstrated those competencies. An Essay About And Effect! Describe those examples using the endophytic fungi+research WHO format, i.e.:
Your examples can include meetings, presentations, decisions, projects, and interactions that you had. Be sure to clearly state your role in write an essay about cause and effect, each of these examples (e.g. Beginning Makes! manager, lead, team member) and think about write about of stress what you did, said, thought and fungi+research papers, felt during those situations. Sample behavioural questions are: Tell me a time when you exhibited: Analytical thinking or solved an ambiguous problem Tell me a time when you exhibited: Leadership or initiative Tell me a time when you exhibited: Good communication or influenced others Tell me a time when you dealt with: Team conflict or project risk Tell me a time when you: Failed or overcame failure. TIP: Refer to the Tools Templates section for Frequently Asked Behavioural Competencies and Interview Preparation Worksheets using the WHO format. Hypothetical scenarios in cause and effect, which the interviewers assess your approach to potential problems/issues/processes, etc. If you are faced with multiple deadlines, what will you do? How would you handle it?
These questions are geared around solving problems on the spot. Usually the interviewer is intro yourself essay, trying to judge your logical thought process, general business knowledge and acumen, comfort with quantitative analysis, creativity and communications skills. These questions are role specific and typically quantitative, probing on write about cause and effect specific knowledge and skills. Be sure to essay, speak to write an essay about and effect of stress, industry-specific clubs for technical help. TIP: Refer to the Tools Templates section for sample Technical Interview Prep questions. Test your understanding and knowledge of trends/industry by asking for your opinion. Prepare 5+ questions to ask your interviewer.
This is intro yourself, your opportunity to demonstrate your interest and knowledge about the role and write an essay of stress, company, while also showing interest and australia, curiosity about the interviewer’s job/career (people always like to write cause of stress, talk about themselves). Always ask about “next steps” of the recruiting process and ask for business card for write essay follow up. It helps to an essay, wrap up with a summary statement of a good makes ending essay your appreciation, why you think you are a good fit, reiterate your interest in the role (many people forget to do this!) and give a clear indication that you are excited about next steps. When asking the interviewer your questions, follow these guidelines: Don’t let this opportunity turn into an essay an interrogation. Endophytic Fungi+research Papers! Don’t bring a laundry list of questions to an essay cause, the interview. Ask questions that you’re fairly certain the momma's encounter - maya interviewer can answer (depending on level, position in the company). Don’t ask about vacation or benefits. You can always follow up after the interview with specifics related to the package. Here are some possible questions you might want to ask during the interview:
What attracted you to this organization? What do you enjoy about working for the company? What’s the write an essay about and effect company’s culture? Could you describe the work environment? What do you consider to be the essay company’s strengths and weaknesses? I read last week in write about, the ABS newspaper that the encounter essay angelou firm did _____. Have you felt the impact of that in write and effect, the local office? What assignments and projects will I be working on? Whom will I supervise? What do you see as the career progression for this role? When can I expect to hear from you?
How you follow up after each interview can be critically important to your success. A good thank you email can provide an opportunity to: Demonstrate why you are an ideal candidate for the role/reconfirm why you should be selected for the role over another candidate Reiterate your interest in the position. You may want to leave a voice message or written card/note when there is more time in between interview rounds. Follow up only after the recruitment timeline has passed, and ask for feedback, even if you are moving to the next round – but know that companies are often reluctant to provide specific feedback. Watch the write “Performing Under Pressure: Top Interview Tools” ( 11 mins) Beyond B-School Video for an end-to-end approach to write and effect, interviewing, right through to calming your nerves on the day-of.
Read the Articles on the right – “5 Hiring Secrets You Need to intro yourself, Know Before Your Next Job Interview”, “6 Ways to Create Interview Chemistry ” and “12 Facts About Body Language You Should Know Before Your Next Job Interview”. When an write an essay cause and effect of stress, interview is set up, ask with whom you will be meeting and how long you should expect the interview to essay, run. Look up your interviewer(s) on LinkedIn but do not invite them to connect Review their profile/experience, years at the company or in their current role, etc. Check if you share anything in common (school, hobbies, etc.) that might be used to break the ice in the interview. Google the name of your interviewer(s) to see if they have published any white papers, thought leadership, been quoted in any recent newspaper, blog or journal articles. Your interviewer will impressed that you took the time to research them/their background prior to the interview. Complete the Interview Preparation Worksheet to prepare examples and stories for essential behavioural themes; use input from the job description to identify additional key competencies. TIP: Refer to the documents in the Tools Templates section for more checklists and practice questions. VideoBIO is a new video platform to practice and improve your interview skills including your professional pitch. VideoBIO allows you to create an individual video bio/intro/pitch – a unique way to showcase your skills, experiences and career direction!
Here are some other ways you can take advantage of this new platform: Record your personalized video bio/introduction/pitch to share with potential contacts, and/or as a way to practice your Professional Pitch! Practice your interviewing by recording your responses and sending to others for feedback. An Essay And Effect! Your responses are saved so you can see your progress over time! Access 100s of interview questions organized by Function/Role Competencies/Attributes Access a variety of interviewing and video bio tutorials. Start practicing your pitch today! Create a video bio and share with your Career Coach for yourself feedback: Go to http://rotman.videobiorecruiter.com , enter your Rotman email address and create your own password.
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SecureTheJob.com is built on the belief that the best advice about a job comes from the people who have actually had that job. You’ll find hundreds of experience-based comments written by endophytic their community of users that can give you tips on how to cause and effect of stress, best present yourself as the ideal candidate and yourself, ask the right questions. Dress is business formal unless otherwise stated Have a mint before the interview Avoid wearing strong perfume/cologne Bring a portfolio with: Paper and pen 2 copies of your resume Copy of the job posting Interview phone # and address List of your references Business cards Arrive 10 minutes early (not 15!) When you perceive that a company is seriously interested in write an essay about cause and effect, hiring you, the essay window for negotiation is narrow. You must be ready to shift from an essay about cause of stress selling yourself to asking for what you want. Ideally, you will have started your research at discussion australia, the application stage so that you have some reassurance that the write an essay about cause and effect offer will be within your desired range. That said, try to disclose as little as possible on salary in the interview process because you have no negotiating power until you have an offer. If you have a verbal or written offer, the employer will not take it away for asking professionally if the salary is negotiable. While every situation is different, there are some basics to keep in encounter, mind when you begin to develop your negotiation strategy:
The most important ingredient for negotiating is attitude. Plan with a positive attitude and the desire for a win/win outcome. Negotiate from a reasonable position with rationale for the alternatives you propose. Link all negotiable items to the job itself. If there are several points to negotiate, set them all out at one time. You may want other items besides base salary e.g. vacation, signing bonus, accelerated time to promotion, etc. Negotiate job content, including responsibilities, authority, interactions, and staff support at the time of the offer.
When negotiating salary, know what the going rate is for an essay cause and effect comparable positions in similar size companies in intro essay, the industry and location. Avoid discussing perks until major issues (salary, bonuses, etc.) have been agreed upon. Mentioning them earlier can put issues on the table that can be negotiated away. Never make an impromptu decision during a negotiation. You must decide the about cause and effect limits of your flexibility before you begin negotiation. 14 mins total) Beyond B-School Videos Read How to Negotiate Your Next Salary” and “Negotiating What You’re Worth” in the Articles section. There are several free websites and resources available to research the (approximate) salary of many business-related positions: In most negotiations, base salary is the you happy essay most important item for both parties.
Proper timing and handling of the salary issue are critical. Committing yourself to a job too soon reduces your chance to negotiate or to trade off other factors. If bonus is an important component in an essay about cause, your future package, you need to explore how it will be determined and what range of magnitude is likely based on history and current profit trends. A Good Beginning Makes Ending! If a bonus is based on write and effect of stress personal performance, you need to endophytic, know what opportunities, resources and limitations you will have, and cause, importantly what measurement criteria will be applied. There are many other compensation factors besides salary and bonus that can be traded off, such as benefits, vacation entitlement, stock options, equity and profit participation. Momma's Essay Angelou! Additionally, there is an assortment of non-financial perks to negotiate, some of which have cash or tax value such as an about of stress, expense account, company car and gas allowance. Many professionals value their family time as much as their work time, share equally with their partners in discussion, household management and are demanding concessions from their employers to support their priorities. Keep in mind the kinds of issues that may be meaningful to you, such as: Working from cause and effect home Time off or flexible schedule Child/elder care assistance Tuition reimbursement Gym or fitness club membership Professional development (courses, certifications, conferences) Additional Reading - Check the Rotman Library.
The First 90 days: Critical Success Strategies for what New Leaders at All Levels – Michael Watkins The New Leader's 100-Day Action Plan: How to Take Charge, Build Your Team, and Get Immediate Results – Bradt, Check, Pedraza. Sponsored by Career Services to give you leading-edge career management resources. Ace the Interview: Focus on the Company. Performing Under Pressure: Top Interview Tools. Negotiating Compensation 2: Determining your Market Value. Negotiating Compensation 3: Getting the write an essay cause and effect of stress Optimal Package. Identify your interests, values and strengths. Create your personal value proposition and match it to intro, marketplace needs and opportunities.
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Cause and effect: stress essays
A literature synthesis of write an essay cause symptom prevalence and severity in persons receiving active cancer treatment. Patients with cancer experience acute and makes you happy essay chronic symptoms caused by an essay cause their underlying disease or by the treatment. While numerous studies have examined the impact of what you happy essay various treatments on symptoms experienced by cancer patients, there are inconsistencies regarding the symptoms measured and an essay cause reported in momma's encounter - maya angelou, treatment trials. This article presents a systematic review of the write an essay of stress research literature of the essays prevalence and severity of symptoms in patients undergoing cancer treatment. A systematic search for studies of persons receiving active cancer treatment was performed with the search terms of “multiple symptoms” and “cancer” for studies involving patients over the age of write cause 18 years and endophytic fungi+research published in English during the years 2001 to 2011. Search outputs were reviewed independently by seven authors, resulting in the synthesis of and effect of stress 21 studies meeting criteria for generation of an a good beginning makes a good ending, Evidence Table reporting symptom prevalence and an essay cause and effect severity ratings.
Data were extracted from yourself essay 21 multi-national studies to develop a pooled sample of 4,067 cancer patients in whom the cause prevalence and severity of individual symptoms was reported. In total, the pooled sample across the discussion essays 21 studies was comprised of an essay cause and effect 62 % female, with a mean age of 58 years (range 18 to endophytic papers 97 years). A majority (62 %) of these studies assessed symptoms in homogeneous samples with respect to tumor site (predominantly breast and lung cancer), while 38 % of the included studies utilized samples with mixed diagnoses and treatment regimens. Eighteen instruments and structured interviews were including those measuring single symptoms, multi-symptom inventories, and single symptom items drawn from HRQOL or health status measures. The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory was the most commonly used instrument in the studies analyzed ( n = 9 studies; 43 %), while the write cause Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, Hospital Anxiety and makes Depression Subscale, Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36, and write cause Symptom Distress Scale were each employed in two studies. Forty-seven symptoms were identified across the a good makes a good essay 21 studies which were then categorized into write cause and effect of stress, 17 logical groupings. Write Compare. Symptom prevalence and write an essay about cause of stress severity were calculated across the entire cohort and also based upon sample sizes in which the symptoms were measured providing the ability to rank symptoms. Symptoms are prevalent and beginning ending essay severe among patients with cancer. Therefore, any clinical study seeking to evaluate the cause of stress impact of treatment on patients should consider including measurement of symptoms. This study demonstrates that a discrete set of symptoms is momma's essay - maya angelou, common across cancer types.
This set may serve as the basis for defining a “core” set of about and effect symptoms to be recommended for elicitation across cancer clinical trials, particularly among patients with advanced disease. Patients with cancer experience acute and chronic symptoms caused both by their underlying disease and by the often toxic treatments employed in a good a good ending essay, oncology care [ 1 , 2 ]. Clinical investigators, regulators, and healthcare providers often focus on the prevention or cure of illness, whereas relief of write about cause and effect of stress symptoms is a paramount goal for patients [ 3 , 4 ]. Symptoms are a common reason healthcare is endophytic fungi+research, sought and an impetus for testing to definitively diagnose an write cause and effect, illness or injury. Once treatment is implemented, symptomatic treatment toxicities frequently develop [ 5 ]. Discussion Australia. While numerous studies have examined the write an essay about cause and effect impact of various treatments and discussion australia medications on symptoms in patients receiving cancer treatment, a limitation in write about cause, comparing these outcomes is the lack of a common or “core” set of patient-reported symptoms, consistently measured across studies. For example, one study may report an improvement in endophytic fungi+research, nausea with a specified treatment and another study may report worsening fatigue, leaving the an essay about cause of stress clinician and patient comparing treatment efficacies and weighing side effects based upon disparate outcomes. These differences in symptom outcomes between studies to some extent can be attributed to the use of australia varying symptom assessment questionnaires and strategies. While there is value to focusing on specific symptoms in particular clinical contexts (e.g., pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer to write bone), there is also value in assessing a common set of symptoms both in order to characterize the broader impact of essay - maya angelou disease and treatment on the patient experience, and to enable cross-trial comparisons and aggregation of data.
Therefore, in 2011, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a scientific meeting to identify a standard core set of patient-reported symptoms to be recommended across cancer clinical trials as well as existing questionnaires that are appropriate for assessing these symptoms. As a component of this initiative, a multi-disciplinary team conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that measured the prevalence and severity of symptoms in patients undergoing cancer treatment. In 2009, Esther Kim et al. [ 25 ] published a literature synthesis of cancer symptomatology in an essay and effect, 18 studies. Fungi+research. This paper and four additional literature reviews [ 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 ] identified in write cause of stress, our systematic search were excluded from this analysis. Momma's. Instead, the findings by Esther Kim et al. An Essay And Effect. (that also contained these four papers) were compared to our findings (see “ Discussion ”). Unlike the Esther Kim et al. synthesis which only included studies that used the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), Memorial Symptom Assessment Scales (MSAS), or the Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), this present analysis intentionally did not limit to any specific assessment instrument so that a wide array of symptoms could be collated and analyzed across a broader range of studies. Nine publications that failed to report symptom statistics [ 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 ] and one publication that was a secondary study of a sample already included in this analysis [ 39 ] were excluded, resulting in 21 studies included in essay, this analysis [ 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 ]. Potentially relevant data were abstracted for the review including disease/treatment, sample, instrument used to an essay about and effect measure symptoms, and symptom prevalence and severity. Where information about prevalence and severity was not presented, the authors were contacted by e-mail to obtain the necessary detail.
Data were managed using Excel. Analysis and synthesis methodology. Sample characteristics ( n , age, stage, treatment type, phase of care, special population) Outcome measure(s) of symptoms, functioning, and/or HRQL. Study design/analytic approach. What. Symptoms and symptom dimensions (provide %s or #s as they relate to prevalence, severity, duration, and/or interference) Comments and caveats. 100 patients during the acute phase of autologous PBSC transplantation with multiple myeloma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-BMT) and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) were completed at baseline, 3–4 days into conditioning, day of transplant, day of write nadir, and endophytic 30 days post transplant. Write About Cause And Effect Of Stress. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) at BL and beginning makes a good ending 30 days.
The time point associated with the and effect most reported disturbances was nadir: the encounter essay - maya top five symptoms at each time point rated by patients as moderate to severe were: BL 29 % fatigue, 21 % pain, 17 % distress, 14 % weakness, 13 % sadness; Conditioning: 34 % disturbed sleep, 22 % fatigue, 22 % loss of appetite, 14 % nausea, 13 % weakness; Transplant: 34 % loss of appetite, 32 % fatigue, 26 % disturbed sleep, 25 % nausea, 23 % weakness. Nadir: 56 % lack of appetite, 55 % fatigue, 52 % weakness, 42 % feeling sick, 39 % disturbed sleep; Day 30: 34 % fatigue, 31 % weakness, 14 % disturbed sleep, 11 % loss appetite, 10 % distress. Cancer diagnosis was a significant predictor of changes in write an essay and effect, symptoms over time. The patterns of fatigue, pain, sleep disturbance, and lack of appetite were significantly different for momma's essay - maya angelou, patients with multiple myeloma as compared with patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Bevans, Mitchell, Marden (2008) 76 adults undergoing allogeneic HSCT from a single institution. Mean age of 40 years (SD 13.5 years). 67 % of the write cause sample was male; 30 % of the write compare sample was Hispanic; two thirds were undergoing transplant for an essay about, acute or chronic leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma; 66 % were in intro yourself essay, a complete remission at the time of transplant, while 34 % had progressive disease. Symptom Distress Scale (SDS) Longitudinal study with data about the symptom experience collected pre-transplant, day 0 (after HSCT conditioning), and days 30 and 100 post-transplant. The most prevalent symptoms at baseline were fatigue and write an essay and effect of stress worry (both 68 %), at day 0, the most prevalent symptom was appetite change (88 %), and fatigue was most prevalent at days 30 (90 %) and 100 (81 %). Contrat Essay. Symptoms that were severely distressing including worry (16 % severely distress at baseline), insomnia (32 % severely distressed at day 0), appetite change (22 % severely distressed at day 30), and fatigue (11 % severely distressed at day 100).
The SDS was highest at day 0 (mean 26.6 SD 7.6), when the write of stress highest number of symptoms were reported. Symptoms formed clusters comprised of fatigue, appearance change, and endophytic papers worry at baseline, and fatigue, insomnia, and and effect bowel changes at days 0 and intro essay 30. Examining the an essay and effect of stress symptom experience over compare, time, it is and effect of stress, apparent that HSCT patients tend to write compare contrat essay present for transplantation with low symptom distress, and experience multiple symptoms and write about and effect high symptom distress after conditioning. Though not consistently the most prevalent or distressing, GI complications, including bowel changes, nausea, and appetite limitations, were noted across the treatment trajectory. Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) 121 patients with breast (40 %), head and neck (33 %), or esophageal cancer (27 %) who were hospitalized in Northern Taiwan for chemotherapy (76 %), symptom management (20 %) and follow-up or surgery (4.1 %).
Male = 55 %. Mean age = 52.19 (SD 10.44). Range = 26–81. Cancer stage = II (15 %), III (17 %), IV (33 %), missing (36 %) Patient Disease Symptom/Sign Assessment Scale (PDSA), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Subscale (HADS-D) Insomnia was the most prevalent symptom (67 %), followed by pain (62 %), anorexia (47 %), fatigue/weakness (40 %), nausea/vomiting (24 %), wound/pressure sore (17 %), dyspnea (14 %), edema (8.3 %), elimination problems (2.5 %), and change in consciousness (0 %). The average number of symptoms for total sample was 2.83 (median 3.0, range = 0–7).
55 % reported 3 or more. 25 % were classified as depressed (HADS-D cutoff of 11). The average number of symptoms observed total sample was 3.77 (median 3.5), depressed patients had average number of 3.77 (median = 3.5) and non-depressed had 2.52 (median = 2.0). What. Depressed patients showed a significantly higher occurrence rate than that of non-depressed patients in insomnia, pain, anorexia, fatigue, and write about wound/pressure sore. Patients simultaneously experiencing insomnia, pain, anorexia, and fatigue had a higher risk of intro yourself depression (odds ratio 5.03) Using HADS-D to an essay about cause measure depression decreases the likelihood of confounding the assessment of depression with physical symptoms caused by cancer and its treatment since HADS-D does not use physical symptoms to measure depression. 329 multi-disease site pts. Study from Taiwan 29 % breast; 25 % GI; 76 % local disease without mets; time since dx 1–311 mos with median of 14 mos; 53 % had chemo; 73 % had RT. Momma's Encounter Essay Angelou. MDASI-Taiwanese-13 common ca related symptoms measured on scale 1–10 assessed in write an essay about cause and effect of stress, primary study but only 9 symptoms used in makes you happy, this secondary CFA analysis based on previous EFA (Chen and Tseng 2006) Secondary analysis of cross-sectional study; confirmatory factor analysis. Mean # of symptoms per write an essay about and effect of stress pt = 6.6 (range 0–13); prevalence 72 % dry mouth; 70 % fatigue; 63 % sleep disturbance; 3 clusters: sickness including pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep and drowsiness; GI including NV and lack of beginning makes appetite; emotional including distress and sadness.
115 outpatients with cancer, who had not received cancer treatment in an essay cause and effect of stress, the last 30 days who reported at least 2 symptoms. Female = 61 %. Mean age = 57.2 (SD 13.5). Type of cancer—breast = 38.9 %, lung = 23.9 %, prostate = 10.6 %, genitourinary = 13.3 %, head and momma's encounter neck = 7.1 %, gastrointestinal = 5.3 %, and other = 0.9 %. Presence of metastases = 67.6 %. Previous treatment—chemotherapy = 51.4 %, radiation therapy = 55.0 %, hormonal therapy = 19.8 %, and surgery = 66.7 %. Country of study = Brazil. Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the write about and effect of stress Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Prevalence and mean of symptoms as follows: pain 100 %, 7.36; fatigue 87 %, 41.50; insomnia 73 %, 57.39; constipation 51 %, 36.52; lack of appetite 50 %, 37.97; dyspnea 44 %, 24.19; depression 44 %, 14.43; nausea and vomiting 28 %, 11.65; diarrhea 11 %, 5.01. Application of two-step cluster analysis resulted in essay, two distinct patient subgroups based on 113 patient symptom experiences.
One group had multiple and severe symptom subgroup and another had less symptoms and with lower severity. An Essay About Of Stress. Pain scale 0–10, depression 0–63, other symptoms 0–100. n = 220, with newly diagnosed lung; sample from 24 community oncology sites in Michigan; 91 % white; 65–89 years (mean 72); stages 0–II—38 %, stages III–IV—62 %; treatment—surgery 42 %, chem 43 %, rad 63 % Given (lead author) Physical Symptom Experience tool (37 symptoms; occurrence, severity, interference). Contrat Essay. Secondary data analysis of NIH panel study; data collected at diagnosis. Most frequent (%): fatigue 79; up at cause night urinate 68; cough 65; pain 60; diff breathing 58; weakness 57; app loss 50; dry mouth 49; wt loss 45; altered taste 35; nausea 34; lack of sex interest 31; diff swallow 30; dizziness 23; diff concentrating 20; problems coordination 16; vomiting 15; hot flashes 7; arms swelling 2. Most severe (mean, scale 1–3): arm swell 2.33; lack sex interest 2.07; vomit 2; hot flash 1.94; trouble sleep 1.89; fatigue 1.84; pain 1.84; diff breath 1.82; diff swallow 1.82; alter taste 1.76; app loss 1.74; weakness 1.69; wt loss 1.67; problems coordination 1.61; dry mouth 1.56; cough 1.54; diff concentrating 1.44; dizziness 1.43; up at essay night urinate 1.39. 31 adult renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients: average age 55 years; 55 % of patients were male, 74 % had attended college, and 97 % were Caucasian. The participating RCC patients were a convenience sample drawn from the write an essay cause Kidney Cancer Association (KCA) membership.
A brief, self-administered RCC Symptom Index was created that captures the relevant signs and symptoms of contrat essay both localized and metastatic patients. Pending additional content validation, the index can be used to assess the an essay about cause and effect signs and symptoms of RCC and the clinical benefit resulting from essays australia RCC treatment. National cross-sectional study was conducted to define patient-reported RCC symptomatology. The five most frequent symptoms among localized stage patients ( n = 14) were irritability (79 %), pain (71 %), fatigue (71 %), worry (71 %), and sleep disturbance (64 %). Cause And Effect. Among metastatic patients ( n = 17), the five most frequent symptoms were fatigue (82 %), weakness (65 %), worry (65 %), shortness of breath (53 %), and irritability (53 %). More than 50 % of localized and metastatic-stage patients reported pain, weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbance, urinary frequency, worry, and momma's essay - maya angelou mood disorders as being moderately to highly relevant. The RCC Symptom Index was developed through a structured, iterative process that drew upon write an essay about and effect of stress several information sources to identify the appropriate signs and symptoms. A broad range of physiological and psychological disease manifestations were identified and found relevant by a national, US cohort of compare contrat essay RCC patients who were undoubtedly treated at different cancer centers.
N = 287, Australian women age 74 or younger (mean 54), early stage, all post-surgery (PS) by 4 mo+, 87 % had one or more LNs dissected w median of 12 LNs examined. PRO: FACT-B + 4 (arm subscale), Disability of an essay about Arm, Shoulder, Hand (DASH) collected at momma's encounter 6 mo and q3 mo ?4. About Cause And Effect. Objective measures: ROM, Exercise protocol, Bio-impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) to measure LE. Descriptive study, prospective, longitudinal, population-based sample through cancer registry in write compare contrat, Queensland, Australia. Write Of Stress. Numbness (19–29 %) and swelling (13–23 %) most common symptoms. Multiple symptoms were 1.7? more common in LE pts and by 18 mo PS, having LE doubled chance of 1 or more symptoms. By 18 mo the differences were minimal, except those w LE reported more tingling, swelling, and numbness. 1 in 2 women reported moderate to extreme pain, tingling, weakness, stiffness, poor ROM, swelling, and/or numbness at 6 mo PS, but 51 % reported at makes essay least 1 complaint 12 mo later. Cause. n = 80 newly diagnosed with lung cancer; 2 CCOPs and 2 Comprehensive CA centers; age range 41–83, mean 63; Caucasian 95 %; early stage 10 %; late Stage 90 % Given (co-author) Cancer Symptom Experience Inventory (15 symptoms; occurrence, severity, interference) Secondary data analysis from baseline of randomized clinical trial; explore relationship among pain, fatigue, insomnia, and gender.
Most frequent (%): fatigue 97; pain 69; nausea 53; constipation 53; insomnia 51; poor appetite 50; cough 49; dry mouth 44; diff breathing 44; diarrhea 30; diff concentrating 26; coordination 24; vomiting 23; fever 11; mouth sores 8. 287 Turkish pts from a university hospital. Australia. 56 % male, 66 % had stage II disease; mean duration since tx was 3 yrs ± 2.5 yrs; 39 % GI, 17 % lung, 14 % AML/ALL, 13 % HN, 12 % breast. An Essay Cause And Effect Of Stress. 72 % had chemo only, 2 % RT only and compare contrat essay 8 % chemoRT. Cross-sectional design using hierarchical cluster analysis to write an essay about cause identify symptom clusters and beginning makes a good regression analysis to assess predictors of clusters. Prevalence: fatigue 95.5 %, difficulty remembering 91 %, sadness 90 %, loss of appetite 88 %, enjoyment of life 89 %, pain 88 %, distress 87 %, difficulty walking 87.5 %, dry mouth 87 %. Overall, 37.5 % had moderate and 12.5 % had severe symptoms. Write. Mean MDASI scores for 13 symptom items were 5 and 4.4 for the 6 interference items. 48 % of intro yourself pts rated loss of appetite, fatigue, sadness, dry mouth, and an essay about and effect distress as mod or severe.
Loss of encounter essay - maya angelou appetite was most prevalent symptom. The 6 interference symptoms formed a cluster (gen activity, mood, work relations with others, walking, and enjoyment with life); a second cluster was formed with sleep disturbance, difficulty remembering, pain, distress, sadness, fatigue, dry mouth, and appetite loss. A third cluster was formed with nausea, vomiting, SOB, numbness, and drowsiness. Cause. N = 55, age 60 or older (mean 68), 61% white, 37 % AA, stage I or II BCA. Symptom Distress Scale (SDS) Longitudinal data collection at hospital discharge and momma's 3 and an essay cause of stress 6 mo post-discharge. Secondary, descriptive analysis from write compare contrat essay a larger study of a home care nursing intervention on QOL of older pts newly diagnosed with several types of cancer. SDS scores range from 13 to write cause of stress 65 and intro yourself mean total SDS were 23.81 at discharge from hospital and an essay 20.52 at 3 mo, and 18.6 at 6 mo. Most frequent sx were fatigue, frequency of pain, outlook, and insomnia. More education and younger age were associated with greater symptom distress at discharge.
This analysis did not consider the possible effects of adjuvant chemo or hormones or radiation as its focus was on symptoms post-surgery of older women. Keene Sarenmalm (2007) N = 56, age 55 and older (mean 65), newly diagnosed w local, regional, or distant recurrent BCA (29 had loco-regional recurrence) (1/3 had past hx of anxiety and/or depression) MSAS, MSAS-PHYS, MSAS-PSYCH, TMSAS (total symptom burden), MSAS-GDI, HADS, Sense of a good beginning makes a good essay Coherence (soc) measures coping capacity, PACIS, QLQ-C30, IBCSG-QOL. Descriptive study, pts recruited prospectively from 2 oncology centers, correlation analyses with multiple regressions for developing prediction model. Write An Essay Cause. 65 % reported 10–23 symptoms (avg 14), prevalent sx 50 %: lack of energy (67 %), difficulty sleeping (61 %), pain (59 %), worrying (59 %), problems w sexual interest/activity (59 %), feeling sad (57 %), dry mouth (52 %) Stat sig correlations among highly related symptoms were worrying and feeling nervous, worrying and feeling sad, nausea and lack of appetite, difficulty swallowing, and feeling bloated. N = 282, women w BCA all stages, age 30, (mean 55), 92 % white, initiating rx of at least 3 cycles of ending chemo (44 %) or 6 wks of XRT (56 %) General fatigue scale, POMS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Side Effect Checklist. Time points—baseline pre-rx and write of stress 48 h post-rx 2 and 3. Secondary analysis of data from australia RCT of cognitive behavioral rx on fatigue (1999–2002 at 2 ca ctrs), factor analysis for write an essay about and effect of stress, symptom clusters. Common factoring identified a psychoneurological symptom cluster at essay 1st time point: depressed mood, cognitive disturbance, fatigue, insomnia, and pain and was generalizable to all subgroups. Symptom cluster at 2nd time point included upper-GI symptoms (nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite) Confounding variables on an essay cause of stress symptom clustering that included varying CTX regimens, XRT dose, hormonal rx, surgery type, and what makes time lapse since surgery were not controlled for. An Essay And Effect Of Stress. n = 16 at lung cancer clinic in Toronto mean age 67; 9 men, 7 women; chemo before 1st interview—4; btwn interviews—radiation 9, rad and chemo 2, surgery and rad 1, surgery only compare contrat essay, 1, chemo alone 1. Spontaneous reports and probes on symptoms (21 in total were identified) Semi-structured interview to describe their symptom experiences; interview at about and effect of stress time of diagnosis and second interview 2 months later. Out of endophytic fungi+research N = 16, symptoms with greater than 25 % include (#s are reported at about cause baseline and yourself essay 2 months later): fatigue = 14, 15; pain = 10, 9; shortness of write and effect of stress breath = 9, 7; loss of endophytic fungi+research appetite = 8, 11; cough = 8, 8; insomnia = 8, 9; mucus = 8, 9; weight loss = 8, 8; wheeze = 7, 4. Fatigue and pain most troublesome symptoms; most often cited combo of symptoms was respiratory symptoms (wheeze, cough, mucus, and shortness of breath) 165 cancer patients in Morocco (Arabic-speaking); mean age 48.7; 56 % female; 8 % receiving chemotherapy/14 % receiving radiotherapy; 32 % stage II–III/68 % stage IV; 95 % ECOG PS 2–4 (39 % ECOG PS 4); 21 % gastro-intestinal/19 % breast/15 % gynecological/12 % lung/8 % unknown/7 % genitourinary/7 % head and neck/10 % other.
MD Anderson Symptom Inventory Arabic version (MDASI-A); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) Cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods. Mean score (0–10 scale, in order of mean severity high to low): pain (9.62); fatigue (7.05); lack of write about cause and effect of stress appetite (6.07); disturbed sleep (5.35); dry mouth (5.07); sadness (4.85); distress (4.33); shortness of breath (3.89); numbness (3.76); drowsiness (3.28); nausea (3.03); difficulty remembering (2.85); vomiting (2.43). Discussion. % with score ?5 (moderate or severe; in order of incidence high to write about cause and effect low): pain (100 %); fatigue (86 %); lack of appetite (79 %); disturbed sleep (69 %); dry mouth (68 %); sadness (62 %); distress (54 %); shortness of breath (47 %); numbness (46 %); drowsiness (43 %); nausea (35 %); difficulty remembering (35 %); vomiting (25 %). Discussion Essays. % with score ?7 (severe; in order of write an essay about cause incidence high to low): pain (96 %); fatigue (65 %); lack of appetite (48 %); dry mouth (30 %); sadness (31 %); shortness of breath (29 %); distress (28 %); disturbed sleep (24 %); numbness (22 %); drowsiness (16 %); nausea (16 %); difficulty remembering (16 %); vomiting (15 %) Interview format; very poor performance status overall. 48 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemoradiation 5040 cGY in 28 fractions, capecitabine and bevacizumab) on discussion essays australia a phase I protocol. Median of 58 years of age 9range 41–80), 92 % Caucasian, equally divided between males and females. KPS was preserved (100 % of the sample with KPS 80 %), however 74 % had one or more comorbidities.
Longitudinal, descriptive, with symptoms and their interference with usual function measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and at about and effect the time of the first clinical assessment after chemoradiation. 95 % of the patients reported at least one of the 13 symptoms at momma's encounter initial presentation. The highest mean score was observed for fatigue, followed by lack of appetite and an essay and effect pain. The mostly commonly reported symptoms at moderate to australia severe intensity over the course from presentation, during treatment and after treatment were fatigue, lack of appetite, pain, nausea and sleep disturbance. At entry to the study, 51 % of the write an essay about cause of stress sample reported multiple symptoms that were of encounter essay - maya moderate to severe intensity, with the proportion reporting symptoms of cause and effect moderate to severe intensity decreasing to contrat essay 20 % at the time chemoradiotherapy was concluded. Pain decreased across the an essay cause and effect course of treatment, while fatigue, nausea and sleep disturbance increased. Fatigue and appetite changes formed a distinct grouping.
Forty-two patients with breast, head and neck, lung, gynecological, gastrointestinal, prostate, or brain cancer in write compare contrat, their 3rd to 8th week of chemoradiation. Majority female, white, 55 yrs, breast cancer; 50 % metastatic cancer. To examine the effects of recall on symptom severity ratings by comparing ratings made using 24-h and 7-day recall periods of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) was also recorded at both T1 and T2. The five most severe symptoms from both recall periods were fatigue, sleep disturbance, drowsiness, lack of appetite, and pain. Paired t tests did not find any significant difference between the 24-h and 7-day recall periods. For both recall periods, more than half of patients reported moderate to severe fatigue. Percentages did not differ significantly between the 24-h and 7-day recall periods. Comparing the 24-h and 7-day recall periods, the correlation coefficient for total symptom severity was 0.888.
All correlation coefficients for symptom severity items were 0.7 except for distress ( r = 0.67). The percentages of moderate to severe symptoms (rated 5) were consistent for both recall periods, with no significant difference between recall periods in the prevalence of write an essay cause of stress moderate to severe symptoms. 45 patients actively receiving treatment for either hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or pancreatic cancer. The mean age was 59 years, and fungi+research papers 64 % were male. 51 % Caucasian, 22 % Asian, 18 % Hispanic, and 4 % African American participants.
50 % of the Hispanic and Asian participants were diagnosed with HCC, whereas most Caucasian participants were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. The study sample included 22 patients with HCC and 23 patients with pancreatic cancer. The majority of participants had stage III (26 %) or IV (61 %) disease at the time of accrual; 82 % had been diagnosed recently, and 13 % had recurrent disease. Patients were followed from baseline for 3 months, with outcome measures repeated monthly. An Essay About And Effect. Outcome measures included the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Hepatobiliary (FACT-Hep) and momma's essay the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Spirituality Subscale (FACIT-Sp-12) Descriptive, longitudinal study.
Descriptive analysis of demographic, treatment, and symptom data was conducted, followed by write an essay about cause two-way repeated measures analysis of variance of FACT-Hep and FACIT-Sp-12 scale scores by diagnosis and treatment type. No significant differences were observed in overall symptom subscale scores over contrat essay, time or by an essay of stress diagnosis. Fungi+research Papers. In the about cause HCC group, the overall symptom subscale score decreased over time from what essay baseline, 1-, and 2-month evaluations, but was increased at 3 months. For the write cause pancreatic cancer group, overall scores stabilized between 1 month and 2 months and then decreased by the 3-month evaluation. These changes were not statistically significant.
Overall, symptom scores were high for weight loss, appetite, fatigue, ability to essay perform usual activities, and abdominal pain and an essay about and effect tended to worsen over endophytic fungi+research, time. Pearson’s correlations between the disease-specific symptom subscale and each of the QOL subscale scores were computed for all four evaluations, including baseline. Results at baseline suggest that symptoms were highly correlated with physical well-being (0.72), functional well-being (0.73), and overall FACT-Hep scores (0.93) Wang SY, Tsai CM, Chen BC, Lin CH, Lin CC (2008) n = 108 lung cancer in Taiwan; oncology in and outpatient units (3 sites); mean age 68; radiation 81 %; localized cancer 74 % Taiwanese version of MDASI. About Cause And Effect. Most severe (mean score, range 0–10): fatigue 6.68, sleep disturbance 6.04; lack of app 5.83; short breath 5.59; distress 5.27; drowsiness 5.19; dry mouth 5.11; pain 5.10; sadness 4.87; diff remembering 4.65; numbness 4.01; nausea 2.48; vomiting 1.35. 1,433 patients were included in analyses: 524 patients from the makes USA, 249 from China, 256 from write an essay cause Japan, 226 from Russia, and 178 from Korea. A Good. Percent female: US 55, China 54, Japan 42, Russia 62, Korea 40. About Cause And Effect Of Stress. Mean age (SD) US 55(15.0), China 51(12.8), Japan 62(12.1), Russia 61(14.3), Korea 51(11.3). Percent with metastatic disease: US 30, China 47, Japan 50, Russia 56, Korea 56. Percent undergoing chemotherapy US 56, China 54, Japan 22, Russia 40, Korea 60. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), ECOG.
Cross-nationally, fatigue was consistently the most prevalent moderate to severe symptom (rated ?5 on the MDASI 0–10 scale). Fungi+research Papers. Across all countries—prevalence moderate to write about and effect of stress severe MDASI symptoms: fatigue = 54 %, disturbed sleep = 41 %, distress = 39 %, pain = 35 %, lack of appetite = 34 %, drowsiness = 33 %, dry mouth = 32 %, sadness = 32 %. Treatment-induced symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and essay numbness were consistently rated as the least severe of the write about cause and effect 13 MDASI symptoms. Makes Essay. MDASI symptoms severity mean (SD): fatigue = 4.75 (2.95), disturbed sleep = 3.73 (3.16), distress = 3.60 (3.17), pain = 3.16 (3.16), lack of appetite = 3.25 (3.23), drowsiness = 3.25 (2.92), dry mouth = 3.11 (3.16), sadness = 3.15 (3.13), shortness of breath = 2.51 (2.92), difficulty remembering = 2.39 (2.69), numbness and tingling = 2.38 (2.97), nausea = 1.95 (2.86), and vomiting = 1.34 (2.97) The results of this study indicate that national and linguistic (country) variations in patient responses to the MDASI are small relative to write an essay cause of stress individual patient-related factors. Papers. Analysis of MDASI symptom and write and effect interference ratings from cancer patients in five countries revealed that the variance of the random effects for country was between 20 % and 50 % of the what makes inter-subject variance. Wang XS, Williams LA, Eng C, Mendoza TR, Shah NA, Kirkendoll KJ, Shah PK, Trask PC, Palos GR, Cleeland CS (2010) 184 gastrointestinal cancer patients (English-speaking in write an essay about cause and effect, the US); median age 60; 53 % female; 61 % currently receiving chemotherapy/33 % receiving no treatment; 34 % local or regional disease/54 % metastatic disease; 12 % ECOG PS 2–4; 28 % colon/25 % pancreas/19 % rectum/15 % hepatobiliary/13 % gastric/1 % esophageal.
MD Anderson Symptom Inventory plus 5 gastrointestinal-specific symptom items (MDASI-GI); Medical Outcomes Survey 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) Cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods. Mean score (0–10 scale, in order of mean severity high to low): fatigue (2.57); drowsiness (1.97); pain (1.87); disturbed sleep (1.66); lack of appetite (1.62); diarrhea* (1.51); numbness (1.43); distress (1.42); dry mouth (1.32); difficulty remembering (1.15); bloating* (0.98); sadness (0.95); constipation* (0.93); change in taste* (0.77); nausea (0.70); shortness of breath (0.50); vomiting (0.36); difficulty swallowing* (0.19). *GI module. Percentage of patients experiencing each symptom not provided. Characteristics of a good a good ending papers included in synthesis. Number specified when provided.
Bevans, Mitchell, Marden (2008) Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) B = 48; D = 33; E = 40. A = 6; B = 93; C = 79; E = 57; H = 55; I = 24; L = 7. B = 44; C = 6; E = 8; G = 15; I = 27; J = 12; L = 1. B = 34; C = 113; E = 37; F = 15; H = 39; I = 49. Keene Sarenmalm (2007) B = 32; C = 35; E = 12; F = 25; G = 12; H = 4; I = 20; K = 6; L = 19. Wang SY et. al (2008) USA, China, Japan, Russia, Korea. Multi-cancer, not defined. Wang XS, et. al (2010) Cancer type/location: A = brain/CNS; B = breast; C = digestive/gastrointestinal; D = esophageal; E = head and neck; F = gynecologic; G = genitourinary/renal; H = hematologic; I = Lung; J = Prostate; K = stem; L = other/unknown. Prevalence and severity of symptoms by paper.
Bevans et. al (2008) Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) Keene Sarenmalm (2007) Wang SY, et. al (2008) Wang XS et Al. (2010) A similar procedure was used for and effect of stress, tabulating severity, although mean severity by yourself essay symptom was often not reported. In addition, many of the an essay cause studies only reported those symptoms in which the intro yourself severity was classified as moderate to severe. Because there was variation in the range of the severity scales among the instruments used in the studies, mean values were linearly transformed to write of stress a 0–10 scale to yourself essay facilitate comparisons. Write An Essay About And Effect. Thus, symptoms rated a 2 on the 0–4 scale were linearly transformed to what makes you happy a 5 on the 0–10 scale. Lastly, to and effect of stress assess if the most commonly used instruments asked about the most compelling symptoms to patients, thresholds by number of patients queried for intro, the symptom were constructed. This allowed for about cause and effect of stress, the comparison of ranked symptoms based upon the number of patients queried. Thus symptoms that were assessed in 100 or more people were ranked by discussion essays frequency and severity, symptoms assessed in an essay about cause, 500 or more people, and then a final threshold of 1,000 or more people. Compare Contrat Essay. The lowest threshold of write about and effect of stress 100 people had the endophytic papers most symptoms ranked while creating the an essay and effect threshold of 1,000 people limited the number of symptoms. Some symptoms found in essay, this synthesis did not include query by at write an essay about and effect least 100 patients and were therefore not included in this rank ordering of symptoms by threshold level.
Data were extracted from the reported studies to develop a pooled sample of 4,067 cancer patients in whom the compare contrat essay prevalence and severity of individual symptoms was reported. Individual studies contributed from 16 to 1,433 participants; nine (43 %) studies included a sample size less than 100. About And Effect. All of the endophytic investigations employed convenience samples. An Essay About Cause And Effect Of Stress. Eleven (52 %) of the momma's essay - maya angelou studies were conducted in the USA while the remainder were multinational as listed in Table 2 . Write An Essay And Effect Of Stress. In the US studies where race and ethnic demographics were reported, 1,154 participants were studied of whom 18.5 % of the samples were non-white. Studies from other nations failed to what you happy distinguish race/ethnicity. In total, the pooled sample across the 21 studies was comprised of 38 % male and an essay and effect 62 % female, with a mean age of intro yourself 58 years (range 18 to 97 years). A majority (62 %) of these studies assessed symptoms in homogeneous samples with respect to tumor site (predominantly breast and lung cancer), while 38 % of the included studies utilized samples with mixed diagnoses and treatment regimens.
Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of participants in the included studies by cancer disease site, stage, and an essay treatment type. Persons with breast cancer were the single largest group by cancer site (approximately 25 % of patients) followed by lung (approximately 20 %). In the pooled sample, 51 % of patients were classified as stage I–II with 46 % metastatic disease. The largest majority of study participants were treated with chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery. Approximately 5 % of the participants additionally received HSCT, with symptom assessment before and after this treatment. For these two longitudinal studies, the frequency and severity of symptoms was averaged across the various assessment times for a good ending essay, this synthesis. Forty-seven symptoms were identified across the 21 studies which were then categorized into 17 logical groupings. While many studies only reported the most prevalent or severe symptoms, some reported every symptom acknowledged by patients. In an attempt to be as inclusive as possible, all symptoms reported were included in write an essay about cause and effect, this synthesis. Summary of pooled prevalence and pooled mean severity rates (when available) Number of patients reporting symptom.
Total sample of patients queried. Fatigue and weakness (100 % of studies) Pain (100 % of studies) Sleep issues (91 % of studies) Anorexia and weight loss (91 % of studies) GI issues (81 % of studies) Affect (76 % of encounter studies) Respiratory issues (76 % of studies) Impaired cognition (67 % of studies) Oral and swallowing issues (62 % of studies) Neurologic issues (57 % of cause studies) Edema (29 % of studies) Urinary elimination issues (19 % of momma's encounter essay - maya angelou studies) Skin and wound issues (19 % of studies) Hot flashes/sweating (14 % of write about and effect studies) Fever (14 % of studies) Sexual dysfunction (10 % of studies) Hair loss/appearance (5 % of studies) The pooled prevalence and momma's essay mean severities reported in Table 4 were calculated by write and effect aggregating all queries for that specific symptom across studies to a good ending essay provide a pooled prevalence per symptom. Write An Essay About Cause And Effect. Where possible, symptoms of the same nature but labeled differently such as anorexia and decreased appetite were combined into one symptom. Beginning A Good Essay. This was possible when only one term was used in a study providing one statistic; however, some symptom terms which could be synonymous for write about, each other were often reported as separate items in the same study. Encounter - Maya Angelou. Examples include the terms “fatigue”, “lack of energy”, and cause and effect “weakness”. Each is listed separately in this synthesis to intro yourself assure the capture of constructs that may be related but distinct. Of note, while all of studies measured and about and effect thus reported the symptom of fatigue, 59.63 % of the pooled patients reported some degree of this symptom when queried.
Further, the severity of the fatigue when assessed with such large pooled data was rated a 4.62 on a 0–10 scale. Given the you happy large spread of sample sizes, the variety of an essay about instruments utilized and the identification of 47 separate symptoms presented in Table 3 , it was determined that the most appropriate method to rank symptoms in contrat essay, a systematic, unbiased, and interpretable fashion was to an essay about cause and effect of stress compare the symptom prevalence by aggregated sample size thresholds. Three thresholds were constructed for combined samples of greater than 100 patients, greater than 500 patients, and greater than 1,000 patients who were queried for the symptom. Momma's Essay - Maya. Thus the most inclusive threshold was 100 taking into account all symptoms in which at least 100 patients across studies were queried. Not included in this analysis then were symptoms such as irritability which was only assessed in a total of 85 patients in two studies or headache included in only one study of 31 patients. Rank ordering of symptom prevalence by sample threshold. Number of patients reporting symptom. Total sample of patients queried. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 1,000. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 500. Write Cause And Effect. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in discussion australia, sample 100.
Rank ordering of write an essay symptom severity by yourself sample threshold. Number of patients reporting symptom. Total sample of write an essay about of stress patients queried. Prevalence ordering of australia symptoms in an essay, sample 1,000. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 500. Angelou. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample ?100.
Forty-seven distinct symptoms were reported in the 21 studies of this literature synthesis across different cancers. Most studies employed instruments that assessed for symptoms of write cause and effect of stress fatigue and weakness (100 % of studies), pain (100 % of studies), sleep issues (91 % of studies), anorexia and encounter - maya angelou weight loss (91 % of studies), GI issues such as nausea and vomiting (81 % of studies), affect issues such as depression and irritability (76 % of studies), and respiratory issues such as cough and dyspnea (76 % of studies). About Of Stress. Fewer studies assessed symptoms related to urinary elimination issues (19 % of beginning makes a good ending essay studies), skin and wound issues (19 % of write about and effect studies), hot flashes/sweating (14 % of studies), sexual dysfunction (10 % of studies), fever (14 % of studies), and hair loss/appearance (5 % of compare essay studies), yet the write an essay about cause of stress prevalence and a good beginning makes severity of some of these symptoms was greater than the more commonly assessed symptoms. This disparity is most obvious when evaluating the write prevalence and severity by threshold levels. Nocturia is an example of an infrequently measured symptom that patients report is highly prevalent (74.8 %) and moderately severe (4.07 on scaled of 0–10). Further analysis of the two studies that assessed for nocturia reveals that one study was completed in the USA and the other in Turkey, that adequate sample sizes of 220 and 287 were included, and that various cancer sites were involved with lung being the momma's - maya predominant cancer [ 45 , 49 ]. Given the heterogeneous nature of the studies, this finding suggests that nocturia is write an essay about, a symptom that has been infrequently assessed, but which necessitates further systematic evaluation and consideration as a symptom to assess in write contrat, a broad range of write an essay about and effect cancers. Similar arguments can be made for sexual dysfunction [ 45 , 51 ] and cough [ 45 , 46 , 48 , 51 , 53 ] which each were reported by essay patients in disparate studies (nation, cancer site, and sample sizes) as highly prevalent and of moderate to write an essay cause high severity. Findings from this literature synthesis are most useful when compared with the a good makes ending research synthesis by Esther Kim et al. [ 25 ] Many similarities between the two syntheses exist including the similar mean age of 58 and 59 years, a predominance of heterogeneous cancer diagnoses (62 % and 50 %), and write an essay cause of stress when reported for yourself, US studies, an approximate 18 % non-Caucasian sample. Differences include a greater range of sample sizes in this present analysis (16–1,433 compared to 26–527) and a greater proportion of females in this analysis (62 % vs. Write An Essay About. 48 %). Whereas Esther Kim et al. limited their review to makes a good only studies that employed the MDASI, MSAS, or the SDS, this present analysis included studies employing any symptom assessment tools.
Comparison of prevalence statistics between this literature synthesis and Esther Kim et al. Esther Kim et al. prevalence. Key for symptom assessment in the Esther Kim et al. synthesis: MDASI MD Anderson Symptom Inventory, MSAS Memorial Symptom Assessment Scales, SDS Symptom Distress Scale. Limitations and future directions. As with any literature synthesis, findings must be tempered by acknowledging publication bias as only published manuscripts were included in this literature synthesis. Further, because most studies used questionnaires with preselected lists of symptoms (without collection of unsolicited symptoms), any symptoms not included in about cause and effect of stress, the lists were not measured. You Happy Essay. Therefore, systematic under-reporting of symptoms which could be prevalent and severe in a population is possible in the included studies.
An example of this is nocturia, which when elicited was prevalent and and effect of stress severe, but was infrequently systematically assessed in studies. Essay. Future studies should included a two-step methodology, starting with qualitative work in which patients in write about cause and effect of stress, a given population are interviewed in groups or individually to determine likely prevalent and yourself severe symptoms, followed by questionnaire administration in write about cause, a larger sample. Over-representation of studies in a good ending, breast, colorectal, and lung cancer may have yielded a disproportionate influence on the results, and work parallel to this paper supported by the NCI is evaluating prevalence and severity of symptoms by cancer type and stage. It is write an essay about cause and effect, unclear if symptoms reported in this analysis are attributable to angelou the morbidity of cancer, to an essay about cause and effect of stress side effects of a good a good treatment, to write of stress accumulated toxicities of prior treatment, or to comorbidities. As previously noted, this is a synthesis of you happy essay cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies whereby symptoms in the longitudinal studies were average across the measurement times, and no control was made for cross-sectional sampling related to the time of write an essay about symptom measurement (i.e., at yourself essay diagnosis, following treatment, or at another arbitrary point in time). An Essay About And Effect. In addition, attribution is beyond the momma's encounter angelou scope of this paper, but is a salient consideration because the impetus for measuring symptoms in a given clinical trial may be contingent on the cause of the symptom. For example, a trial seeking to write cause evaluate whether a cancer-related symptom improves with active treatment may yield a negative result if the principal driver of measured symptoms is toxicity or comorbidity. Therefore, any given clinical trial aiming to measure symptoms should provide a rationale specific to endophytic the population and interventions regarding why particular symptoms were selected, and their suspected cause and hypothesized direction of change. This synthesis is focused on the prevalence and severity of symptoms and did not assess measures of health-related quality of write an essay about cause and effect of stress life domains such as enjoyment of life or physical functioning. Future work will evaluate these areas. Symptoms are prevalent and severe among patients with cancer.
Therefore, any clinical study seeking to essay - maya evaluate the impact of treatment on an essay and effect patients should consider including measurement of symptoms. Without such an assessment, the picture of the patient experience is incomplete [ 61 ]. Symptoms may be due to various etiologies, and essays australia understanding their trajectories in a given context is essential to write cause profiling both the benefits and harms of treatment. Compare. This study demonstrates that a discrete set of symptoms is an essay cause, common across cancer types. This set may serve as the basis for defining a “core” set of symptoms to be recommended for elicitation across cancer clinical trials, particularly among patients with advanced disease. Intro. Indeed, the NCI is currently engaged in and effect, such an activity, which serves as the impetus for this review. It is notable that a number of a good beginning makes a good ending essay existing multi-symptom questionnaires already include a set of pre-specified symptoms. It is the authors’ hope that the of stress data included in this review will assist in the design of future studies and papers questionnaires, and in improved methods for assessing the prevalence and severity of symptoms in cancer populations. The analyses reported in this paper were conducted in conjunction with preparations for write an essay about, an NCI Clinical Trials Planning Meeting Building Bridges: The Identification of Core Symptom and Health-Related Quality of Life Domains for Use in Cancer Research, convened by the National Cancer Institute’s Symptom Management and Health-Related Quality of Life Steering Committee. Support from the National Cancer Institute is ending essay, gratefully acknowledged.
The authors have no conflicts to declare, had full control of all primary data, and agree to allow the journal to cause and effect review the write data if requested. Carolyn Miller Reilly 1 Email author Deborah Watkins Bruner 1 Sandra A. Mitchell 2 Lori M. Minasian 2 Ethan Basch 3 Amylou C. Write About Cause Of Stress. Dueck 4 David Cella 5 Bryce B. Reeve 3 1. Intro. Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing Emory University Atlanta USA 2. National Cancer Institute Bethesda USA 3. Cause Of Stress. University of North Carolina Chapel Hill USA 4. Mayo Clinic Scottsdale USA 5. Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University Chicago USA. Published in cooperation with. Published in cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. Essay. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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Columbine Shooting Essays and Research Papers. Columbine Shooting On April 20, 1999 two young men . from the city of an essay about of stress Littleton, Colorado went on australia rampage causing a massacre. In total there were thirteen casualties; twelve students and one lone teacher. About And Effect. Preventing violence in public areas such as schools, airports, malls, etc. Fungi+research. security must be increased. Violence can happen anywhere therefore security in schools and public places should be increased. In our society.
Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1967 Words | 6 Pages. Columbine Columbine high school was built in about cause, 1973 on a dirt road off a larger dirt road way out in horse country. Endophytic Papers. It was named . after the write an essay cause and effect, flower that blankets section of the Rockies. Hardly anybody lived near the school, but soon enough there were about essay, 100,000 new arrivals that filled one continuous suburb with no town center: no main street, no town hall, town library, or town name. Littleton is write cause and effect what they called this quiet suburb where columbine lied several miles west from. Eric and Dylan called. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1172 Words | 3 Pages. Depression Kills Columbine Research Paper Teen depression has become more common and wide spread in our society.
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The Shootings at Columbine High School: The Law Enforcement Response Problem Statement: The response to momma's essay angelou the . shootings in Columbine could have been handled more effectively if there was a solid coordinate effort from law enforcement and emergency units in the area. The plan of action to prevent the incident from write cause and effect of stress, playing out further was hastily put together and only cost more lives at danger. All possible lines of communication whether it be from law enforcement officials, emergency. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1071 Words | 3 Pages. Media's Perception of the Columbine Shootings. film that provides a factual record or report. But how factual is a documentary, really? This presentation aims to investigate the persuasive devices used in . Bowling For Columbine . This is a documentary by well known director Michael Moore, which uses a range of filming techniques to persuade the audience that the Columbine shootings were a result of so much fear, greed and consumerism in America. This is his extremely biased idea of the truth.
In Michael Moore’s expose style documentary he intentionally. Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston , Columbine High School massacre 1203 Words | 3 Pages. On April 20th, 1999 two teenagers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold walked into their school in Columbine Colorado and began a one-hour long . killing spree, which ended in the death of 12 of their fellow classmates and one teacher and left another 28 wounded. Contrat Essay. The shooters then took their own lives. The two teenage gunmen did not have a previous history of violence but were both enthusiasts of killing-oriented video games.
The violence in video games was a major factor in teaching these kids how to shoot. Arcade game , Boy , Columbine High School 971 Words | 3 Pages. On April 20, 1999, two high school students by the names of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold carefully and maliciously planned a massacre at write an essay and effect . Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. They killed fifteen people, one being a teacher, and left twenty-three in need of hospitalization before finally turning their guns on themselves. This event influenced Elliot Aronson to australia write his book, Nobody Left To Hate, in about cause and effect, hopes to educate people on why such travesties occur within our schools, and?most importantly?what. College , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 838 Words | 3 Pages. Shooting at Columbine High School: Causes.
Cause ? Effect Even since the shooting at Columbine High School caught the attention of a good beginning makes essay America and all the world on April . 20, 1999, high school shootings and other forms of violence at schools has been plaguing America during the last ten years. It is also found that most of the write about and effect, violence that occurs in high schools is caused by young men. Students aren't feeling safe at school anymore and parents are enraged that students could bring the weapons to school in the first place. Many people. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 1311 Words | 4 Pages. Cause Effect of fungi+research papers Columbine Shooting. references of mass murders, police and military interest, weapon comments, stalking, depression and extremely unreasonable.
Many people agreed that both . boys showed many of these signs. Klebold was placed in a juvenile diversion program before Columbine . TAG believes there are also warning signs that are the write cause and effect, boys desperately screaming for help. These warning signs are suicide, fame, revenge and anger. When Eric’s girlfriend broke up with him he pretended to commit suicide in order for her to come. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 832 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Columbine High school massacre The Columbine High School massacre occurred on Tuesday, April 20, 1999, at . Columbine High School in endophytic, Columbine , an unincorporated area of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States, near Denver and Littleton. Two senior students, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, embarked on a massacre, killing 12 students and an essay and effect of stress one teacher and injuring 24.The pair then committed suicide. It was the deadliest massacre throughout U.S history taking place at a high school. This. Brooks Brown , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 5596 Words | 18 Pages. Columbine High School Massacre and write compare essay Topic School Shooting.
School shooting I've chosen this topic because: Personal interest It's a big problem I'll try to cause and effect find the reason School . shooting : Information about school shooting - What kind of people do it Columbine High School The gun law - The Second Amendment What could be the reason My own opinion - Relate to Denmark Sources: The book ”School shooting ” by Heidi Kokholm and Lene Nielsen page 8-11 and page 38 The movie ”Bowling for endophytic fungi+research, Columbine ” by Michael. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 966 Words | 4 Pages. conveyed is heard, which could affect the write about cause of stress, outcome of yourself was actually instructed of one to write an essay about and effect complete. The instance of the Shooting at . Columbine High reminds me of fungi+research when you take ten people, you tell the first person to pass along a message and by the time you get to the tenth person the original message is so out of an essay about cause context that it unclear what was said to be passed. In the Shooting at you happy the Columbine High, there was way too much misinformation; a lack of information. Write An Essay About Of Stress. One of the many facet of the lack of communication. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 446 Words | 1 Pages. At 11:19 on April 20, 1999 one of the endophytic, worst tragedies involving kids occurred in Littleton, Colorado. An Essay Cause And Effect. Most people woke up to yourself essay a day like any other except two . teenagers, Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris. They took guns with them to their school, Columbine High School, stood at the west entrance ready to shoot students. Thirteen people where killed by this incident and twenty were hurt.
Then Dylan and Eric killed themselves, leaving us with the mystery of why they had done what they did. Dylan Klebold. Brooks Brown , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 526 Words | 2 Pages. Lord of the Flies and write an essay about and effect of stress Columbine High School Shooting. Lord of the endophytic fungi+research, Flies and about and effect of stress Columbine High School Shooting On April 20, 1990 a horrible tragedy occurred, the . Columbine High School Massacre. It was one of the most horrible school shootings in the United States.
When Eric Harris and Dylan Klebod killed students at endophytic their high school, it was similar to write cause and effect of stress Lord of the Flies where children were stranded on an island by themselves with no adults, and they gradually started to a good become more violent ending up trying to kill each other. What drove these boys to. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , English-language films 930 Words | 3 Pages. Research Paper-The Columbine Shooters Many people wonder what goes through the mind of killers, why they committed such acts, and what . persisted them to carry out write an essay of stress such horrific crimes. Two killers in particular, Eric Harris and essay Dylan Klebold, who were responsible for the Columbine massacre are constantly questioned why they would shoot up their own school with intentions to an essay about cause and effect of stress kill hundreds.
People often speculate that it video games, a mafia, movies, and bullying drove Harris and Klebold to. Antisocial personality disorder , Brooks Brown , Columbine High School 1694 Words | 4 Pages. not the case as Columbine High School would end up being the site of a school shooting that would haunt the nation for years to . Momma's Encounter Essay - Maya Angelou. come. Bowling for write and effect, Columbine , is a documentary by Michael Moore covering the events that transpired at makes essay Columbine High School. After viewing Bowling for Columbine , I was shocked. Moore’s video examines a number of issues involving gun ownership.
What follows is a summary of the an essay, points made in the film, my thoughtful reactions, and the aftermath of a good beginning a good ending Columbine . Write And Effect Of Stress. There were a number. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1449 Words | 4 Pages. previous school shooting that have happened in the United States. Compare Contrat Essay. It looks at the shooters, and also look at theories of what possibly could’ve . been their motives for commenting such a tragedy, taking innocent lives. The paper looks at what we have learned and what we can do to prevent future school shooting tragedies. Write Of Stress. It looks at how bullying has pulled the trigger and how kids just want to be heard. Encounter Essay Angelou. The paper looks at what psychologist and criminologist have to say about write and effect of stress, future shootings and past shooters. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 2557 Words | 7 Pages. to Megan McArdle, “Since 1982, there have been at least 62 mass shootings * across the beginning makes essay, country, with the about and effect, killings unfolding in 30 states from fungi+research, . Massachusetts to Hawaii.
Twenty-five of write an essay about cause these mass shootings have occurred since 2006, and seven of them took place in 2012.” Violence in schools as well as the country is on the rise at an alarming rate, raising questions about compare, gun control. After viewing the documentary Bowling for Columbine , I was intrigued. What follows is a summary of the documentary. Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston , Columbine High School 1462 Words | 4 Pages. David Nunez 11-26-2012 Columbine Book Report Columbine by write an essay cause Dave Cullen is based upon the true story of the author’s . research that took ten years to find out why did Eric Harris and Dylan Kleblod decide to momma's angelou go on a shooting spree at write cause and effect the Columbine High School in australia, Columbine , Colorado on April 20, 1999, and what became of the survivors?
As the author explains in write an essay about and effect of stress, his book, the two young men Eric and Dylan had a plan to blow up their school, surpass Columbine in horror, and leave a “a lasting impression. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 851 Words | 3 Pages. ? Columbine High School Tuesday, April 20, 1999, was a turning point in the lives of many Columbine students and families. Eric . Makes You Happy Essay. Harris and write cause of stress Dylan Klebold, two former students at Columbine High School, went to essay - maya angelou school on that day for write about cause, one purpose, to annihilate the school building as well as the student body. Although Eric and essay Dylan’s bombs did not detonate, they still succeeded in destroying the lives and families of the twelve students and the one teacher that died. The Columbine High School shooting. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 624 Words | 2 Pages. The 20th of write an essay about of stress April was the anniversary of the massacre at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. The shooting deaths of 12 . students and 1 teacher?and the two suicides of the teenage executioners and left many others psychologically and fungi+research physically damaged. Who's to blame? , On the issue of blame, of this massacre it is not music, or video games, and not even movies, it's the shooters because everybody is responsible own actions. However, the parents could have been more involved in about and effect of stress, their.
Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 1205 Words | 4 Pages. School shooting in the United States A school shooting is an incident in which gun violence is essay - maya used on a school campus. . Schools shooting are committed by students or even intruders. School shooting is topic of about cause of stress intense interest in the United States. The first school shooting ever recorded in the United States was the Pontiac’s rebellion school massacre. As time change, the progression of intro yourself essay school shooting increases. Write An Essay Cause. On April 20, 1999 a massacre occurred at columbine high school in Littleton, Colorado. Adolescence , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1208 Words | 4 Pages. Psychopath: The FBI’s Analysis of the Killers Motives” The Columbine Alamac (20 April 2004) Janofsky, Michael. A Good Beginning Makes A Good Ending. Year Later, . Write About Cause And Effect Of Stress. Columbine Is Learning to endophytic fungi+research Cope While Still Searching for Answers. New York Times (17 April 2000) Luzadder, Dan and Vaughan, Kevin. “Inside Columbine Investigation” Denver Rocky Mountain News (19 December 1999 ) This paper is going to explore what effect the labeling theory had in regards to the tragedy at Columbine High School.
Were these two students labeled, to what. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1234 Words | 3 Pages. Bowling for columbine -speech- I’m here to talk about write an essay cause and effect of stress, Michael Moore’s film ‘Bowling for what makes you happy essay, Columbine ’ and write an essay about and effect some of the techniques . Makes You Happy Essay. that are used in the film. Michael Moore uses persuasive film techniques to position the audience to accept his version of the truth. Some of the techniques used by write cause of stress Michael Moore to position the audience are editing, sequencing and music. What Makes Essay. He uses them by editing parts of the film to marginalize the NRA and gun owners.
He sequences the film into write an essay and effect, a certain position to make. Black people , Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston 1334 Words | 4 Pages. Bowling for columbine is a biased, deceptive and misleading documentary created by Michael Moore, detailing how gun legislation is the main . cause for crime in America. Documentary is an makes ending undeserved title that Moore has falsely claimed, as stated in Farlex dictionary, a documentary is, and I quote, “Presenting facts objectively without editorializing or inserting fictional matter”, which Moore has consistently done. Good afternoon, my name is Tim Geldard, and I am a spokesperson for the NRA, protector. 2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston 956 Words | 3 Pages. General Bowling for Columbine Notes SYNOPSIS: The Academy Award winning documentary film “Bowling for Columbine ” by . Director Michael Moore attempts to find a reason for the Columbine High School, Colorado shootings and leads to an investigation into gun laws and gun violence. Through a series of interviews, stunts, cartoons, commentary and media pieces, we are left at the end of a blunt and revealing journey wanting the answers to the various moral and ethical questions raised. Moore travels. Bowling for write, Columbine , Columbine High School massacre , Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold 2360 Words | 7 Pages. ?School shootings School shootings are something horrible yet something that has occurred more than once in the USA.
I have . had a hard time understanding exactly how someone can pick up a gun and shoot people at makes you happy their own age – people they’ve gone to school with, innocent people. Write Cause And Effect Of Stress. I don’t understand how you can steal their life for discussion australia, no reason. It’s teenagers who suddenly shoot people – boys and an essay cause girls who are supposed to be their friends. Why do they do this? The first person that did a school. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Effects of mass shootings in America. mass shootings in America Intro. Discussion Australia. Technique: News story from Colorado Theater shooting 1. Examples: Columbine , CO . Theater, Virginia Tech, Ft.
Hood, Sandy Hook, Washington Navy Yard A. Write Cause And Effect Of Stress. Most notable: Columbine B. Evolved and multiplied over a good a good ending essay, times C. Nowhere is sacred 2. Positive Effects of the mass shootings A. Increased awareness of mental illnesses B. Write An Essay Cause And Effect. Experience from past shootings have allowed first responders to better response tactics 3. Negative Effects of the beginning essay, mass shootings A. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1175 Words | 5 Pages. Bowling For Columbine Bowling for Columbine is a Michael Moore documentary about cause and effect of stress, gun control and America’s violent . national history. The United States has the highest number of gun related deaths in the world. Michael Moore sets out to endophytic fungi+research papers get an understanding of why Americans have such a strong violent culture. To grasp the reasoning for the amount of forcefulness within our country, Michael Moore sets out to Columbine Colorado. Columbine High school was involved in a shooting massacre on. Cold War , Columbine High School massacre , Michael Moore 741 Words | 3 Pages. ?Kaitlin Wilson The Art Craft of an essay cause of stress Writing September 24, 2012 “Bowling for Columbine ” Review Sometimes the best tool for fungi+research papers, questioning a . social problem is humor - which is write an essay cause exactly what Michael Moore does in Bowling for Columbine . This is not a movie about guns or violence or television, but about culture. Using the papers, Columbine school shooting as his hook, Moore attempts to find answers as to why American culture is saturated in violence and fear. Moore is a director who isn’t afraid to ask.
Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1084 Words | 3 Pages. What would drive two teenagers to comit such a horriffic tragedy as what happened at Columbine ? In Bowling for Columbine . director Michael Moore takes a look at gun violence in write an essay cause of stress, America and the causes behind such horriffic events that have led to Columbine . Momma's - Maya. In the film Michael Moore explores the question What makes the write cause and effect of stress, US have the most gun deaths than the essays australia, rest of the world? By exploring this Moore and his viewers explore a variety of reasons, The strongest point made by Moore is that largely. Bowling for an essay cause and effect, Columbine , Columbine High School massacre , Crime 829 Words | 3 Pages. Bowling for Columbine Thesis Statements. October 17, 2010 Bowling for Columbine Thesis Statements 1) The high casualties caused by guns are a result of how easy it is to obtain . Discussion Essays. one. Write About Cause And Effect. If policies were made stricter, casualties would go down. I do not agree with this because it would only affect the essays, people who go to obtain their guns legally. If you really wanted one all you would have to do is steal it, so the policies would then have no effect on you. 2) Minorities and blacks are made to be scarier than they are because they.
Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston , Crime 770 Words | 3 Pages. School Shootings I. Cases of where this has happened A. Columbine High School massacre B. Montreal, Canada . shooting II. How can it be prevented A. Metal detectors 1. Efficiency 2. Private rights B. School Resource officers 1. Intimidating 2. Friend C. School Surveillance 1. Cost 2. Effectiveness D. Counseling III. Who is committing these crimes? A. Students B. Write An Essay Cause Of Stress. Outcasts at school C. How they form groups IV. Why is this happening? A. Teasing B. Lost of old friends . Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Dawson College shooting 1809 Words | 6 Pages. Bowling for Columbine Reaction Paper By: Brian Scheu Violence! What causes it? Has it Increased/decreased over the past few years?
I . will try to answer these questions to the best that I can in the next few pages. One thing you must look at when dealing with violence is the a good essay, nature of the crime. You can look at write about and effect of stress violent murders but not be able to compare them to encounter essay - maya other violent crimes because the nature of the crime is completely different. One may believe that violence in our society has. Apples and of stress oranges , Columbine High School massacre , Comparison 921 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Columbine and Virginia Tech.
The Columbine Shooting and you happy essay Virginia Tech. shooting were called similar in an essay about and effect of stress, various ways. Yourself. They were both declared a . national tragedy 13 people killed total in the Columbine and and effect of stress 33 in the Virginia Tech shooting . Though the two incidents were similarly done by write contrat essay psychopaths, there were differences in the details of both shootings , the reactions of write an essay of stress society, and upcoming psychological development. Eric Harris and endophytic fungi+research Dylan Klebold were responsible for the 13 deaths during the Columbine Shooting on April 20. Columbine High School massacre , Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold , Mental disorder 1375 Words | 4 Pages. Carrie and write about cause Columbine: American Gothic. Carrie, by Stephen King, and the Columbine High School Incident; looked at separately, they are to things that have nothing to do with each . other. Carrie was Stephen King's first major novel and a New York Times bestseller. Discussion Australia. Columbine was and incident in write an essay and effect, Colorado that happened in essay, 1999, where two high school seniors orchestrated a bloody massacre at their high school.
The two events occurred over twenty-five years apart, but when juxtaposed we can see many similarities between the book ant the incident. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1854 Words | 5 Pages. The Use of an essay about and effect Editing in Bowling for Columbine used to argue an idea. In the write compare contrat, movie, Bowling for write an essay about and effect of stress, Columbine , Michael Moore is momma's encounter - maya a genius when it comes to of stress his editing choices concerning . Encounter Angelou. Charlton Heston and the NRA. Using a few well placed insert shots Moore is able to an essay about bring the momma's essay angelou, attention away from Heston long enough to change around parts of his speech and shorten dialogues.
By means of crosscuts he is able to make it seem as if though Heston is talking insensitively to the weeping children of Columbine . An Essay About Cause And Effect Of Stress. All of this is an attempt to what you happy incriminate Heston. 2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston 1355 Words | 4 Pages. S. Zamb. November 29, 2001 “ Shooting and write about and effect elephant” Erick Arthur Blair better known as George Orwell was born in Mohitari, India on June . 25, 1903. India into a family of the “lower-upper middle class. Endophytic. George Orwell’s education brought him to England where he was unable to win a scholarship to continue his studies. An Essay About Cause And Effect Of Stress. With a very few opportunities available, he followed his father’s path into service with the British Empire.
Orwell joined the Indian Imperial Police from discussion essays australia, 1922 to 1927. An Essay About And Effect. When. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 934 Words | 3 Pages. School Shootings and Their Causes. On April 20, 1999, in intro yourself, the moderately sized town of Littleton, Colorado, at write an essay about cause and effect approximately 11:20 a.m., two young men, Eric Harris, 18, and write compare essay Dylan Klebold, 17, . An Essay Cause. stormed into Columbine High School. No more than twenty minutes later, 15 people were dead, including the fungi+research, two of them, and cause and effect of stress another twenty-three wounded (Gibbs 28-29). Write Compare Essay. Knowing that the duo are teenagers, and write about cause of stress probably played many violent video games and watched hundreds of violent shows, people immediately began to yourself essay blame the media, and the violence. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 1577 Words | 5 Pages. Increase in School Shooting Incidents. Alberta Taber School Shooting : A 14 year old boy who had been bullied at write an essay about W.R.
Myers High School in Taber Alberta had entered the school on . April. 28. 1999 with a .22 Calibre rifle and opened fire. He killed a 17 year old young boy named Jason Lang. Another 17 year old boy was shot, but fully recovered after the shooting . 14 year old “Todd Cameron Smith” a high school dropout showed signs of a good a good ending depression before the school shooting . Todd Smith had been bullied since grade one. Write An Essay And Effect. The shooting happened 8 days. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 2446 Words | 6 Pages.
Account for the Success of Bowling for Columbine. for Columbine ” has been accredited to Michael Moore and his talents in conveying his message through the what makes, film of the issues which plague . American society. The reasons for this success are the subject of the film; there are the fear and racism in society and the controversial issues which Moore addresses through the film. The growing fear of others in the States can be called many things such as hate but mainly racism. Moor interviews various individuals such as those who live in Columbine and. 2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School 942 Words | 3 Pages. Bowling for an essay about, Columbine Bowling for Columbine has been written, directed, produced, and narrated by Michael Moore who has used a . number of techniques to produce a piece of fungi+research papers work about Americas fascination with guns and violence. This documentary discovers the reasons for the Columbine High School massacre along with further actions of violence in America.
Moore emphasises on the background of gun violence and captures some of the communities’ views of the an essay of stress, massacre and other associated problems. This. 2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School 1069 Words | 3 Pages. George Orwell’s “ Shooting an Elephant” “ Shooting an Elephant” is an essay written by George Orwell and published in 1936 . Discussion Australia. (Orwell 66). Orwell was born June 25, 1903, as Eric Arthur Blair and passed away January 21, 1950, in India (“George Orwell Biography”).
Orwell was known for his journals, novels, and essays published about his own political views (“George Orwell Biography”). Write An Essay Cause And Effect Of Stress. Orwell traveled to Burma after not doing good enough in school to earn a scholarship and decided to join the imperial. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 938 Words | 3 Pages. In George Orwell’s “ Shooting an a good essay Elephant”, Orwell is an essay presented with a task that causes him a great deal of stress as he battles with his . internal conflict throughout the story. Orwell has mixed feelings after he kills the encounter essay - maya angelou, elephant. He feels wrong for killing the elephant because he feels that there could have been a more peaceful solution and killing it will bring more harm than good. Write An Essay About And Effect Of Stress. He also feels that he killed it just because of his own pride. Although killing the elephant may seem wrong to. Authority , Burma , George Orwell 1225 Words | 3 Pages. Julien Combes Natasha Rebry Writing 009 20th November 2011 “ Shooting an Elephant“: Orwell’s combat against imperialism . Intro Yourself. “ Shooting an Elephant” is an essay written by George Orwell, first published in write and effect, the journal New Writing in 1936. In this essay, the author tells his own story about when he was working as a police officer for the Indian Imperial Police in Burma.
His five years of experience in the Indian Imperial Police allowed him to have a good understanding of what exactly the “real. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 1200 Words | 4 Pages. How Bowling for a good makes a good ending, Columbine Is Bias. Bowling for Columbine : A Narrow View of a Complicated Story The Biased viewpoint of Michael Moore tears viewers away from the actual . problem, and perhaps even the film’s intended message itself… Alexi Heazle The idea of write about cause of stress a documentary being an artistic or even personalised expression of a director is endophytic papers long gone, or so it seems in recent times. In Michael Moore’s latest documentary, Bowling for Columbine , he attempts to get across to viewers his, and essentially only his point of view.
2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for and effect of stress, Columbine , Charlton Heston 767 Words | 3 Pages. It compels its followers to write act irrationally in order to about and effect of stress keep appearances. Facing an yourself essay impenetrable tyranny, the narrator, George Orwell, realizes his own . oppression is not a product of his enemies but his own internal conflicts. In the an essay cause of stress, essay “ Shooting an compare essay Elephant”, George Orwell narrates his experience serving as a sub-divisional police officer for the British Empire in Moulmein, Burma. Orwell uses metaphors to represent his feelings on cause imperialism, intimate struggles with his own personal morals. British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1120 Words | 3 Pages. ?Bowling for Columbine Emily Organization: 1. A Good A Good Ending Essay. Example: Many examples are used throughout this film to prove the overall thesis of Americans . An Essay Cause Of Stress. revolve around gun violence. For example, Moore went to a bank, opened up an account and received a free gun. This symbolizes the absurd love for guns Americans have.
A bank handing out write essay guns that people can turn around and rob the bank with is write about cause and effect of stress a terrible idea, but thats the yourself essay, logic of the United States. Kids growing up around violence can be influenced to write about cause and effect of stress try. Birthright citizenship in the United States of America , Cannon , Columbine High School massacre 1920 Words | 3 Pages. Shooting an elephant written by write contrat essay George Orwell brings to light the evil of imperialism. Being a police officer in the lower Burma, Orwell hated . his job. The reason was because the an essay about cause, people in essays australia, Burma ridiculed, insulted and laughed at him whenever they felt safe to do so. Orwell opposed imperialism, and thus was able to feel the write an essay of stress, hatred of the endophytic fungi+research papers, people of an essay cause of stress Burma, but still resented them. What. The story starts with Orwell receiving a phone call about a tame elephant destroying bazaar.
He carried with him an old. British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1125 Words | 3 Pages. '' If it were necessary to give the write an essay cause of stress, briefest possible definition of imperialism, we should have to say that imperialism is the monopoly stage of . capitalism now according to Vladimir Lenin. George Orwell immediately begins the essay '' Shooting an Elephant by claiming his perspective on British Imperialism, and how this imperialism affected himself, his empire, and the Burma people. Though George Orwell is a British officer himself at the time in Burma , he claims that he is essay fully against. British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1885 Words | 5 Pages. Columbine High School Massacre On Tuesday, April 20 1999, Columbine High School located in Columbine Colorado . an unfortunate massacre happened and many teens lost their lives. An Essay Cause And Effect. The two students responsible for write compare contrat essay, this incident were Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold. These two senior students were responsible for killing twelve students and one teacher; they were also responsible for injuring an additional twenty one students on their rampage.
A few other students were injured while trying to and effect of stress escape. Cannon , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1953 Words | 5 Pages. Deceiving Images of Bowling for Columbine. countries that allow its citizens the right to have firearms. Due to this, there are many more gun related fatalities compared to yourself essay other countries that do not . An Essay About Cause. allow their citizens to keep firearms. Bowling for Columbine , directed by makes essay Michael Moore, focuses mostly on one tragic even that happened at Columbine High School, and uses it in and effect, order to persuade viewers to encounter essay - maya angelou side against National Rifle Association, which is a big pro-gun group, and the whole gun control issue. Moore makes the reason why the US has more. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1866 Words | 5 Pages.
Jessica DeBruhl Terry McCammond English Composition 111 6 February 2013 WP#2 First draft Pressures In this essay, Shooting an Elephant, . George Orwell, comes face to face with the effects of peer pressure and imperialism. While under constant scrutiny by the people who did not want to be ruled, he felt “stuck between the hatred of the empire I serve and my rage against the evil-spirited little beasts who tried to make my job impossible” (Orwell). George finds himself in an impossible situation. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 1243 Words | 4 Pages. Trystan Tomco Mr. An Essay And Effect Of Stress. Stone English 110 12/03/13 Shooting an write essay Elephant Essay George Orwell wrote “ Shooting an Elephant” . to teach readers about imperialism and its effects on not only those ruled but also those charged with maintaining order above them.
Orwell’s narrator is a British colonial official stationed in Burma who is write an essay about and effect charged with keeping the local populace from rioting. The officer speaks of - maya angelou how he is frightened by write the Burmans and even by encounter essay his own people rulers. Fear is one of the. Affect , British Empire , Burma 809 Words | 3 Pages. name of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold entered Columbine High School with the about and effect, intent of killing hundreds of their classmates with guns, knives, . and bombs that they hand made in their homes. Essay. They began opening fire on their peers and setting off explosives all around the school. Write And Effect. Before students had the chance to put together what was happening around them there were kids being shot injured and killed everywhere they turned. A student who attended Columbine said “I thought it had to be a firecracker -. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 2097 Words | 5 Pages.
Shooting an elephant Author: George Orwell BIOGRAPHY OF GEORGE ORWELL George Orwell's three major books of travel writing--Down and australia . About Of Stress. Out in Paris and London (1933), The Road to Wigan Pier (1937), and Homage to Catalonia (1938)--revived the tradition of excursionary literature as social and political analysis. Into Unknown England books were initiated by reform-minded Victorian and Edwardian authors. In his three travel books Orwell, who casts himself as a representative of English lower-upper-middle-class. British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1331 Words | 4 Pages. Technology to Prevent School Shootings. talks about recent catastrophic events and brutal shooting incidents that have taken place in schools that are related to the safety of . children, faculty and other visitors. Further this paper discusses technological solution that could be applied to avoid such events and write compare contrat provide more safety to cause of stress the people at school. Introduction: School shootings , especially in United States of America, are being witnessed all over the world. These shootings are not just recent incidents; we can find these throughout.
Columbine High School massacre , Revolving door , School shooting 1340 Words | 4 Pages. Bowling for Columbine Michael Moore Documentary. Is it the bowling? It must be the Video games? Michael Moore’s award winning documentary; ‘Bowling for Columbine ’ explores the reason for the . violence in America and the reason for the Columbine High school mascara. In April 1999 two students Eric Harris and you happy essay Dylan Klebold went on a shooting rampage killing 12 students and a teacher before committing suicide, Moore looks at the background in which the massacre took place and write an essay about assumptions about endophytic fungi+research papers, related issues.
Moore uses Bill Nichols’ four modes of. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 2198 Words | 6 Pages. Whitman climbed to write an essay about and effect of stress the top of the observation deck at momma's encounter - maya The University of cause of stress Texas in papers, Austin. He was armed, and and effect of stress during a rampage which lasted 96 minutes, he . killed 16 people and write compare left 31 wounded. (Kingsbury.) Since then, at least 50 incidents of school shootings have rocked the nation at its foundation. Write An Essay About Cause And Effect. (Timeline.) Not all were so destructive at their ends as that of Charles Whitman. Angelou. Some were more so. All have one thing in common: they have forever changed the face of the write an essay about and effect, nation as we thought we knew.
Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , School shooting 1941 Words | 6 Pages.
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Cultural Analysis of South Korea Essay Sample. South Korea is a developed country in Northern Eastern Asia that occupies the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. It borders the write an essay cause and effect, Sea of Japan, the Yellow Sea and North Korea. South Korea lies in a good beginning the North Temperate Zone and their terrain is mostly mountainous. It covers a total area of 99,392 square kilometers, and has a population of 50 million people. The capital and write an essay cause and effect largest city is Seoul, and it has a population of 9,794,304 people. It is a presidential republic and it also has a mixed economic system where the economy has a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulations. Its main language is Korean, used together with Hangul, the Korean alphabet.
It is export driven, focusing on endophytic papers automobiles, electronics, machinery, ships, and robotics. It is famous for electronic brands such as LG Samsung, Hallyu, also known as the “Korean Wave”, and kimchi, it’s signature side dish. It is the 4th largest economy in Asia, the 15th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP, and 12th largest in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP). Cultural Analysis. South Korea is one of the most homogeneous countries in the world, racially and linguistically. It has its own culture, language, dress and cuisine, which is separate and very distinct from its neighboring countries. Conservativeness, respect, hard work, filial piety and modesty are characteristics that are highly esteemed by Koreans. They are proud of their country, their traditional culture, and their modern economic success. Write About Cause Of Stress. In Korean culture, education is highly valued as the path to status, money and success.
Parents start educating their children as soon as they can in order to make their child the best in everything, as they believe that such early practices will help transition their child into a successful businessperson in the future working world. Similar to other Asian people like the Chinese and Japanese, the Koreans have a strong cultural identity as one whole family. However, they showcase distinct physical characteristics, which differentiate them from intro yourself other Asian people. Write An Essay Cause. There are several cultural components that represent the culture of Korea; Values Attitudes, Manners Customs, Personal Communication, Social Structure, and Education. Family is the most important part of Korean life. It is the top priority to any Korean as the family’s welfare is much more important than the intro, needs of any individual. In Confucian tradition, the father is the head of the family, and it is his responsibility to provide food, clothing, shelter, and to approve the marriages of family members. The eldest son has special duties; first to his parents, then to his brothers from oldest to write an essay about cause and effect youngest, then to his sons, then to his wife, and lastly to compare essay his daughters.
Members of the an essay cause and effect of stress, family are tied to each other closely as they believe that the actions of one family member can reflect on the rest of the discussion, family. Manners represent an individual by the way they dress, behave, communicate, and their etiquette, while customs refer to the traditional way that a culture is practice individually, or by a group of write an essay cause and effect of stress, people. What Makes Essay. Workers are expected to an essay cause and effect bow to their seniors when they greet them, and to use only formal language to their seniors, as it is rude to a good beginning makes ending speak informally to someone of higher rank. About Cause. In Korean businesses, meetings are often held in evenings at a restaurant or bar. Drinking is part of the Korean culture, as Koreans believe that drinking helps to bond colleagues in beginning ending the company, and an offered drink must never be refused as it is considered to be rude. Along with drinking, Karaoke is a popular activity after meetings. People who attend the meeting are usually expected to sing a solo song. Personal Communication.
In South Korea, the write about cause of stress, Korean language is the essay, most frequently used language and the Koreans use Hangul as the main writing system. Quoted from kwintessential.co.uk, “The Korean language is write an essay about of stress, spoken by more than 65 million people living on the peninsula and its outlying islands as well as 5.5 million Koreans living in other parts of the world. Essay. The fact that all Koreans speak and write the same language has been a crucial factor in their strong national identity.” In the present time, Korea boasts many dialects, including the standard dialect used in Seoul and central areas. Even though there are several dialects, they are similar enough for listeners to write cause and effect of stress understand each other without trouble. Social structure, quoted from intro britannica.com, is “in sociology, the distinctive, stable arrangement of institutions whereby human beings in an essay cause and effect of stress a society interact and live together.” In terms of what makes essay, Korea’s social structure, the about of stress, majority of people belong to the middle class, consisting of “civil servants, salaried white-collar workers in encounter essay - maya large private companies, and professionals with specialized training, such as engineers, health care professionals, university professors, architects, and journalists.” (www.mongabay.com) Be it traditional or modern Korea, education is still very important. People at the top of companies require blue ribbon educational backgrounds, as education gives them cultural sophistication and write cause technical expertise that is needed to manage large complex organizations. According to mongabay.com, “Despite impressive increases in university enrollments, the central importance of education credentials for social advancement has tend to widen the gap between the middle and lower classes. Income distribution is fungi+research, more unequal than in Japan or Taiwan, with pronounced disparities between college and secondary-school graduates. Many workers know that their comparatively low wages make it virtually impossible for them to give their children a college education, a heavy financial burden even for an essay and effect of stress middle-class families.
In the workplace, university graduate managers often treat men and women with a middle school or secondary school education with open contempt. The latter addresses them with rude or abrupt words whose impact is amplified by the status sensitive nature of the ending, Korean language. The result has been bitter resentment and increasing labor militancy bordering on political opposition to the status quo.” (www.mongabay.com) Impact on International Business through culture. Culture plays an important part in operating a business in South Korea as cultural practices and values affect how Korean people do business. An analysis on the culture and citizens will be done by using the framework of Hofstede’s five dimensions, which include; Power Distance, Individualism, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity/Femininity, and Long-term/Short-term Orientation. Hofstede’s five dimensions. Here, an overview is presented showcasing the important factors of South Korean culture that is relative to other cultures from write an essay about cause other countries.
This dimension refers to the difference in social power. The higher the rank, the what makes you happy, more power or authority one has in write an essay cause and effect society. The lower the write compare essay, rank, the less power or authority one has. It concepts with the fact that everyone is write an essay about cause and effect of stress, society is momma's encounter angelou, not equal, and it brings out the attitude of the culture towards those inequalities. According to geert-hofstede.com, “At a score of 60, South Korea is a hierarchical society.
This means that people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in write an essay about cause an organization is seen as reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat.” Individualism refers to “the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members.” (geert-hofstede.com). Momma's Encounter Essay - Maya. It relates to how much an individual chooses to express themselves, how much is “I”, and how much is “we”. In South Korea, according to geert-hofstede.com, “with a score of 18, is considered a collectivistic society. This is an essay about cause and effect, manifest in a close long-term commitment to compare the member ‘group’, be that a family, extended family, or extended relationships.
Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and promotion decisions take account of the employee’s in-group, management is the management of groups.” Uncertainty Avoidance. The dimension refers to the fact that the future is never predictable, and how much a company is willing to take a risk on certain circumstances. This ambiguity encourages anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways. “The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these” is reflected in the UAI score. “At 85, South Korea is one of the about cause of stress, most uncertainty avoiding countries in encounter essay angelou the world. Countries exhibiting high uncertainty avoidance maintain rigid codes of belief and behavior and are intolerant of unorthodox behavior and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional need for rules (even if the rules never seem to write an essay about cause and effect of stress work) time is money, people have an inner urge to fungi+research papers be busy and write about work hard, precision and discussion australia punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an important element in individual motivation.” (geert-hofstede.com) Masculinity and write an essay cause of stress femininity refers to how aggressive a culture is, in terms of achieving success and dealing with competition. A high score indicates that the society is masculine, and is driven by competition, achievement, and success. This trait is developed in beginning makes ending essay school and it continues throughout organizational behavior. A low score means that the society is feminine, and dominant values in write an essay about cause and effect the society include “caring for others” and “quality of yourself essay, life”.
A feminine society is one where the quality of life is a sign of success, and standing out from the crowd is not admirable. According to geert-hofstede.com, “South Korea scores 39 on this dimension and is thus considered a feminine society. In feminine countries the focus is on “working in order to live”, managers strive for consensus, people value equality, solidarity and quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and negotiation. Incentives such as free time and flexibility are favored. Cause And Effect Of Stress. Focus is on well-being, status is not shown. An effective manager is write compare contrat essay, a supportive one, and decision making is cause and effect, achieved through involvement.” Long or short-term orientation refers to “the extent to which a society shows a pragmatic future-oriented perspective rather than a conventional historical short-term point of view.” Stated in geert-hofstede.com, “At 75, South Korea scores as one of the long term oriented societies.
Notion of the one and only almighty God is not familiar to South Koreans. Yourself Essay. People live their lives guided by virtues and practical good examples. An Essay About Cause And Effect. In corporate South Korea, you see long term orientation in encounter - maya angelou the, higher own capital rate, priority to steady growth of market share rather than to write cause and effect of stress a quarterly profit, and so on. They all serve the durability of the companies. The idea behind it is that the companies are not here to make money every quarter for the share holders, but to serve the stake holders and society at large for many generations to come.” Conclusion. In conclusion, South Korea is deemed worthy as a set up venue for an international business. Being a collectivist country, Koreans are group oriented as they are loyal and committed workers. Essay. They are also highly avoidant on uncertainty as they are not risk takers, and their culture believes in rules and security. An Essay Cause Of Stress. This factor directions a safe approach so that money won’t be lost. Also, they house a feminine approach as they value equality, solidarity, and quality in their working lives.
Their managers are supportive ones as conflicts are resolved by compromises and negotiations, and incentives such as free time and flexibility are favoured. They are also long-term oriented as they are guided by makes ending essay, virtues and about cause of stress practical good examples in life. Instead of making money every quarter for their shareholders, they focus more on serving the stakeholders for as many generations as possible. With its skilled workforce, which breeds positive values and attitudes towards work and life, South Korea is intro essay, thus, the choice for this essay. • Mongabay. (N.D). Retrieved from http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/south-korea/SOCIETY.html http://www.mongabay.com/history/south_korea/south_korea-social_classes_in_contemporary_south_korea.html. • Payne, N. (2012, 10 8). Kwintessential. Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/south-korea-country-profile.html.
• Britannica. (N.D). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/551478/social-structure. • Geert-hofstede. (N.D). Retrieved from. For more information on South Korea: • Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. (2005, 5). Retrieved from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/South_Korea.pdf.
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