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Outline what you consider to be the central claims of Critical Theory. In order to understand the central claims of Critical Theory , it must first be defined. What is Critical Theory ? Critical Theory first coined as such in 1937 is research methodology a name given to a series of richardson new approaches to the study of research methodology for dissertation culture, literature and thought that developed during the 1960’s primarily in France (Leitch, 2001). It refers to a series of pathways for intellectual inquiry that first emerged with the end of the 18th century European Enlightenment (mid 1600’s to late 1700’s) (Nowlan, 2001) in which the essay on english language in india, causes associated with it were legal equality, the right of ordinary Europeans to hold their rulers to account, the rule of law, transparent government, freedom of expression, the right of nations to self-determination and to freedom from colonial domination - and they are as relevant today as they were two hundred years ago (Glendening, 2003). For Dissertation. Critical theory questions and challenges that which seems obvious, natural and biggest challenge of writing, simple in the world around us - the conviction that what is, or what is in the process of becoming, or what appears to be, or what is most commonly understood to be, or necessary and inevitable - it does not accept any of this (Nowlan). The Frankfort School is the name given to a group of German Jewish intellectuals associated with the Institute for Social Research (Institut fur Sozialforschung) founded in 1923. Their work was an methodology for dissertation, attempt to integrate psychoanalytic insights and the domain of culture into a Marxist analysis of twentieth century societies. The group composite was that of thinkers such as Horkheimer, Adorno and Marcuse (Agger, 1993). Makes You Happy Essay. According to these theorists a “critical” theory may be distinguished from a “traditional” theory according to a specific practical purpose: a theory is methodology critical to inductive and deductive, the extent that it seeks human emancipation, “to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them” (Horkheimer, 1982, 244).

Theories aim to explain and transform circumstances; critical theories provide the descriptive and normative bases for methodology for dissertation, social inquiry aimed at essay language decreasing domination and increasing freedom in their forms. A clarification is given to research, what is not clearly understood or is questionable. Theories arise in many ranges - anthropology, film, religion, linguistics and political science - and even family lifestyle. Critical theory is not a system, nor it is reducible to any fixed set of proscriptions (Bronner, 2002). Today, social theory is in crisis because of growing dissatisfaction with the dominant methodologies and essay language in india, conceptions of social theory and research. The 1960’s is when Stephen Eric Bronner became interested in research critical theory as new theoretical paradigms emerged that questioned prevailing quantitative, empiricist, and positivist conceptions of social theory. But where did the central claim of critical theory begin? Since the Frankfort School was the first Marxist-oriented research center affiliated with a major German university directed by Carl Grunberg, it tended to be empirical, historical, and inductive, oriented toward problems of the European working class movement. Works by Karl Korsch, Georg Lukacs and others also had works published in its journal Archiv fur die Geschichte des Sozialismus und der Arbeiterbewegung. Grunberg retired in research for dissertation 1930 and essays, Max Horkheimer became the director. Methodology For Dissertation. Under Horkheimer, the on pamela, Institute sought to methodology for dissertation, develop an interdisciplinary social theory which could serve as an and deductive essays, instrument of social transformation publishing a journal Zeitschrift fur Sozialforschung (1932-1941) that contained a wholesome collection of research methodology articles and book reviews.

These compilations detailed social theory and defined any misconceptions of their meaning. Horkheimer, upon assuming his position as Director, delivered an inaugural address on January 24, 1931, entitled “The State of Social Philosophy and biggest of writing essay, the Tasks of an Institute for Social Research (Bronner and research methodology, Keller 1989: 25-36). Essay On English Language. Within the contents of the text, he defines social philosophy as an attempt to elucidate the “fate of human beings, insofar as they are parts of state, law, economy, religion, in short, with the entire material and spiritual culture of humanity. He criticizes Kant for grounding social philosophy in the experience and faculties of the particular individual (Ibid: 33) and research for dissertation, praises Hegel’s theory as an improvement but yet questions speculative metaphysics and their tendencies to celebrate a higher transcendental sphere of Being and meaning over concrete existence. (ibid:38-39). Horkheimer continued to on english language in india, defend the importance for critical social theory and envisaged a program of supra-disciplinary research which would investigate current social and political problems. Philosophers, sociologists, economists, historians, and psychologists would be united in and ongoing research community who would do together what in other disciplines one individual does alone in methodology a laboratory, - which is what what genuine scientists have always done: namely to pursue the great philosophical question using the most refined scientific methods; to reformulate and to make more precise the questions in the course of work as demanded by the object; and to develop new methods without losing sight of the universal (ibid:41). Hence we see the first steps toward the formation of critical theory in the making.

It is impossible to characterize the “Frankfort School” as a whole since its work spanned several decades and involved a variety of thinkers who later engaged in sharp debates with each other. Rather, one should perceive various phases of Institute work: 1) the empirical-historical studies of the Grunberg era; 2) the attempts in the early to mid-1930’s to establish a materialist supra-disciplinary social theory under Horkheimer’s directorship; 3) the attempts to develop a critical theory of society during the exile period from research methodology about 1937 to the early 1940’s; 4) the dispersion of Institute members in the 1940’s and the new directions sketched out by Horkheimer and Adorno; 5) the return of the Institute to richardson, Germany and its work in Frankfurt during the 1950’s and 1960’s; 6) the development of critical theory in various directions by Fromm, Lowenthal, Marcuse, and research for dissertation, others who remained in the U.S.; 7) the continuation of Institute projects and development of essay on english language critical theory in Germany by Jurgen Habermas , Oskar Negt, Alfred Schmidt, and others in the 1970’s and 1980’s; and finally 8) contributions to critical theory by a variety of younger theorists and scholars currently active in research for dissertation Europe and the United States. Kellner believes that a crisis of critical theory emerged with its fragmentation after World War II. Social theory stopped developing despite some empirical research projects and essay on english in india, sustained meta-theoretical analyses be certain of its members, especially Adorno (Kellner, 1989). He believes that critical theory provides the most advanced theoretical perspectives within contemporary social theory from the 1930’s through the early 1960’s; new socio-cultural developments since then have rendered obsolete some of its theses concerning on-dimensional society, the research methodology for dissertation, media, technology, and so on. In particular, critical theory has not continued to theorize new technologies, new developments in the media, changes in socialization practices, and new cultural developments. This is surprising as earlier contributions were precisely in these areas (Wiggershaus, 1986). Adorno did a great deal of work in social theory in on english language the 1950’s and 1960’s, as well as turning out an incredible profusion of texts in the areas of methodology for dissertation literary criticism, cultural critique, philosophy, and aesthetics. Challenge Of Writing Essay. His work turned from supra-disciplinary research to philosophical reflections (Kellner, 1989). Herbert Marcuse argued that Marxism had degenerated into methodology, a rigid orthodoxy and needed concrete experience to revivify the theory and that it neglected individual’s problems.

He was concerned about individual liberation and well-being in essays addition to social transformation. The intentions of his writings were of great interest, yet many were unpublished and unknown (Kellner, 1984). The theory of hegemony by research methodology for dissertation Antonio Gramsci reserves a place for the intellectuals in society. Men find themselves born in a process independent of their will, they cannot control it, they can seek only to understand it and guide their actions accordingly was noted to be economic determination by Marx. Gramsci was concerned to eradicate economic determinism to develop its explanatory power with respect to super-structural institutions. His holdings were that class struggle must always involve ideas and on pamela, ideologies, ideas that would make the methodology, revolution and also that would prevent it. He stressed the role performed by human agency in historical change: economic crises by themselves would not subvert capitalism. He was more “dialectic” than “deterministic”: he tried to organizational essay, build a theory which recognized the autonomy, independence and importance of culture and ideology (Strinati, 1995).

The works in the last decade relative to critical theory has followed Habermas in attempt to methodology, develop a more adequate philosophical aspect of critical theory (Heinemann, 1986). A deficit of social research and elaboration of new theoretical perspectives has come about with contributions from members of the postmodern camp who attempt to theorize the impact of new technologies, the media, and other socio-cultural developments (Kellner, 1988 and 1989). The focus on democracy as the location for cooperative, practical and transformative activity continues in the work of Jurgen Habermas, as does the attempt to determine the nature and limits of “real democracy” in winks gray in action complex pluralistic, and globalizing societies. Methodology. Habermas’ work is concerned with rethinking the tradition of critical theory and German social philosophy. He has advanced that tradition in distinctive ways. His rationality consists not so much in the possession of knowledge and thus primarily concerned with the consistency and conten of one’s belief’s, but rather in “how speaking and acting subjects acquire and use knowledge” (Habermas, 1984).

Rationality, freedom and justice are not just theoretical issues to be explored and debated. Habermas’ entire work aims to defend and continue the enlightenment project against the challenge of Weber’s instrumental rationality, Horkheimer and inductive and deductive, Adorno’s earlier critical theory and Nietzscheanism in the forms of post-structuralism as presented by Foucault and Derrida and methodology, the postmodernism of Lyotard. The reconciliation of the competition of claims of the reason of the life and organizational behaviour essay, the world are contributions of Habermas to contemporary and social theory. His account and research methodology, his answers are not complete, but raise questions without losing the hope of continued research (Rasmussen, 1990). People create conditions and deal with them.

Their opinions influence the thoughts of others. In his theory, Habermas fails to incorporate or appreciate gender and racial inequality. Biggest Challenge Essay. Habermas’ calls for research methodology, particular “reconstructive sciences,” whose aim it is to render theoretically explicit the david winks gray the essay film, intuitive, pre-theoretical know-how underlying such basic human competences as speaking and understanding, judging, and acting. It is not certain if Habrmas’ theories are built on a conception of the world in which essentialist characteristics (middle class, white, males, or class) dominate. Historically discourses of rationality and progress have sided with men over women (Stanley and Pateman, 1991). Certain valuable elements are cited of by Selya Benhabib (1986) that can provide basis for a wide-ranging normative critique of contemporary society. An excerpt from Critical Theory and Society : A Reader: “essay is a stylistic vehicle with its inherently unfinished quality is the logical form for generating anti-systemic claims and fostering the existence of methodology for dissertation reflexivity” perhaps best describes the logic that inspired Bronner and Kellner to publish this book. Within is a collection of seminal essays, many appearing in English for the first time, which provides an excellent overview of the critical theory developed by the Frankfurt School. An essay is a short work that treats of a topic from an author’s personal point of view, often taking into account subjective experiences and personal reflections upon them (Wikipedia). Essays. What better way can a criticism be announced than through an essay? Personal opinions are relished because they may have something within their contents that was not seen by others.

In the essay Le Prix Du Progress by Max Horkheimer exemplifies the nature of discussions that were presented to the early theorists. A French physiologist, Pierre Flourens, was disenchanted with the use of chloroform. Research. He states his belief, and cites his reasoning. The essay ends with Horkheimer’s comments. Somewhat in the form of an david gray the essay in action, editorial for a newspaper, but yet an answer is given. Methodology. A concern was presented - a problematic thought was answered. Another famous essay by inductive essays Theodor Adorno elaborates on Culture Industry. Reconsidered.

In it Adorno explains the term culture industry, corrects inconsistencies from methodology a prior publication and remarks on the term “mass culture” (from “The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Cuture” London: Routledge, 1991). In Critical Theory and Society: A Reader are included the works of essays Horheimer, Erich Fromm, Lowenthal, Pellock, Herbert Marcuse, to mention a few. The time realm of critical theory displays evidence that modern culture needs to redefine the conclusions of its predecessors. The understanding of research for dissertation theories, imply that they have to be updated continually to include new circumstances. Modernization has to be critiqued to include the changing of the on english, times. We should be concerned with something other than uncovering the past.

Instead we should reinvigorate the present, salvage the Enlightenment legacy, and contest those who would institutionally freeze its radicalism and strip away its protest character (Israel, 2001). The inclusion of the for dissertation, way people act and why they act can begin with critical theory of family. Inductive And Deductive Essays. Family history provides an example of some of the theoretical deficiencies as in social scenes. The family is attacked and defended with equal vehemence. With a dominant empiricist tradition, historians have come to the field of family history without a clear sense of what the significant questions are. They have not self-consciously theorized the family as a field of investigation. Instead they began by adopting the conventional wisdom of sociology which, goes back for Federic Le Play (L’Organisation de la famille selon le vrai modele signale par l’histoire de toutes les races et de tous les temps -Paris, 1871), and saw a broad change in the family from an for dissertation, extended form of the Middle Ages to a nuclear form of modernity (Shorter, 1975). From the family come the essay, leaders of the world. Methodology. Understanding distinct family structures enables an outline to the future tasks of its members. The tendency of Marxist social theorists is to view the family as a dependent variable, a secondary structure, unintelligible in essay language its own right, which will change after the revolution.

The family is an intelligible as a structure (Morgan, 1975) composed of methodology race, religion, gender, which impose these factors towards their beliefs. From a “Gramscian” perspective the mass media have to be interpreted as an instrument to spread and reinforce dominant hegemony - or they can be used to spread counter-hegemonic ideas too. “Pop culture and the mass media are subject to the production, reproduction and transformation of hegemony through the on english language in india, institution of civil society which cover the methodology for dissertation, areas of cultural production and consumption. Hegemony operates culturally and ideologically through the institutions of civil society which characterizes mature liberal-democratic, capitalist societies. These institutions include education, the family, the church, the mass media, popular culture, etc. (Strinati, 1995: 168-169). From Strinati’s point of view the main problem with Gramsci’s ideas is the you happy, same as the the Frankfurt School’s theories and Althusser’s work: their Marxist background. The framework does not allow history to contradict the theory, and research for dissertation, the interpretation of essay reality becomes rather elementary. Critical Theory offers an approach to research methodology for dissertation, distinctly normative issues that cooperates with the social sciences in a nonproductive way. Its domain is inquiry into the normative dimension of behaviour essay social activity, in particular how actors employ their practical knowledge and normative attitudes from complex perspectives in various sorts of contexts. It also must consider social facts as problematic situations from the point of view of variously situated agents. Research For Dissertation. In conclusion, Kellner feels that in order to on pamela samuel, find a way out of the contemporary crisis of social theory, it must develop new perspectives.

Critical Theory should be responded to with theoretical analyses of research methodology for dissertation developments within the capitalist economy and of changes in class stratification, the labor process, new technologies, the media, and politics. The central claims of critical theory should be emphasized by those who wish to revitalize it in an attempt to politicize it with new social movements and existing political struggles to build a better society. The development of both its “analysis of the present situation and a new politics is in order to become once again the cutting edge of radical social theory” (Kellner, 1989). Inductive And Deductive Essays. Critical theory enables the development and refinement of the ability to engage in comments as critics, through movements encompassed around incomprehensible situations of society. All productive and concerned citizens should be the empowered critical agents that are able to question, challenge and contribute toward the methodology, progress of transformation of the david winks gray the essay, prevailing status quo within the communities, societies, and cultures that are worked in to help maintain and reproduce every day. In relation citizens should not only be inescapably interested, but also vitally important as participants to research methodology, opinionate on theory (Nowlan). Agger, Ben.

1993. The Discourse of Domination: From the Frankfurt School to Postmodernism. Northwestern University Press. January. Bronner, Stephen Eric. 2002. Critical Theory Its Theorists.

Routledge Publishers: 2nd Edition. April. Bronner, Stephen Eric and Douglas Keller. 1989. Critical Theory and Society: A Reader. New York and London: Routledge. Glendening, Marc. 2003. Visions for a democratic Europe.

Brussels, December 12. Essay On English In India. Habermas, J. Methodology. 1987. The Theory of Communicative Action. Volumes 1 and 2. In India. Boston: Beacon Press. Heinemann, Benhabib, Seyla. 1986. Critique, Norm, and Utopia. New York: Columbia University Press. Horkheimer, M, 1982. Critical Theory . New York: Seabury Press.

Israel, Jonathan. 2001. Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and theMaking of Modernity 1650-1750. Oxford University Press. Kellner, Douglas. 1984. Herbert Marcuse and the Crisis of Marxism. For Dissertation. London and Berkeley: Macmillian and University of david winks gray the essay in action California Press. 1988. Postmodernism as Social Theory: Some Problems and Challenges,” Theory, Culture Society, Vol.

5: 240-269. 1989. Critical Theory, Marxism, and Modernity. Cambridge and Baltimore: Polity Press and John Hopkins University Press. Leitch, Vincent B. et al. (eds), The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism (New York/London: W.W. Norton, 2001. Morgan, D.H.J. Social Theory and the Family.

London, 1975. Nowlan, Bob. Introduction: What Is Critical Theory and Why Study It? University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. September 21, 2001. Stanley, L and Pateman, C. 1991. Methodology For Dissertation. Feminist Interpretations and Political Theory.

Cambridge: Polity. Rasmussen, D. 1990. Reading Habermas. London: Blackwell. Shorter, Edward. The Making of the Modern Family. New York. 1975. Strinati, Dominic. 1995.

An Introduction to Theories of Popular Culture. Rouyledge, London. Wiggershaus, Rolf. Organizational. 1986. Research Methodology For Dissertation. Die Frankfurter Schule. Behaviour. Munich: Hanser. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essay.

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Mais, les tirs pass©s, ni Georges, ni l'autre journaliste ne furent touch©s. Methodology For Dissertation. Duroy, se sentit alors invincible. Biggest And Contrast. L'amour de Clotilde pour Georges s'©tait endurci avec ce duel. For Dissertation. Elle ne voulait plus le quitter, mais la pr©sence de son mari la contraignait ne plus le voir aussi souvent. What Makes You Happy. Georges d©cida de s'installer dans leur appartement rue de Constantinople , et lui jura de n'y emmener aucune autre femme qu'elle. Research For Dissertation. Elle accepta et l'invita un diner avec son mari qui voulait le revoir. Chapitre 8 - R©sum© de Bel-Ami (Maupassant) La vie continuait pour Georges, qui ©voluait rapidement dans son m©tier et voyait Clotilde r©guli¨rement. Biggest Challenge A Comparison. Mais un jour, il re§ut une lettre de Madeleine l'informant que Charles vivait ses derni¨res heures et qu'elle avait besoin de son soutien au plus vite. Research. Apr¨s accord de M. And Deductive. Walter, Georges se r©solut descendre Cannes , veiller son ami.

Quand il arriva, il constata l'©tat irr©m©diable de Charles, qui pourtant, en le voyant, reprit du dynamisme. Methodology For Dissertation. Mais cette ©nergie fut de courte dur©e et quelques jours plus tard, Charles d©c©da . Essays. Cette disparition fit prendre conscience Georges, du temps qui filait et de sa propre mort. For Dissertation. Il se rappela de la discussion qu'il avait eue avec Madeleine, qui ©tait d©sormais veuve. Inductive And Deductive Essays. Il r©it©ra alors son souhait de se marier avec elle et ainsi de s'associer l'un et l'autre, leur r©ussite r©ciproque. Research For Dissertation. Elle lui demanda de r©fl©chir ce choix, l'avertissant de son caract¨re ind©pendant. Gray The Essay Film In Action. Ils se donn¨rent rendez-vous Paris. Chapitre 1 - R©sum© de la partie 2 de Bel-Ami. La vie parisienne de Duroy continuait sans heurts, lorsqu'il re§ut un t©l©gramme de Madeleine, l'informant de son retour sur Paris.

Il la rejoignit et comprit qu'elle avait accept© sa demande. Research For Dissertation. Leurs rencontres rest¨rent discr¨tes jusqu' ce que le deuil de Charles soit termin©. Gray The Essay In Action. Puis Madeleine proposa Georges de se marier le 10 mai et de profiter de tout cela pour anoblir son nom : Georges Du Roy de Cantel . Research For Dissertation. Il informa Clotilde de son mariage en lui expliquant qu'il aurait pr©f©r© l'©pouser. Inductive Essays. Mais celle-ci resta boulevers©e. Research For Dissertation. Un mariage simple et civil les unit et ils partirent aussit´t pour Rouen rendre visite aux parents de Georges. Essays On Pamela. Durant ce long trajet, Georges tenta de se rapprocher de Madeleine , malgr© sa froideur. Research. Arriv©s Rouen, ils rencontr¨rent M. Biggest Challenge A Comparison And Contrast Essay. et Mme Duroy, vieux paysans bourrus. Research Methodology For Dissertation. Madeleine fut plus surprise que pr©vu (c'est elle qui avait forc© Georges l'emmener chez ses parents) et se sentit r©ellement mal l'aise en leur pr©sence. Inductive. Sa belle-m¨re, par son attitude, lui faisait comprendre qu'elle n'acceptait pas le choix de son fils.

Elle poussa Georges mettre fin leur s©jour. Pour tout savoir de Bel-Ami, t©l©chargez maintenant la fiche de lecture dans son int©gralit© !. Vous devez ªtre connect© pour pouvoir lire la suite. Cette ann©e, certains d'entre vous passeront le Bac ES 2018 en candidat libre. Research For Dissertation. B. Le Baccalaur©at est un examen tr¨s redout© par les lyc©ens. Inductive Essays. Entre r©visions et s.

Les Sciences en s©rie Economique et Sociale font parties des ©preuves anticip©es. Durant votre Terminale ES, vous aurez le choix entre 2 sp©cialit©s de SES (et un.

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A Few Essays That Worked (And a Few That Didn#8217;t) Jacques Steinberg, education correspondent for the Times, appears on the Today show to discuss what works in a college essay. For Dissertation! By None None on Publish Date December 6, 2010. In preparation for a segment on NBC#8217;s #8220;Today#8221; show this morning, I reached out to the admissions offices at the University of Virginia and Occidental College in California for and deductive examples of essays that they considered memorable #8212; for good, or ill. Before I share some of these samples, a caveat (one familiar to methodology for dissertation, regular readers of this blog): while it can be instructive to david gray, read actual college admissions essays, trying to copy a particular approach #8212; or in methodology for dissertation some cases avoid it #8212; can be perilous. That#8217;s because how one responds to an essay can be an intensely personal experience.

That said, I would argue that there are some basic lessons to essays samuel richardson, be gleaned from the following examples. Here, for research methodology for dissertation instance, is an excerpt from an inductive essay that was not especially well received at the University of research for dissertation Virginia, in part because the writer misjudged the age and reflective essay, sensibility of his or her audience: John Lennon’s song ‘Imagine’ was sung by Fox’s new show, #8216;Glee.#8217; In one particular episode, a deaf glee club performed this song. I heard it before when John Lennon sang it: unfortunately I did not care much for it. When I watched this episode while the deaf adolescents were singing it, and soon joined by for dissertation another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230; John Lennon sang it like a professional, but what he did not have was the essays samuel richardson emotion behind the words. He sang it more staccato than legato. He sang it like it was his job, and nothing more. These singers from Glee sang with powerful emotions. … Another essay, also musical in focus, got a more appreciative read at U.V.A.: I strode in front of 400 frenzied eighth graders with my arm slung over for dissertation, my Fender Stratocaster guitar — it actually belonged to my mother — and launched into the first few chords of and deductive essays Nirvana’s ‘Lithium.’ My hair dangled so low over my face that I couldn’t see the crowd in front of me as I shouted ‘yeah, yeah’ in research for dissertation my squeaky teenage voice. I had almost forgotten that less than a year ago I had been a kid whose excitement came from waiting for the next History Channel documentary. It was during the awkward, hormonal summer between seventh and eighth grade when I first heard Nirvana’s ‘Smells Like Teen Spirit.’ The song shocked my senses — until that point my musical cosmos consisted mainly of my father’s Beatles CDs.

I would argue that the admissions committee was able to relate a little more to this essay than the inductive and deductive essays first. And it was certainly more evocative and detailed. It also conveyed more about the writer (and applicant) #8212; a crucial quality in a college admissions essay. I turn, now, to methodology for dissertation, excerpts from a recent essay that struck a visceral chord within the richardson admissions office at Occidental (where, as an aside, President Obama began his college career): My head throbbed as I closed my eyes and tried to research for dissertation, convince myself to give up. ‘Come on, Ashley. Put the pencil down. Just put the winks gray the essay pencil down and go to bed,’ I told myself sternly.

I had been hard at work for hours — brutal, mind-numbing hours. I groaned as I moved over to my bed, collapsing in a pile of research blankets and closing my eyes. I lay there for a moment or two, gathering strength, gaining courage. My tense shoulders began to on pamela samuel, unclench as I stretched out and opened my bleary eyes… Suddenly, I bolted upright on my bed, eyes wide, blankets flying. Everything had fallen into place. I stumbled madly to my desk, thumped myself down, and snatched up my pencil. ‘I’ve got it! That’s it!’ I whooped, scribbling furiously, as my brother pounded on my wall for silence. I had just won another skirmish in my ongoing battle with the crossword puzzle. What worked here? I#8217;m told the admissions officers appreciated how the writer conveyed her love of research methodology for dissertation words — and in the process told them much about herself. As a writer, I admired the way she built a sense of mystery at the outset, one that served to draw the reader in.

I#8217;ll close with an attempt at metaphor that fell a bit flat, at least in its reception at Occidental. Biggest And Contrast! The applicant writes: I believe in jello; a silly greeting, tasty dessert, or the answer to life as we know it? Factor #1: Have you ever tried to make jello? It takes patience. First you have to boil the water; then mix it with powder, stirring for two minutes; then finally adding the methodology cold water and putting it in the fridge for forty-five minutes.

Think about the creation of david gray the essay film people… To share your own thoughts on research methodology, essay strategies #8212; and, perhaps, some excerpts of your own #8212; please use the comment box below. Essay! Comments are no longer being accepted. Although the essays chosen as the #8220;good#8221; examples are well-written, I found the other 2 more interesting. Each of those writers seemed to be struggling to express a concept instead of a fairly typical self-absorbed picture. Obviously. the #8220;good#8221; essays are easier to identify with, but they are also rather juvenile.

Our education system tends to reward the neat package, not the messy one. I#8217;d like to think that both sets of methodology essay writers deserve an excellent education. I saw this segment on essays samuel richardson, the Today Show and methodology, I am surprised about the first essay. I understand the concept of david gray the essay Glee being a new show and seeming juvenile, but it isn#8217;t. I find the show rather creative for taking older songs, modernizing them, and reintroducing them to a new generation of people. Research For Dissertation! Not to mention it adds new life to a song already loved by the older generation who watch the show as well. If anything it shows the essays samuel blatant generation gap between the administrators and the students writing their essay. John Lennon was a great artist but it doesn#8217;t mean I#8217;m obligated to be a fan, nor is this student.

People should respect the difference of methodology opinion. This student was honest enough to say he/she didn#8217;t like the song and why when performed by John Lennon, but found beauty in the song he/she previously dismissed when performed by a group of deaf children. I think that shows a strong sense of challenge a comparison and contrast self in the student which was, unfortunately, overlooked. Research! Thank you so much for gray film these examples. I will note that the methodology Jello essay uses semicolons improperly. Grammar errors destroy credibility. Behaviour! I was accepted early decision to Virginia, and research methodology for dissertation, folks ask me all the time about my application essay. I wrote about the single moment of makes you happy essay shaking an research methodology opponent#8217;s hand during a national debate tournament. I was terrified about this opponent, but when I shook his hand, it was cold, limp, and soaking wet. Knowing he was just as nervous as I changed everything for biggest challenge a comparison and contrast me.

I wanted to share with the research for dissertation application committee my revelation that I don#8217;t need to be intimidated by makes essay anyone. Methodology! My advice for future applicants: Ask yourself what #8220;gift#8221; your essay delivers to the reader. Reflective! What#8217;s the pay-off for the audience? If you aren#8217;t writing with the audience in mind, the essay will seem self-indulgent. Thanks so much! This is the part of the application that should be removed.

Students that write their own essay are at a distinct disadvantage (unless they are among those students that truly do have talent in this area.) Because the stakes are so high and methodology for dissertation, the competition so great, more and more families are hiring consultants to either write or heavily edit the you happy essays. A consultant could definitely tidy up the Glee and the jello essay and make it relevant. At least we know that the methodology for dissertation Glee and jello essay writers received no assistance. Other than the most competitive schools is anyone reading the essays?? It seems that a well written essay if accompanied by low standard test scores gets ignored when in fact the makes essay essay is a better example of what the student can do.

These students pour over every word as they see their future hanging in the balance. Does the admissions committee at University of Maryland actually read the for dissertation answers to the short answer questions? Do they read the essays? I find these examples and the ensuing comments to be an example of just how subjective college admissions officers are when making their decisions. Challenge Essay! Some admissions essays must be objectively bad (poor grammar, incoherent prose, etc.) and research for dissertation, I imagine that some must be objectively good, however, it seems to me that the great bulk lie in the middle. In that middle ground then isn’t the merit of one’s essay inextricably tied to the taste’s of the behaviour essay admissions officers reviewing that essay? Would a brilliant essay by Hunter S. Thompson be tossed out research methodology because the reader hated drug use and non-conformity? Would an david winks gray the essay in action essay by Tom Wolfe be rejected because the reader hated exclamations?

Oh my! Maybe that great 18th century wordsmith Charles Dickens pamphlet would be considered too word? Or Hemingway’s to sparse? What I found so troubling about the admissions cycle when I went through it a decade ago was how arbitrary decisions seemed to be at the top schools. It always seemed to me that once you were in a pool of research methodology for dissertation qualified applicants (good grades, test scores, extra-curricular activities) that admissions came down to chance. I was admitted to on pamela, the #1 US New School but admissions at a half a dozen lesser ranked schools where I had GPAs and SATs over the 75% mark. Some friends were admitted everywhere they applied, one friend was denied admission everywhere he applied but his in-state safety school despite the fact that he had mid 1500s SATs, a 4.0 GPA and founded our schools Environment Club. For Dissertation! I’ve never figured out why that happened, I doubt there’s a simple answer. The college a person attends doesn’t define them or set them on a fixed course through life. Nevertheless, it is important and it does matter.

In fact it matters tremendously to those students and david the essay, parents who struggle through courses and methodology, bills to of writing a comparison and contrast, make their dreams of education a success, and that’s why it is research methodology for dissertation, so terrifying that chance and subjectivity play such a large role in the college admissions process. The purpose of the essay is to organizational behaviour reflective, reveal something personal about yourself to methodology for dissertation, the admissions committee that isn#8217;t conveyed elsewhere in the application. The first essay didn#8217;t work because it was analysis of the merits of essay on english language two versions of a song. I#8217;m surprised that the crossword puzzle essay was offered as an essay that worked #8212; it seems unoriginal, forced, overly dramatic, self-coscious. I read plenty of methodology for dissertation those as an admissions officer. The debate one worked because it revealed the organizational behaviour author as an observant, empathetic and mature person.

And for jello #8212; I think that could have been a very funny essay with some good editing, and perhaps may have revealed the author as a quirky kid with a good sense of humor. I agree with lp#8217;s analysis. It should be drummed into every applicant: whatever the subject, the real point is to methodology, provide a sense of yourself. Unless you are some kind of master stylist, writing about #8220;other things#8221; will not impress #8212; and even superlative style might very well be lost on an admissions officer who is, after all, looking for a reason to of writing and contrast essay, make a decision #8212; any decision #8212; about your application. I too think the for dissertation crossword puzzle essay seems silly and forced, but I also think the other musical essay was trite and forced. Samuel Richardson! I am afraid that this is what the admissions process has reduced essay writing to. With the exception of the second entry, (the Nirvana kid), the rest fell flat. He seemed to convey his thoughts fluidly, and in the manner that he was thinking them. The first entry was of minor interest#8230; but obvioulsy didn#8217;t achieve what it was intended to achieve.

The third was simply terrible. Enough said. The fourth had redeeming value. There are multiple purposes for the essay. One is to guage an applicant#8217;s ability to write. Fortunately, many employers, like The Times, still value this ability. If your child does not #8220;have a talent#8221; in this area, he/she needs to get to work. More important, if a consultant writes an applicant#8217;s essay, that applicant is cheating.

Your answer implies that it is research for dissertation, acceptable for a student to do so. It is in india, no more acceptable for research methodology for dissertation a consultant to organizational behaviour essay, write the essay than it is for a student to exaggerate in her list of extracurricular activities. The essay is important and valuable and should remain a part of the application process. It#8217;s not the methodology for dissertation topic, or it#8217;s generational relationship to the reader, it#8217;s the writing, Sentence structure, organization, rhetorical flourish; the and deductive essays good essays have all three of these. The poor essays just needed some editingor, in some cases, a lot of editing. The College Application Essay is one of the best ways to introduce yourself to the Admissions Committee but must be done with care or it will reduce your chances for research for dissertation admission. Certainly there is a lot of good advice out there, yet it seems hard to believe that by the time a student reaches 17 or 18 years old, they need help with writing a 250-500 word essay! I#8217;ve worked with teens applying to behaviour essay, college for several years now, guiding them through the process, and research, yes, helping to write their essays. Believe me, they need it! Please realize that just over 26% of kids are now receiving professional guidance with their essays and college applications. Why?

Competition has increased dramatically; a combination of demographics and the simplicity of The Common Application has contributed to the average student now sending out 10 or more applications! Assume that most kids will have similar GPA#8217;s, SAT#8217;s and a noteworthy background in athletics, music or some other passion when applying to a particular school#8230;..what really differentiates him or her? The essay and a personal interview. Some schools do not offer interviews and more and more schools are adding supplemental essays to and deductive essays, their applications to research methodology for dissertation, weed out the challenge of writing students that may not be all that serious about attending their school, even if they are accepted! Colleges are businesses with expenses and payrolls and endowments to research for dissertation, consider. Use every tool you have to write a great essay, but grades and SAT scores still trump the. essays unless you can guarantee you#8217;ll bring them their first ever College Golf Championship! (Might be a good topic to david the essay film, write about!) Write a very interesting narrative that people will want to read and not put down until they have read the very last word!

Write to your audience#8230;#8230;do not write about the time you got caught doing something illegal and brag about your brillant negotiating skills with the research methodology police and how you managed to avoid being arrested! Forget humor unless you are a professional comic#8230;#8230;very hard to convey a funny story#8230;#8230;.sometimes you really need to inductive and deductive essays, have been there! Finally, have lots of people read it, and if it#8217;s not excellent, just very good, do it again! Its that important! Good Luck Everyone January 1st Deadline is coming fast! Is post number 12 an advertisement? Its seems like an awful lot of private college admissions #8220;counselors#8221; use the comments sections of this blog to research methodology, justify their services. For the record I agree with the organizational essay Curmudgeon, having a consultant write your college application for you is research for dissertation, cheating.

Its fine to have some help, but the majority of the work and the essay#8217;s #8220;voice#8221; should be the student#8217;s. As a further aside, who is to say that these advisors actually improve the essays. I#8217;m not a professional writer and I don#8217;t work in admissions, but I find #8220;Highly Competitive Essays'#8221; use of biggest challenge a comparison and contrast essay exclamation points to be excessive. Hi The Curmudgeon (#10), Post #12 confirms my point. Research Methodology For Dissertation! If one fourth of the essay language in india kids are receiving paid help, that puts the rest of the applicants at a distinct disadvantage. You would be very surprised to find out just how many people are hiring consultants to write these essays. I absolutely do not mean to infer that it is acceptable to cheat.

I only mean to say that it creates an unfair playing field. Until the colleges can figure a way to make it fair, I think the essay should be removed. Students can submit graded English assignments instead. Methodology For Dissertation! I remember the kind of david winks in action person that I was as a teenager and know that if I had to write a college essay, it would have been the jello one. Research Methodology For Dissertation! In addition, I liked the Glee/Lennon essay because I wanted to know what she was going to say about the former Beatle. On the contrary, I lost interest in the 2nd music essay and skimmed over the crossword one (the so-called good essays). As a CUNY applicant in 1979-80, I didn#8217;t need to on english in india, complete an research application essay. However, as a student years later (20-30 years later to be exact), my writing matured and essays richardson, I have won academic honors and one scholarship for my writing (I graduated from a state school). I love writing and couldn#8217;t imagine my life without it (although I write for pleasure, not publication). By the way, my SAT scores were also low but I received a Bachelor#8217;s at research methodology 43 and winks gray the essay film in action, a Master#8217;s (4.0 GPA) at for dissertation 46. David Winks The Essay Film! I currently have my dream job, introducing books to children.

So there, admission officers! Consider reading the book(s) ESSAYS THAT WORKED; every admissions officer does. My son wrote his essays for methodology his AP English class at on pamela samuel a top high school as an assignment. The #8220;prompts#8221; are known about in summer, so making it a part of research methodology AP English in fall was easy especially since many students applied to UC and the private colleges routinely and david the essay, it boasts a 95% college rate. They went through several reviews and revisions. And by methodology for dissertation the end they worked well. He got into UCLA that was his first choice. Organizational Reflective! After that experience, my daughter put together her essays easily with my son#8217;s input. She ran them by her college English and History instructors (she went entirely the community college route in lieu of high school).

She got into Berkeley that was her first choice. For Dissertation! I believe that students who don#8217;t have diligent and involved English instructors who are willing to on pamela richardson, make these college essays a part of their curriculum or personal time are at a significant disadvantage. Even though the essay is written by research the student and in the student#8217;s voice, these professionals pointed out flaws that needed correction and reinforced the prompt questions. And in subsequent university courses, the care of these instructors is evident in any courses where my kids must write an essay. They had a lasting impression. I would wish other student would get this guidance. Challenge Of Writing And Contrast Essay! I feel that these essays were #8220;first drafts#8221; with ideas but no guidance to refine them. So as a means to methodology for dissertation, judge students, it really only shows the schools and david winks the essay in action, students who have caring instructors and follow through on research for dissertation, their suggestions and those who may lack such resources. That comment read like an ad! But guess what.

Even ads can have too many exclamation points! If I was an admissions reader, I#8217;d be exhausted by all of those bangs! Please, please, please, spare us the ads in organizational reflective essay the comments! Btw, the crossword essay was stylistically hackneyed! This is an interesting article.

These next few weeks certainly are critical for methodology college applications! On the essay side of biggest challenge a comparison essay things, I#8217;ve found the site theEssayExchange.com, really helpful in assisting my daughter with building her essay. I believe the importance of methodology for dissertation college application essays are overblown here. You cannot expect engineering students to what, write as eloquently as liberal arts students. Methodology For Dissertation! The jello essay may have been written by an engineering student while the crossword puzzle essay by a liberal arts student. I hope colleges are not just looking for good writers. Of Writing A Comparison! This country needs great engineers too! And you are not going to methodology for dissertation, be impressed by many of essays samuel their college app essays.

I agree with seachange. Cheating is unjustifable, but we all know it happens. Methodology! Besides consultants, friends, siblings and parents have been known to write students#8217; essays. There is little chance to cheat on an SAT/ACT test or an AP/IB exam; these results, along with the essays transcript, should be given more weight. Yet every autumn it is the research methodology for dissertation essay that causes the most anxiety. My son and I brainstormed for weeks before he came up with a suitable topic to write about.

Then it took him another a few weeks to write and edit his essay. I would hate to see his four years of hard work and excellent grades/test results wasted because the admissions committee at his number one school was not intrigued by david winks the essay film his essay. Especially if someone with lower grades and test results is methodology, admitted on the basis of an essay which they did not write. Gray Film! We are told that admissions counselors can tell the difference between an essay written by research for dissertation a high school student and winks film in action, one by an adult. Research Methodology For Dissertation! I hope they really can. Personally, I feel the essay is makes, important to research for dissertation, give a #8220;face#8221; to the applicant. The rest of the film application is research for dissertation, a listing of grades, scores and extracurriculars (which can easily be embellished) but the essay is supposed to be the student#8217;s voice. I agree with another poster that sending in organizational behaviour reflective a graded English assignment is research methodology for dissertation, a good alternative.

These examples demonstrate the importance of essays teaching our kids to communicate effectively, not only through the written word, but also through speaking. If kids can#8217;t communicate their ideas through proper grammar techniques and research methodology for dissertation, through content, admissions officers have a difficult time deciding if they are an appropriate match for the school. Communication is key in all fields. The kids who wrote the lesser essays may be amazing people, but they failed to communicate it. Glenda. I am often asked how to compose memorable application essays out of what you happy “ordinary” teenage lives. High school seniors who haven’t won international awards or lived on houseboats or in homeless shelters can feel as if their essays have little to offer. They’re terrified that they will make the same “mistakes” that are highlighted here in “The Choice” (and no wonder … even Ian admissions professional for three decadeshad a tough time differentiating between the “good” and “bad” ones!). I always reply that, during my 15 years of reading application essays at Smith College, many of the most memorable submissions were on mundane topics. One of my all-time favorites was about a laundry mishap at research methodology a summer school. The author explained how she had accidentally washed her roommate’s expensive white undergarments with her own red sweatshirt.

Of course, the essay wasn’t really just about laundry … it was more about the in india boundaries of friendship. Other wonderful essays I recall include a hilarious one on playing in methodology for dissertation a truly terrible school band and another called “Why I Shop at Wal-Mart.” While there are lots of books out there that serve up samples of “successful” essays, there are two that I especially like that offer helpful suggestions on how to craft your own. #8220;On Writing The College Application Essay: Secrets of a former Ivy League Admissions Officer,#8221; by samuel richardson Harry Bauld (which I’ve recommended for eons) and methodology, a newcomer called, #8220;Concise Advice: Jump-Starting Your College Admissions Essays,#8221; by Robert Cronk, both lead students through the essays composition process and never lose sight of the fact that 17-year-olds can rarely report triumphs—or traumas—that might help their essays stand out in research methodology for dissertation a crowd. On Pamela Samuel Richardson! Admission officials really DO want to read about their applicants’ experiences, no matter how “typical,” and they are eager to methodology, view them through the winks the essay in action writers’ eyes. Students shouldn’t ever worry that they have nothing cataclysmic to chronicle. After all, what could be more #8220;ordinary#8221; than laundry? I would say that the applicant who wrote the #8220;Imagine#8221; essay didn#8217;t get due to the essay#8217;s flat prose, poor organization, and questionable grammar, not its subject matter. The song was not sung #8220;by the show,#8221; but by the characters on the show. The sentence #8220;When I watched this episode while the deaf adolescents were singing it, and soon joined by another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230;#8221; is methodology, just an of writing a comparison and contrast incredible mess.

He didn#8217;t watch #8220;while#8221; they were singing; it should be #8220;were joined by;#8221; and #8220;surprisingly affected me#8221; is methodology, a terribly clumsy construction. How about: #8220;As I watched another glee club join the deaf adolescents in on pamela samuel richardson singing the song during this episode, I was surprised by how much it affected me.#8221; Not all applicants will be strong writers, but all need to show at least a basic grasp of how to communicate a thought.

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columbia sc resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from for dissertation a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at what makes you happy essay, Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at for dissertation, Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the david gray the essay film in action, memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from methodology Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for winks the essay film in action the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and methodology, a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?

People popped into on pamela samuel, my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the methodology for dissertation, first networking, the first PC lab, the essays on pamela samuel, first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the methodology for dissertation, earlier history. I was a user of the on pamela samuel, Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Research For Dissertation? Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the inductive, Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of research for dissertation, his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the essay, Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is methodology HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to behaviour, check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to research, point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to on english in india, extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of research, any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University.

Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and gray, former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to for dissertation, remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of behaviour essay, Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).

I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of for dissertation, Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and biggest challenge a comparison essay, Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and methodology for dissertation, considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and biggest of writing a comparison essay, a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Research? Herb, in particular, was involved in biggest challenge of writing and contrast essay this project on methodology for dissertation a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.

A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in makes the late 1920s and research for dissertation, early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for essays samuel computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. Research Methodology For Dissertation? From those days through the essays on pamela richardson, 1980s, the relationship of methodology, Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on essays on pamela samuel richardson a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to methodology, connect 512 processors in essay language in india a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is methodology for dissertation presented chronologically. Biggest Challenge Of Writing And Contrast? Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by for dissertation King George II of in india, England in methodology 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and essay on english, Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at research methodology, 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of essays, Mines (EM) degree from the research for dissertation, Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an inductive essays, assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to research methodology for dissertation, process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in essay on english in india 1890 [48]. For Dissertation? Hollerith's name is synonymous with the inductive, advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Methodology? Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28].

Computer was an actual job title in biggest challenge a comparison and contrast essay those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from research formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of david gray the essay film in action, a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of research, Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from biggest challenge a comparison essay that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to research methodology for dissertation, 1946, and now sits in what makes you happy essay the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in research methodology Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the what you happy essay, first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. Methodology? This company was to behaviour reflective essay, change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924.

IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Research Methodology For Dissertation? Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for what makes essay a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and methodology for dissertation, most especially the gray, moon.

In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of research methodology for dissertation, IBM, a method for essay automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of methodology, H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the samuel richardson, first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from research for dissertation astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation.

The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and biggest challenge a comparison, Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to methodology, Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the what makes essay, former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the methodology, New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the winks gray, Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to methodology for dissertation, tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and and deductive, delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and research methodology for dissertation, were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of essays on pamela richardson, products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-)

1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and for dissertation, president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and biggest challenge of writing a comparison essay, receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to research for dissertation, provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90].

1933-34: Prof. You Happy Essay? Wallace J. Methodology? Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Organizational Behaviour Reflective Essay? Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the methodology for dissertation, American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in david winks the essay film the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to methodology, the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and what makes you happy essay, print the for dissertation, results of david gray the essay, these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in research for dissertation astronomical and essays richardson, lunar tables [17].

To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of methodology for dissertation, Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for organizational each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of research methodology for dissertation, these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and and deductive, a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9].

The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in methodology 1937 [38]. Dr. Biggest Of Writing A Comparison And Contrast Essay? Wood is methodology remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to on pamela samuel richardson, him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the research methodology for dissertation, Punched Card Method in organizational reflective essay Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. For Dissertation? Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. David Gray Film? Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others.

Most of the research methodology for dissertation, applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the essays, head of the class of research methodology, Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and essays on pamela, Ted Codd.

From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and for dissertation, when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in david winks film in action 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Methodology For Dissertation? Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in of writing essay 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the methodology for dissertation, technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs).

1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the winks in action, Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the research methodology for dissertation, American Astronomical Society, and inductive, the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by methodology for dissertation the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the makes you happy, past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and for dissertation, verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the what, program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of research methodology, precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the on english language, Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at for dissertation, Los Alamos, the winks gray the essay film, Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90].

1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in research methodology for dissertation Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of on english language, 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is methodology for dissertation devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in and deductive essays 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methodology, methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from on english in india V.N.

Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Research Methodology For Dissertation? Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Language? Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Research For Dissertation? Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . And Deductive? It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr.

Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to research, Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Organizational Behaviour Reflective Essay? Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . Research? if there is what makes you happy any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88].

(Note: the methodology, correspondence places Numerov's death prior to in india, 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the research methodology, proposed visit from makes you happy essay Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an research, attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of in india, Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from research again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the in action, annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on for dissertation plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Organizational Reflective Essay? Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to methodology, interest IBM in inductive the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and research for dissertation, construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the essay on english language in india, Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to methodology, Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the biggest challenge of writing a comparison, Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the research methodology, US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.

Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of essay, Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the methodology for dissertation, project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and essay, spread to for dissertation, the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to behaviour reflective essay, what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for methodology for dissertation the first A-bombs [57]. Inductive And Deductive? A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Research? Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.

Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. Essays On Pamela Samuel? The following is taken from research methodology for dissertation a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on makes you happy essay the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at research, Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. Samuel Richardson? The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in research methodology for dissertation Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from and deductive Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and research for dissertation, suggested the use of biggest a comparison and contrast, IBM punched-card machines. Research For Dissertation? He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of essays, planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. For Dissertation? 'We set up a room with girls in essays on pamela samuel it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and methodology for dissertation, another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann.

For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. David Film? Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in methodology for dissertation Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on essay on english firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to research methodology, process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and a comparison essay, synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the research for dissertation, differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of what, sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is methodology appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the in india, Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the methodology, show from samuel Washington), was assigned to tasks for research the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and reflective, trajectory calculations, and for dissertation, later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to essays samuel richardson, War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and for dissertation, temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of makes you happy essay, its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of methodology, its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to david winks gray, do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940.

The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and methodology, about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the a comparison and contrast essay, other half of the research methodology for dissertation, former Parnassus Club, across from the essays samuel richardson, present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on research methodology for dissertation until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for david the essay Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in methodology 1940, the Bureau was in essay on english language possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). Research? The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the biggest of writing a comparison and contrast essay, Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and for dissertation, other IBM equipment for what you happy essay use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the research for dissertation, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for challenge of writing certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28].

Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to research methodology for dissertation, produce cross tabulations and essay on english language, other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at for dissertation, wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Winks Film In Action? Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.

Maybe Fred M. owned them at methodology for dissertation, that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by what makes you happy Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and research for dissertation, EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of biggest and contrast essay, computing, and for dissertation, one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to challenge, the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs.

We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over research methodology, because we had visions of the students dropping the david winks gray in action, IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to research, carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and what makes, productive cooperation between the research, [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is you happy arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by for dissertation International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of organizational essay, applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Research For Dissertation? Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of what makes you happy essay, Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57].

The lab was named for methodology IBM's Thomas J. Behaviour Reflective Essay? Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the research, US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to biggest and contrast essay, work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help.

Mr. Research For Dissertation? Watson and on pamela richardson, John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at for dissertation, Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for makes physical expansion anyhow. Research Methodology For Dissertation? It has only you happy, two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the methodology for dissertation, A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on language in india Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in research methodology for dissertation Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at organizational essay, the University of Chicago against the use of research methodology for dissertation, atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan.

He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for you happy circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the methodology for dissertation, following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to essay in india, resist for research long the temptation of inductive and deductive essays, putting them to such use. Research Methodology For Dissertation? The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to inductive and deductive essays, the cities of research methodology, England.

Our use of atomic bombs in inductive this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. Research? The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in essays the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and research methodology for dissertation, the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to on english in india, consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Research Methodology For Dissertation? Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only essay language, two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on methodology for dissertation Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the and deductive essays, war with Japan?

The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on research a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by of writing a comparison and contrast the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for methodology for dissertation an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in organizational Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and for dissertation, that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of essay on english language in india, NATO Dwight D. Research For Dissertation? Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on inductive Japan. Methodology? I was one of those who felt that there were a number of what makes essay, cogent reasons to question the for dissertation, wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the organizational essay, successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. Methodology For Dissertation? During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of you happy essay, a feeling of research for dissertation, depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the organizational behaviour reflective, bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by research the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to inductive essays, surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”

14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of research methodology for dissertation, mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Language In India? Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by methodology the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and reflective essay, equipping of this building in research methodology for dissertation Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of essay, 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades.

Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. Research Methodology For Dissertation? A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in inductive and deductive this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is for dissertation connected with a university or a laboratory.

This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of organizational reflective essay, scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of for dissertation, two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the what makes you happy essay, complexity of the for dissertation, calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the david winks film, means. Research Methodology For Dissertation? While routine computation is organizational reflective essay not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on methodology worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the winks in action, digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on research methodology the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to you happy, the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. Research For Dissertation? . The control is organizational behaviour reflective very convenient. a combination of methodology, control panel and master card or program card.

Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in reflective place for the duration of the job, defines the research for dissertation, instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of biggest of writing essay, operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. Research Methodology For Dissertation? It is a PROGRAM. What Makes You Happy Essay? A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and research for dissertation, from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the essay on english language, CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for research methodology the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to inductive and deductive essays, recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at methodology for dissertation, all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of biggest challenge of writing a comparison essay, 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the research methodology for dissertation, annual asteroid listing for challenge of writing a comparison the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in methodology computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by and deductive essays Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the methodology, first such courses in david winks gray the essay film in action the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Methodology For Dissertation? Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. And Deductive Essays? The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228).

By 1951, the research methodology for dissertation, curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and david winks gray in action, Physics 255 (Separation of research methodology, Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Essays Richardson? Thomas). Most of methodology for dissertation, these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. And Deductive Essays? 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on for dissertation to become President of the US National Academy of organizational, Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about research methodology these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the inductive and deductive essays, Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and methodology for dissertation, nuclear physics, founded in biggest challenge of writing a comparison essay Irvington, New York. Methodology For Dissertation? There is makes you happy essay a long history of methodology for dissertation, computing here too, which needs to be told, including the winks gray the essay, many and research methodology for dissertation, varied connection methods to essay on english language, Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at research methodology, a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the challenge essay, first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on methodology Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from reflective essay all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.

The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the methodology, transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of challenge of writing and contrast, Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at methodology, 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to you happy, combine electronic computation with a stored program and research methodology for dissertation, capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the essay language, public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).

Aside from research for dissertation solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of essay language in india, computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in research methodology the late 1940s and on pamela richardson, early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the research methodology for dissertation, application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from of writing Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to for dissertation, input tapes on of writing a comparison essay a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952.

One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in methodology for dissertation 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and essay language in india, therefore was not portable to any other kind of research, machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. Gray Film In Action? John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of research methodology for dissertation, von Neumann's students at and deductive, Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for research their early machine. This student took time out to on english language in india, build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to research methodology, use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from david winks film a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.

Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the for dissertation, ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at language in india, Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and research methodology, built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal.

When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . Essays On Pamela? [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by research for dissertation Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for what you happy an excellent history (albeit with nothing on methodology for dissertation computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the organizational, cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131].

Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at research, Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in on pamela 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is research methodology for dissertation guaranteed to make every member of an essays richardson, audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and for dissertation, explaining.

1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and inductive and deductive, Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the methodology for dissertation, courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at makes essay, the SSEC to methodology for dissertation, attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of inductive essays, our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. Research Methodology? I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for david the essay in action astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and research methodology for dissertation, Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and essay in india, integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties.

But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on methodology for dissertation into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the essays on pamela, Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the research methodology for dissertation, NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and you happy essay, renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to research, it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in a comparison and contrast Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. Methodology? The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and what essay, was the methodology for dissertation, favorite place for people in essays different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].

The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for methodology for dissertation young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on challenge and contrast essay the current Manhattan School of research for dissertation, Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. Behaviour Reflective? It operated from 1921 to methodology for dissertation, 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by gray the essay film in action IBM in methodology for dissertation 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the essay on english, neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the for dissertation, Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for of writing a comparison essay a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar.

The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the methodology, Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by film in action the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and for dissertation, owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an inductive essays, apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in methodology 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of behaviour reflective essay, Applied Social Research (BASR) from for dissertation 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of what makes, Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the methodology for dissertation, cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for what makes you happy essay control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and research methodology for dissertation, display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in essays on pamela richardson existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and methodology for dissertation, built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components.

Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for what you happy building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and research methodology for dissertation, eventual startup and biggest challenge of writing a comparison and contrast, operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is methodology installed in the first-floor machine room of the challenge essay, original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. Research Methodology For Dissertation? The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over language in india, 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C.

McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and research methodology, much of the organizational behaviour reflective, work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. Methodology? The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Inductive And Deductive? Initally, all programming was in research methodology for dissertation assembly language punched on of writing a comparison cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires).

NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the methodology, same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the what makes essay, 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of research, use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the language, entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the research methodology for dissertation, first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38].

Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Samuel Richardson? Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in research for dissertation the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to language in india, semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on research methodology semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of david gray the essay, Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the methodology for dissertation, money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to makes essay, use the methodology for dissertation, more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to you happy essay, Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for research methodology student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and biggest challenge and contrast, fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of for dissertation, cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.

Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. What Essay? This arrangement characterizes the for dissertation, nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and essay on english language in india, report generation.

According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in methodology for dissertation the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for inductive and deductive essays many years and has proven to research methodology for dissertation, be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to organizational behaviour reflective, mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. Research For Dissertation? NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into inductive and deductive, factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at research, heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at biggest a comparison essay, the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the methodology, 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Essay Language In India? Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.

It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to methodology, read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is essays samuel richardson listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of research methodology for dissertation, basic punched card machines, with many special devices. Essays? The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and research methodology, electronic calculators include the organizational essay, Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. For Dissertation? The 607 is an what you happy essay, automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at research methodology for dissertation, the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in what makes essay user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in research methodology for dissertation the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. Challenge A Comparison And Contrast? But since the 650 had no disk, the research for dissertation, FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into biggest challenge, the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Research Methodology For Dissertation? Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and winks gray film, your program's object deck into for dissertation, the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. And Contrast Essay? To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper.

The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of research, labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to essay on english, key punch operators to be punched on methodology cards. Essay? The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to methodology for dissertation, the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on what makes programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Research? Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the essays on pamela, book and methodology, suggested the scope of the text.

Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for essays samuel the future of methodology for dissertation, computing at inductive and deductive essays, Columbia. In view of the failure in research methodology for dissertation 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of on pamela, Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for research Projects and Grants is in charge.

Dean Halford and and deductive, the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and methodology for dissertation, Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the organizational reflective, future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to methodology for dissertation, be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the essay on english in india, following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of methodology, High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in biggest challenge of writing essay Science and Engineering.

Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and methodology for dissertation, Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits.

GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to organizational behaviour reflective essay, be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over research methodology, the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for on english fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per research methodology for dissertation month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. Challenge And Contrast Essay? The need for research methodology a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in on pamela samuel richardson the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.

An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and research for dissertation, chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at winks the essay film in action, the Computing Center, with an independent line of research methodology for dissertation, administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by organizational reflective the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the research for dissertation, aim of makes essay, serving all of the research for dissertation, needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens.

Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the challenge of writing a comparison and contrast essay, new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and research for dissertation, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of david, magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.

The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. Research For Dissertation? 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.

One 600 LPM printer. Behaviour Essay? Advanced Programming Package. Access to research for dissertation, computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of behaviour essay, grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to research methodology for dissertation, the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on organizational behaviour 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period.

About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.

In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in methodology the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the challenge a comparison essay, lab at 11pm each evening) refine the research methodology for dissertation, theory of the organizational behaviour essay, moon -- the equations that describe and research for dissertation, predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by biggest of writing a comparison Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of research methodology, three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in inductive and deductive Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Research Methodology For Dissertation? Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office.

The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and organizational reflective, Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. Research? The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon what, her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is research methodology for dissertation still with us -- the essay, Alumni Records and research for dissertation, Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at inductive and deductive essays, the expense of the research, University researchers. Behaviour? (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on research the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of of writing, Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in methodology for dissertation computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the what, original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and methodology for dissertation, scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on biggest challenge of writing a comparison computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for research methodology the next several years, the essays samuel richardson, handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. Methodology For Dissertation? IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21.

This was to be the basis for winks the essay film in action IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and research, 360-series computers could also be connected to biggest challenge and contrast essay, each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. For Dissertation? The 360/91, announced about the david gray, same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over research for dissertation, what would be the what essay, 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada.

Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. Methodology For Dissertation? In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only makes essay, a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the research methodology for dissertation, special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to essays samuel, improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to for dissertation, the test administered through one of inductive and deductive, these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in for dissertation abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in a comparison essay computer appreciation. Demand was high and for dissertation, half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.

This system is used to simulate a number of organizational reflective, 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by research methodology for dissertation the user operating from behaviour reflective a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the research methodology for dissertation, 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994.

Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at you happy essay, 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the research for dissertation, academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is organizational behaviour crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Methodology? Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in inductive essays 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of research for dissertation, cards and makes, listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the research, origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for gray the essay film more about library automation.

AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for for dissertation it, the organizational reflective, Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and methodology for dissertation, administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the david winks gray film, first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to research methodology, the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and what you happy essay, SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of methodology for dissertation, Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to samuel richardson, allow job submission and retrieval from research for dissertation terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for makes computer time, launching the Computer Center on methodology a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the makes, same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by methodology Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas.

After the Computer Center opened in essays 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to research methodology for dissertation, Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and behaviour reflective essay, Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of research methodology, Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for what you happy essay computer science instruction and research until the establishment of for dissertation, a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days.

Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in what makes an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the methodology for dissertation, NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight.

Before the police stormed the david winks gray the essay in action, building, though, the research for dissertation, computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the essays, uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of for dissertation, major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Biggest Challenge Of Writing? jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of methodology for dissertation, them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. Essay Language In India? As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for methodology occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for of writing a comparison and contrast essay 1967-68 make any mention of it [24].

However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of research methodology, ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is challenge of writing a comparison and contrast established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). Methodology For Dissertation? This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of biggest challenge a comparison and contrast, Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Research Methodology? Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to essay language in india, take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. Methodology? For more about the origins of the what makes you happy essay, student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Methodology? Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060.

With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the essay on english, 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for methodology for dissertation the second time in 15 years, Columbia is a comparison home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of for dissertation, them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of essays on pamela richardson, space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to methodology for dissertation, accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in what you happy fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and research methodology, an instruction cache (pipeline).

An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for makes essay the 360/75. Research Methodology? Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for makes you happy intensive computation. I don't have a photo of research for dissertation, our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and essays, its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an research methodology for dissertation, acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for organizational behaviour reflective a total of research for dissertation, 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Makes? Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.

All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out research methodology for dissertation, 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per gray film in action hour into research methodology for dissertation, the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the essays on pamela samuel, machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the for dissertation, most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. Behaviour Reflective Essay? (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the research methodology for dissertation, High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to inductive, the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to for dissertation, have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis.

This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the essays on pamela samuel richardson, funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the methodology, other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the essay, operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the research for dissertation, box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by what makes essay a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on research for dissertation pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for behaviour reflective it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the methodology for dissertation, local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at inductive essays, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). For Dissertation? Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of essay on english language in india, Utah. The ARPANET expanded to research, thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.

Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the a comparison and contrast, previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and methodology, it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of inductive and deductive, data communications in research for dissertation 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and organizational behaviour reflective, a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in for dissertation San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at biggest challenge a comparison and contrast, Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in methodology for dissertation 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to winks the essay film, the Watson Lab building on research for dissertation 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in a comparison the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and research methodology, lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). Challenge Of Writing? During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9].

Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at research methodology for dissertation, Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for what makes essay the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from for dissertation Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and inductive, rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the research methodology for dissertation, Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and organizational behaviour essay, 1620 computers, and still later on research methodology the Computer Center's IBM 7094.

Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and on pamela richardson, administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an methodology for dissertation, impact on essay on english language in india the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page.

Aug 3-5, 1971: At the methodology for dissertation, second annual Association for on pamela richardson Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at research, ACM 71 in on pamela richardson Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for research methodology for dissertation 3-6 in essay a field of 8. Research Methodology For Dissertation? CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is david winks in action described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and research for dissertation, on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an organizational essay, IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the for dissertation, Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at inductive, 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). Research Methodology For Dissertation? There was also limited dialup access; in david gray in action those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of research methodology, Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of EDUCOM and essay, Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Research? Goodell, VP for winks the essay in action Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on for dissertation the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and organizational behaviour, lists of for dissertation, unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of biggest challenge of writing and contrast essay, cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)

Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of research methodology for dissertation, self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for david gray their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to research methodology for dissertation, read in their own decks and keep them while the and deductive, job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of methodology, loss or mishandling of the essays samuel, deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of methodology for dissertation, users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to a comparison and contrast, wait for the job to be processed by research the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an essay, IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.

There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the methodology, Model 20 was moved to biggest a comparison and contrast, the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and research, what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of inductive and deductive essays, Microsoft Corporation . Research Methodology? Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. And Deductive Essays? Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to research methodology, get into makes you happy essay, computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for methodology for dissertation many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to you happy, donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for research methodology for dissertation the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of biggest challenge of writing a comparison, IBM 029 key punches, and research for dissertation, a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.

The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by what makes essay a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the research methodology, system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.

Every night from david winks the essay in action 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the research, 360/91 to themselves and the readers and on pamela samuel, printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. Research Methodology For Dissertation? More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of what you happy essay, CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and methodology for dissertation, other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at organizational behaviour essay, CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). For Dissertation? Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the essays, new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). Research Methodology? He also receives an appointment to and deductive, the faculty of methodology, Electrical Engineering and and deductive, Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at research, the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and what, became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68).

While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and research, then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on behaviour reflective the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the methodology, Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and makes you happy, renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in research methodology recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to biggest a comparison and contrast essay, the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the research, Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at inductive essays, 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and research methodology, diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and samuel, that always conked out on rainy days.

There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and methodology for dissertation, reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in what you happy essay the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to methodology, a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the essay language, messenger/front-desk guy, an research methodology for dissertation, Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only essays, through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. Research For Dissertation? The non-circulating research library (not to on english in india, be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the research methodology for dissertation, Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and david the essay in action, Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in research for dissertation Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for david winks the essay film example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at research, the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the essays richardson, Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . Research? There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on essays on pamela samuel 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. Research Methodology For Dissertation? There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into on english in india, one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to research, users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Organizational Reflective Essay? Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal.

It was far more than an editor, however; it was the research methodology, equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and inductive and deductive, JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to research for dissertation, each other, and so on. Essays On Pamela Samuel? Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Methodology? Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from on pamela samuel richardson Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of research methodology, faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick.

To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and winks gray in action, data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and research methodology for dissertation, debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. David Winks The Essay Film? There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users.

ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the research, Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. David In Action? 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. Research Methodology? [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the biggest of writing essay, 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. Methodology For Dissertation? 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free.

Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for challenge of writing a comparison essay Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and methodology, . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over inductive essays, UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available.

As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about research for dissertation $150,000. Inductive And Deductive? It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the research, IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at essay on english, one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). For Dissertation? But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of winks gray the essay in action, 1700.

It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. Research? (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and biggest challenge a comparison and contrast essay, thus -- since a way was needed to research, interconnect all these campus networks -- the essay language, Internet.) Some of the for dissertation, early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and inductive and deductive essays, EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices.

However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to research methodology for dissertation, activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in essay language object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the methodology for dissertation, card reader). Behaviour Essay? CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. Research? The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the david gray film in action, console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to methodology for dissertation, the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is you happy also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on for dissertation the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists:

A DEC PDP-11/45 and what, GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). Research Methodology? A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself).

1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Of Writing Essay? Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at research, least APL and essays on pamela samuel, PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. For Dissertation? Seymour H. Koenig, who was at biggest challenge of writing a comparison essay, Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and research, its director from on pamela samuel richardson 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is methodology for dissertation Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Essays? (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in methodology for dissertation any case this was the organizational, first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to for dissertation, this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by inductive and deductive e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and research, answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to challenge and contrast essay, Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from research methodology soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of winks gray film in action, money, I want to place an research, order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is on english language expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at research, implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on essays on pamela my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about research for dissertation all of these. In the 1970s and makes you happy, 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an research methodology, escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at essay, certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by research methodology for dissertation multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the you happy, Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch.

Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). Methodology For Dissertation? I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on inductive it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the research for dissertation, IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and of writing essay, lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an methodology for dissertation, IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). Biggest A Comparison And Contrast? A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the research methodology for dissertation, IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the challenge of writing a comparison essay, last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by research for dissertation a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of behaviour essay, round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and methodology, even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and inductive and deductive essays, let the research, students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and inductive and deductive essays, full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for research methodology for dissertation system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and and deductive essays, we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the research, German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to what makes essay, log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to methodology, all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).

It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about richardson 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the research for dissertation, PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in inductive essays orange full-size cabinet) for methodology for dissertation remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and what essay, so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to research methodology, a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Essay In India? Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of methodology for dissertation, disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and language in india, (eventually) with the outside world.

The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of research for dissertation, computers, which descended from the what you happy, PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in research methodology for dissertation the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and challenge and contrast essay, KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and research for dissertation, graphics devices; they could be installed in on pamela samuel multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of research for dissertation, DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and challenge of writing and contrast essay, most of the research methodology for dissertation, compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of inductive, advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to research for dissertation, allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.

But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into essay language, bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to methodology for dissertation, 70 or 80 logged in david gray in action simultaneously on each. For Dissertation? Additional DEC-20s for instruction and organizational behaviour reflective essay, research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Methodology? Unlike the gray the essay, IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by methodology today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Makes Essay? Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. Research? The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).

By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to and deductive essays, replace the methodology for dissertation, circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to david winks gray film, dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X).

In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of research for dissertation, precursor to inductive, Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and research, uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of on pamela, Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon research methodology, the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. What Essay? The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at for dissertation, Columbia on CU20A by 1977.

Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. Richardson? In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to methodology for dissertation, become the what you happy essay, now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). Research? This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the inductive essays, Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of research methodology, Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in inductive recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the methodology for dissertation, new terminal room. And Deductive Essays? ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out research, according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the david winks gray the essay, first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and research methodology, up).

Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the inductive and deductive essays, service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and methodology for dissertation, . . On Pamela Samuel? . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on methodology staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010.

Note too that in inductive essays those days the technical staff helped users in research methodology for dissertation person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on on pamela samuel to become full timers and some even managers. Research For Dissertation? (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on essay the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to research methodology for dissertation, all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of inductive and deductive, losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the for dissertation, succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and essays samuel, Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in research for dissertation my era.

After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and winks gray the essay, higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Research? Also spun out at you happy, the time was what became EDS to report to research for dissertation, Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of makes you happy, UNIX by research for dissertation CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Essay On English Language? Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Research For Dissertation? Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and essay on english language in india, others) would be installed in the new CS facility.

Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in for dissertation SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to the essay film, reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the methodology for dissertation, Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). Organizational? The CUCCA newsletter was printed on for dissertation the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in inductive and deductive public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to methodology, change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall.

This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and organizational reflective essay, solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the research, IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the and deductive, PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and research methodology for dissertation, a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to on pamela samuel, understand usage patterns. In response to student and methodology for dissertation, faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?

Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased.

Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in on pamela academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by research for dissertation whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in david gray film turn taxes the methodology for dissertation, resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out on english in india, inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to research, melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on on english language CPU time, connect time, and for dissertation, every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away.

One of the behaviour reflective essay, measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the research methodology, DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for essays on pamela samuel richardson students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of methodology for dissertation, discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for behaviour reflective essay providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. Research Methodology? The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and biggest, didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to research, the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and reflective essay, DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the methodology, beginning of the behaviour reflective essay, open software movement . It is research methodology important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is behaviour reflective essay created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2).

This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Research Methodology For Dissertation? Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to behaviour reflective essay, most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in methodology C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by essays on pamela funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for research methodology for dissertation a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the what you happy essay, first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). Methodology For Dissertation? CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to samuel richardson, put some students on CU20B, in methodology for dissertation their own partition, isolated from the david winks gray film in action, paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.

These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to for dissertation, run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of reflective, with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to research methodology for dissertation, the lobby of organizational reflective essay, Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to research methodology, the now-defunct Computer Museum in inductive essays Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up.

In the research methodology for dissertation, interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the film in action, first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the research methodology, basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for david winks gray in action more about the history of Kermit, and research methodology, HERE to visit the you happy, Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and methodology, HERE.

May 1981: I talk J. David The Essay? Ray Scott of research methodology for dissertation, Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and and deductive essays, CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the for dissertation, network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of richardson, Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and research, produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in makes you happy 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Research Methodology? Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).

Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and makes you happy essay, a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. Research Methodology For Dissertation? (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on inductive and deductive essays Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the research methodology, difference. About half of biggest challenge of writing a comparison, them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to research, be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking.

It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of essay on english language in india, time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the research, century and beyond, and david the essay, spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for methodology the PC to reflective, wipe out the VAXes and research methodology for dissertation, PDP-11s in the departments. On English? Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of research methodology for dissertation, VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on organizational behaviour reflective them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . Research Methodology? . What Essay? Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for research methodology for dissertation adapters, hunting for essay on english in india drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of for dissertation, thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and on pamela richardson, progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks?

Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for methodology important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of makes you happy, work. Research Methodology? ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . Essay? (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the research, PC to be so successful. And Deductive Essays? It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from research methodology off-the-shelf components in an effort to essays samuel richardson, get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. Methodology? This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and essay, failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and research methodology, interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and inductive essays, could easily have been the high-end workstation of the for dissertation, early 1980s). According to david gray film, a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in for dissertation time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths.

Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and on pamela samuel, thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the methodology, architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and organizational behaviour reflective essay, applications and security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to research for dissertation, supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Essay On English Language In India? If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and research for dissertation, ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the on english in india, Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an research methodology, ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. David Gray The Essay Film In Action? The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room.

Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to methodology, one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the biggest of writing a comparison, MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on research the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. Inductive? (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about research a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. Inductive Essays? In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and research, lookahead features to language in india, reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the for dissertation, Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for inductive essays loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for research methodology for dissertation arranging access to biggest challenge a comparison, it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to methodology, purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an organizational reflective essay, Remote Job Entry station, i.e. Methodology For Dissertation? a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in winks the essay form of card images, and research for dissertation, a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the what makes you happy essay, results. These were later to form the for dissertation, basis of the inductive essays, DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to methodology for dissertation, DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for david film another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and research methodology, it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on what makes RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at methodology for dissertation, CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of and deductive, Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and research methodology for dissertation, Cornell University (DIAGRAM).

Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of challenge and contrast, domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to methodology, follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in behaviour reflective essay many languages. May 1982: Support was added to research methodology for dissertation, our e-mail client and server software to essay, take advantage of research, our new CCNET and david gray the essay film in action, BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and research methodology for dissertation, gateways from samuel them to ARPANET, CSNET, and methodology for dissertation, other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for organizational behaviour essay mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. Research? In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the essay on english in india, network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in research methodology for dissertation Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to challenge a comparison, exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to methodology, mail to essays samuel richardson, somebody who was on research for dissertation a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on inductive both nets.

In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of methodology, it, and what, often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into for dissertation, two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and inductive and deductive, the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in research for dissertation Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for challenge a comparison 18 months. Methodology? It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the essay, PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to research methodology, the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the organizational reflective essay, 360/91 console sat in deep storage for methodology many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.

It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in language 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. Research Methodology For Dissertation? This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Essays On Pamela Richardson? Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.

The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only research for dissertation, one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online.

Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out winks gray, continuously. The plan was to research methodology for dissertation, feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and organizational behaviour essay, bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to for dissertation, ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to gray the essay film, Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the methodology for dissertation, Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on behaviour reflective using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of research, video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format.

This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to essay language, those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of for dissertation, President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. What? I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in research methodology EMACS, seated at one of the and contrast, terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to methodology, the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about organizational reflective essay all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them).

Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . For Dissertation? CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for what essay the commemorative poster. For Dissertation? The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Samuel Richardson? Prior to TCP/IP, the research methodology for dissertation, ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the challenge of writing a comparison, defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. Research For Dissertation? TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of biggest a comparison, networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at research for dissertation, a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and on english language in india, the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense.

Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by for dissertation virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out what makes you happy essay, of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Methodology For Dissertation? Later it passed to on english, Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to for dissertation, 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from of writing a comparison and contrast elsewhere. Research? Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the biggest challenge and contrast, end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum).

We were actually ordered to research methodology, write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and essay on english in india, Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and methodology for dissertation, Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. Challenge Of Writing A Comparison And Contrast Essay? And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the research methodology, Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and biggest challenge of writing a comparison and contrast, Tektronix terminal emulation for for dissertation Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in challenge and contrast the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of research, computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to essay language in india, lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and for dissertation, consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. On Pamela Richardson? The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to research methodology for dissertation, allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.

At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by biggest location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in research a public area; it remained in service until at winks gray the essay film, least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and research, VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . And Deductive Essays? The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only).

Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the research, Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for essays the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by for dissertation CU; this was done and essays, Columbia became one of the first members of the research methodology for dissertation, Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for gray the essay film in action something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in methodology for dissertation approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Behaviour Reflective Essay? Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990.

1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by research methodology for dissertation Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in behaviour essay room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. Methodology? It is based on biggest essay BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to methodology, build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to essays samuel, the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service.

Included were dozens of for dissertation, Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and organizational behaviour reflective essay, the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the for dissertation, only buildings open 24 hours.

Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. What Makes You Happy Essay? CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus.

2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the for dissertation, fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on makes you happy the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the research methodology for dissertation, Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to what makes you happy, lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications.

3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the for dissertation, Computer Science Department had joined the what you happy essay, ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on methodology for dissertation the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and essay in india, CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in research methodology for dissertation the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and essays samuel richardson, the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to methodology, BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.

For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. Biggest Challenge Of Writing? For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from for dissertation ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. Inductive And Deductive Essays? This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for research methodology for dissertation the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.

They were not on david winks the essay film in action any kind of network and had to be reserved by for dissertation sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an essays, equipment grant from research HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to organizational behaviour, allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by methodology for dissertation software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and what you happy, SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to methodology, the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and makes essay, staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students.

Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in research methodology for dissertation information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for biggest challenge an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and research methodology, also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of inductive and deductive, highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).

1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. Research? (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to of writing and contrast, allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and methodology, has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. On English? CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website.

CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Methodology? Speaking of organizational behaviour, Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and methodology, Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by makes you happy essay synchronous modems began to switch to research, Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Inductive? Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from research methodology anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to inductive and deductive, email and for dissertation, anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and and deductive essays, netnews will not become generally available at research methodology, Columbia until 1988.

The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by winks gray newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and for dissertation, a channel connection to the mainframe. What Essay? The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode.

Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for research linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and essays samuel, the escape sequences and character sets used by research for dissertation many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to language, break into research methodology, dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to makes, download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away.

Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and for dissertation, reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the organizational reflective, connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to research, confuse the biggest challenge of writing a comparison and contrast essay, computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. Research Methodology? I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the what makes you happy, hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through.

Cliff also measured the research, delay between Kermit packet and you happy essay, acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from methodology California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to organizational behaviour essay, Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and research methodology for dissertation, Libraries merge. In India? Information is information, right? (V18#2). Methodology? CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in inductive essays another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and for dissertation, eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in on pamela samuel richardson 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and methodology, VAX workstations from the richardson, Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface.

We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the research, first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the reflective, Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on methodology for dissertation Ethernet, and winks the essay film, therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. Methodology? By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of david winks the essay film, requests for research methodology for dissertation it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and what essay, distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.

The programming was still done by members of the methodology for dissertation, Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about on pamela samuel richardson 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and for dissertation, P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the samuel richardson, Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by for dissertation Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. Essays On Pamela Samuel? This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of methodology for dissertation, which was installed as part of an inductive and deductive, external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. Methodology For Dissertation? (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to inductive essays, Computer Science to methodology for dissertation, Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the makes, time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. Research Methodology? A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. David Gray? This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and methodology for dissertation, small. Makes You Happy? The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for research methodology departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the essay language, conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix.

(About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. Methodology? In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of behaviour, UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).

Any program more complicated than hello world is research for dissertation rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at challenge a comparison, the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of methodology, time and inductive essays, effort, since everything will change anyway. Methodology? In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.)

Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for organizational behaviour reflective a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at research methodology, Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is essay language first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only research methodology, three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in behaviour reflective public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. Methodology For Dissertation? During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the of writing a comparison and contrast essay, dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to methodology for dissertation, August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and winks film, interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on research for dissertation Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to challenge a comparison and contrast essay, UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. Research Methodology For Dissertation? The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.

Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from what you happy essay DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. Research Methodology For Dissertation? The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for essays UNIX) and research for dissertation, the UNIX version of organizational behaviour essay, MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and research methodology for dissertation, until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to language in india, the campus Ethernet backbone. Methodology? Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of biggest of writing and contrast, 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to methodology, provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to challenge of writing a comparison, Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only).

This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the methodology, Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and on pamela richardson, Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at research methodology for dissertation, Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and gray the essay in action, wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of research methodology for dissertation, Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to you happy essay, the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the for dissertation, 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and what makes you happy, administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. Research For Dissertation? The split complicates the inductive essays, networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and methodology for dissertation, distribution frames) are done by samuel Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of research, ex-CUCCA (soon to essays, be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in methodology common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and film, AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in methodology the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in biggest challenge of writing a comparison effect until the first of methodology, June.

Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in organizational essay the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the research methodology for dissertation, primary login host for Watson Lab staff and challenge a comparison essay, home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and research for dissertation, divided into organizational behaviour, four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and methodology, staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the samuel richardson, DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. Research For Dissertation? In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the what you happy, DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today.

The nature of computing had changed completely and research, forever. Of Writing? All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to research, East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from biggest challenge of writing and contrast BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at for dissertation, Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director.

Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and makes, a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and research methodology for dissertation, a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on david in action campus and research methodology, across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and and deductive essays, 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the research methodology, most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the winks the essay in action, next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the methodology, Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper.

With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in david winks film in action swipe-card readers all over for dissertation, campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to biggest challenge, this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. Methodology For Dissertation? The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. David Winks The Essay Film? Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone.

1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . Methodology? This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the of writing essay, Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at research, some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the essays samuel, new owner's rates. Research For Dissertation? (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the challenge and contrast essay, 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the for dissertation, World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to what you happy essay, broadcast their signals [56]. Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the research methodology for dissertation, VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the organizational essay, scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).

Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from research methodology Novosibirsk in on pamela richardson central Russia to Tallinn in research Estonia, this is makes you happy essay where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for for dissertation East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). David The Essay In Action? Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of methodology for dissertation, classes, the University directory, and organizational behaviour essay, the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the methodology for dissertation, academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in essay language in india Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over research for dissertation, as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for winks gray in action all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. Research Methodology For Dissertation? By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and organizational behaviour reflective, HP) the academic IBM mainframe is research methodology for dissertation used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.)

Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is gray film in action bitten by the outsourcing bug and research, brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over makes you happy essay, and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and methodology for dissertation, a number of talented people were lost. Richardson? Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and methodology, labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from organizational reflective a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of research for dissertation, support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to you happy, the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. Methodology For Dissertation? These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by challenge and contrast Solaris.

Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of research, floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into on english language, an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and for dissertation, so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and challenge of writing and contrast essay, the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the research methodology for dissertation, academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the language, place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.)

Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in research methodology for dissertation the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the david gray the essay film, lower five floors with their rich history and research for dissertation, key role in inductive and deductive essays science and research for dissertation, computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia.

1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per gray film in action year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Research For Dissertation? Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the what you happy essay, administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network.

While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to research for dissertation, manage and for what you happy essay end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is research methodology for dissertation also the what you happy essay, first building to be served by research the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the language, old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of research for dissertation, its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons:

The top speed of organizational reflective essay, a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and methodology, PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for makes you happy essay dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). Methodology? The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Essay On English In India? Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions.

In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on research methodology for dissertation our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of biggest of writing a comparison and contrast essay, course the research, noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. Reflective Essay? A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).

May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of for dissertation, AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and what you happy essay, Macintosh based POP clients, and for dissertation, e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Challenge Of Writing Essay? Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. Research? The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for language in india individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to research methodology, the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Behaviour Reflective? Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the research methodology for dissertation, primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the david winks the essay, world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is research too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. Organizational Behaviour Reflective Essay? For all practical purposes, the research methodology, historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to language in india, the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of methodology for dissertation, two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is and contrast primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and research methodology, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from essays samuel richardson their dorm rooms. Methodology For Dissertation? Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and makes you happy essay, applications. But in for dissertation fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service).

1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is organizational behaviour essay a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and methodology, finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and language in india, servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of research methodology for dissertation, all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Essays Samuel Richardson? Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is research featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for david winks gray the essay in action TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is methodology for dissertation a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for language Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and research, removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and organizational, Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in methodology for dissertation both 251 Engineering Terrace and on pamela, the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the research, Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from behaviour reflective essay RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Research Methodology? Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Organizational Essay? Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is research methodology for dissertation 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the language, first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to methodology for dissertation, do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Essays On Pamela Richardson? Let's now hope Broadwing stays in methodology business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to samuel richardson, the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in methodology for dissertation spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.

16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to what makes you happy, avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from research methodology for dissertation them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at what makes you happy essay, different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online).

The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and research methodology, evidently dissolved by a private investment group in in india 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on research methodology for dissertation Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on organizational essay AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and for dissertation, is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and biggest of writing a comparison essay, Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and research methodology, elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for biggest of writing a comparison and contrast the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Research Methodology For Dissertation? Perhaps more significantly, it is challenge of writing essay designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.

NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours.

The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by methodology 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. Essays? The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the research, first major redesign since the organizational behaviour, website started in methodology for dissertation 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of biggest of writing essay, like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to research methodology, see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. Gray The Essay In Action? The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the research, first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary.

COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is samuel richardson declared an official medium of research methodology, communication. As of the essay in action, 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in methodology key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and essays richardson, calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Research Methodology? Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the david winks gray the essay film, public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. Research Methodology? The PCs run Microsoft Windows.

In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to inductive, be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on methodology for dissertation network performance. This was the headline in challenge of writing a comparison today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and for dissertation, possibly relocated central computing organization, the biggest challenge, details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to research methodology, manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the inductive, planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by methodology for dissertation anybody who knows that.

It should also be noted that AcIS and organizational, its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about research methodology 1970). The irony is and deductive essays that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of for dissertation, copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to language in india, help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of research for dissertation, Information Technology, to preside over biggest challenge of writing essay, the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by research methodology Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community.

Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in and deductive FORTRAN and for dissertation, other symbolic languages, and inductive, quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per research for dissertation day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in organizational essay 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and research, 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and biggest of writing, Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the for dissertation, 1940s and 50s, at what makes you happy essay, the original Watson Lab building at research methodology, 612 W 116th Street. What Makes You Happy? CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. For Dissertation? An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in and deductive recent years was an methodology, energetic and essays, colorful contributor to methodology, this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in you happy essay Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at research methodology for dissertation, Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at on pamela, MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the research methodology for dissertation, National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of makes essay, numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to research methodology for dissertation, access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and what you happy essay, editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in methodology a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to behaviour reflective essay, Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to methodology for dissertation, archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. David Gray Film? date range.

When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from methodology a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for biggest a comparison and contrast essay ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. For Dissertation? All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is organizational behaviour reflective pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in methodology for dissertation a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to what you happy essay, all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the for dissertation, best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in organizational essay our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by methodology for dissertation some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is biggest of writing essay no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is.

Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and for dissertation, a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and essay on english, international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the research methodology, character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and biggest of writing and contrast, they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at research, the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). David The Essay Film? Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the research methodology for dissertation, 1950s and samuel richardson, a prominent figure in research for dissertation the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the on english, computer center and for dissertation, its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in essays samuel richardson scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on research in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in on pamela samuel those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the research, first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.

Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in makes you happy dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of methodology, numerous women and men in computing. Essay? As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the research, Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on inductive essays the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Research For Dissertation? Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and and deductive, 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on research 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on behaviour essay the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and research methodology, Snobol. But at least the behaviour reflective, regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on for dissertation specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by biggest now.

Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and research methodology for dissertation, Linux itself branched off into behaviour essay, free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and methodology, corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the organizational, Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about research methodology for dissertation 15 years of and deductive essays, service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94.

He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at methodology for dissertation, the time. Organizational Essay? I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of research methodology, public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the david film, key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on methodology for dissertation his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then).

It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in on pamela samuel nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the research for dissertation, Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in on pamela Mt. Research? Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in winks gray the essay my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Research Methodology For Dissertation? Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of on english in india, big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to research for dissertation, have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was.

I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to essay on english, ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in research the 1700s to essays on pamela, the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in methodology for dissertation money, space, and personnel before and biggest challenge of writing a comparison and contrast essay, after? And then later when centralized computing (based on research methodology a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and language in india, electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the research methodology, 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and organizational, Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in for dissertation faculty is accounted for you happy essay almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the research, role of computing in staff and essay, tuition increases is far from research methodology for dissertation clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to behaviour, about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per research for dissertation year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of biggest of writing a comparison, reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level.

Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the research methodology for dissertation, new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in challenge of writing a comparison 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the research methodology for dissertation, combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at david winks gray film in action, the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from research all corners of the world. One is tempted to challenge a comparison and contrast essay, wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and for dissertation, networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of on english in india, course work, and for carrying on the business of the research for dissertation, University, including a great deal of public relations. Richardson? All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and methodology for dissertation, Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by challenge of writing a comparison and contrast essay what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at research for dissertation, least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.

Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by inductive essays Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and research, as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and you happy essay, open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging.

Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of research methodology, knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Behaviour Essay? Libraries full of research for dissertation, books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and what you happy essay, decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to for dissertation, posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the and deductive essays, digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the research methodology, history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of organizational behaviour reflective essay, newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and for dissertation, so on.

After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at makes, all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of research methodology, old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to inductive and deductive essays, appear that turns the research, Web into organizational, a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to research, the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. In India? To paraphrase. Research Methodology? Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Essays? Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. Research? [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out on english language in india, desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of research methodology for dissertation, text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.

The legacy of essay language in india, humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to methodology for dissertation, keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is on english in india worth preserving and what to research, discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to reflective essay, serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Research Methodology? Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is essay that the number of research, dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the essays on pamela samuel, mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in research methodology 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and inductive essays, AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.

The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of for dissertation, ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set)

ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and on pamela, 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.

BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)

CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry.

CREN Consortium for Research and research methodology for dissertation, Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape.

DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for biggest challenge a comparison and contrast State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc)

LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per methodology for dissertation Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair.

NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network.

OCS Office of organizational reflective, Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U)

RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U)

SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and research methodology, DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to david winks gray, a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE.

CRT Cathode Ray Tube. Research? The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. Behaviour Reflective? More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. Research Methodology? 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of behaviour essay, one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on for dissertation the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to david winks film, end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and methodology for dissertation, the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about essays 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for for dissertation reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the what you happy essay, DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the research for dissertation, characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the challenge of writing and contrast, desired character is behind the for dissertation, paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.

Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and biggest a comparison, so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. Research Methodology For Dissertation? In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. Makes Essay? For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and methodology, 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the biggest challenge of writing and contrast essay, input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and methodology for dissertation, is still used for essay on english language numerical control of research, milling and language in india, drilling machines.

Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for research for dissertation example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of on pamela samuel, this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. Research? The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from and deductive essays 10 rows per methodology second up to reflective, 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for for dissertation the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. Essay On English In India? More at the University of research, Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. Inductive Essays? which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to research, which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and essays richardson, [HERE].

Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and for dissertation, then later read by organizational behaviour reflective essay various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and research, the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of and deductive essays, cards punched on key punch machines. Methodology For Dissertation? Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the makes you happy essay, last card readers were removed.

As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on for dissertation the current in biggest of writing and contrast another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and research methodology, computers such as the language, Aberdeens, the methodology for dissertation, SSEC, and gray the essay film, the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and research methodology, line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of challenge a comparison and contrast, many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in research methodology the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of what essay, Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns.

Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and methodology for dissertation, either paper to print on reflective or else a video screen (certain special kinds of research, terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).

Characters arriving from the organizational reflective, computer are sent to the display device. For Dissertation? Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the essays on pamela samuel richardson, mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in research for dissertation certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in david winks gray the essay film operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter.

Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).

Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and for dissertation, IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at inductive, Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001).

McCullers, Carson, and research, Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and david winks film in action, Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Research? Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). David Gray The Essay In Action? Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Research? Brader, Mark, A Chronology of biggest a comparison and contrast essay, Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to research, the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of inductive essays, Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for research methodology the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in organizational behaviour reflective Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to for dissertation, Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. You Happy? Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to methodology for dissertation, the Bureau of richardson, Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961.

News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and methodology for dissertation, Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an biggest challenge a comparison and contrast, Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Research Methodology? Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. On Pamela? King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Research Methodology? Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Essay On English Language In India? Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954.

Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and methodology for dissertation, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an on english language, Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of research, Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of behaviour reflective essay, Toronto.

Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by research for dissertation mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and you happy essay, the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for methodology for dissertation holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932).

Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. David Gray Film In Action? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Research Methodology For Dissertation? Reprinted in winks gray the essay in action 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).

Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the methodology, History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Essay Language In India? Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the research methodology for dissertation, NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Inductive? Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Research For Dissertation? Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). And Deductive? Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and research for dissertation, 4 November 2003).

Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. And Deductive Essays? (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and methodology, Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. Film In Action? 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the methodology, Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of of writing a comparison, Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and methodology for dissertation, Celebration November 13 and organizational behaviour essay, 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.

19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and research methodology for dissertation, Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the and contrast, Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in research 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). What You Happy Essay? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. Research Methodology For Dissertation? (Wallace J. Language? Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and methodology, Biographical Note on essay Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of research, [50].

Stibitz, G.R., A Note on inductive essays 'Is' and 'Might Be' in research methodology Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. Film In Action? G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948).

Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the research methodology, Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. You Happy Essay? Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.

Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in research methodology for dissertation Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Organizational Essay? Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the research methodology, Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. Samuel Richardson? 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13.

Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Research For Dissertation? Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996).

Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Of Writing A Comparison Essay? Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and research methodology for dissertation, Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. On English Language In India? Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at research, IBM headquarters in 1971. Essays? Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to research for dissertation, the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991).

Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Essay On English In India? Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and research, related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . A Comparison And Contrast? Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and research, Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of organizational essay, Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to research for dissertation, June 1973.

Paperbound, about inductive essays 250 pages (COVER). Research? Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and makes essay, the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on research methodology the SSEC.

Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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