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Ethylene is involved in top essay writing software pistil fate by modulating the onset of ovule senescence and the GA-mediated fruit set in Arabidopsis. * Corresponding author: Miguel A Perez-Amador mpereza@ibmcp.upv.es. 1 Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CNB), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain. 2 Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Plantas (IBMCP), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC). Ciudad Politecnica de la Innovacion (CPI), Ed. 8E, Ingeniero Fausto Elio s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

For all author emails, please log on. BMC Plant Biology 2011, 11 :84 ) doi:10.1186/1471-2229-11-84. The electronic version of essays on locke, this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2229/11/84. 2011 Carbonell-Bejerano et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the top essay writing Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in thesis any medium, provided the top essay software original work is properly cited. Ovule lifespan is an important factor in determining the ability to set fruits and produce seeds. Once ovule senescence is established, fruit set capacity in essays on locke response to gibberellins (GAs) is top essay software lost. We aimed to elucidate whether ethylene plays a role in controlling ovule senescence and the fruit set response in Arabidopsis . Ethylene response inhibitors, silver thiosulphate (STS) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), were able to delay the loss of pistil response to GA 3 . In addition, ethylene insensitive mutants ein2-5 and ein3-1 showed delayed loss of pistil response, as in steps to writting a research plants treated with STS and 1-MCP, while constitutive mutant ctr1-1 displayed premature loss of response. Top Essay Writing Software! The analysis of the short essay on a visit to a book fair expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes suggests that ethylene is writing software synthesised in ovules at the onset of ovule senescence, while a transcriptional meta-analysis also supports an phd comics thesis activated ethylene-dependent senescence upon the establishment of ovule senescence. Finally, a SAG12:GUS reporter line proved useful to monitor ovule senescence and to directly demonstrate that ethylene specifically modulates ovule senescence.

We have shown that ethylene is involved in both the control of the ovule lifespan and the determination of the pistil/fruit fate. Our data support a role of the ovule in modulating the GA response during fruit set in Arabidopsis . A possible mechanism that links the ethylene modulation of the ovule senescence and writing, the GA 3 -induced fruit set response is discussed. The pistil is a highly specialised floral organ designed to facilitate fertilisation, seed development and dispersal. Pistils become mature fruits by following a complex developmental programme triggered by ovule fertilisation, and by the hormonal signal cascade that follows. In the absence of this triggering event, the thesis pistil's autonomous developmental programme leads to organ senescence after a few days [1-4]. Pistil senescence has been studied in writing pea ( Pisum sativum ) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) plants. Unpollinated pea pistil senescence involves programmed cell death, which initiates at 2-3 days post-anthesis (DPA) [1,5,6]. Its onset correlates with both the expression of proteolytic activities [7-9] and the whole pistil's cell degradation [2], including DNA fragmentation in specific cells at both the essays on locke ovary wall and ovules [6]. More recently, we showed that the development of the top essay writing software Arabidopsis unfertilised pistil differs from that of pea since the Arabidopsis ovary wall shows developmental characteristics that are shared with a developing fruit, while senescence is specifically established first at the stigma, and then progresses from basal to apical ovules [4].

One physiological marker of pistil senescence in both pea and Arabidopsis is the loss of the pistil's capacity to develop into a parthenocarpic fruit in frankenstein essay response to exogenous gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) [4,5]. The loss of pistil response to GA 3 in Arabidopsis correlates with the top essay writing software onset of ovule senescence and its acropetal progression along the ovary [4]. In addition, several mutants with defects in ovule development showed a reduced fruit set response to steps GA 3 [4]. Collectively, these data suggest that viable non-senescing ovules play a critical role in promoting fruit set in response to writing software GA in Arabidopsis unfertilised pistils. The identification of the physiological and format, molecular factors regulating pistil/ovule senescence is top essay writing software important since the pistil's capacity to develop as a fruit is lost when senescence is essays on locke initiated. Therefore by delaying ovule senescence, pistil longevity is expected to top essay increase. This can lead to important biotechnological applications because reduced pistil longevity can be a limiting factor for sexual reproduction and essays on locke, fruit production [10-13]. Ethylene is involved in the control of several terminal processes during vegetative and reproductive development, including senescence of leaves [14-16], senescence and top essay writing software, abscission of essays on locke, floral organs [3,17-19] and ripening of fruits [20].

In pea, ethylene regulates both petal and unfertilised whole pistil senescence [6,21]. Ethylene production increases during pea flower senescence, and the inhibition of ethylene action with silver thiosulphate (STS) delays senescence symptoms, including a postponed loss of the capacity to software set parthenocarpic fruits in phd comics thesis response to GA 3 [6]. Ethylene signalling has been extensively reviewed in recent years [22-25]. Briefly, ethylene is perceived by a small family of membrane-bound receptors, which act as negative regulators of ethylene signalling through the Raf-like protein kinase CTR1. EIN2 is a positive regulator of ethylene response [26] and acts downstream of top essay writing software, CTR1. The EIN3 and EIL1 components are transcription factors that act downstream of eassay writting, EIN2 and top essay writing software, can activate ethylene responses. This work aimed to characterise the ethylene involvement in phd comics the initiation and progression of Arabidopsis unpollinated pistil senescence by top essay software, paying special attention to the potential effects of this hormone on ovule senescence and GA-induced fruit set response. Our data strongly suggest that ethylene modulates the thesis onset of ovule senescence and, therefore, the time window for the GA-induced fruit set of top essay writing, pistils in Arabidopsis . Ethylene signalling modulates pistil responsiveness to short essay visit to a book fair GAs.

To test whether ethylene plays a role in pistil responsiveness to GAs, we first used two inhibitors of ethylene action, STS and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to check if they affect the elongation triggered by GA 3 when applied to unpollinated pistils. Inhibition of ethylene action postponed the loss of pistil fruit set responsiveness to GA 3 by about 1 day (Figure 1). Both STS- and writing software, 1-MCP-treated pistils still maintained a 50% response at 3 DPA, which is the response shown by control untreated pistils at 2 DPA. On the other hand, the short essay visit to a inhibitors did not affect the maximum length reached by parthenocarpic fruits. Therefore, the pharmacological approach indicates that ethylene plays a role in modulating the timing of pistil responsiveness to GAs and, thus, in top essay pistil senescence. Figure 1. Inhibition of ethylene perception delays loss of pistil fruit set responsiveness to GA 3 . Phd Comics! (A) GA response of STS-treated pistils.

Pistil or fruit length in inflorescences treated with 50 ?M STS at 5 and 3 days before GA 3 treatment (?), and in top essay software control plants ( o ). Resume Format! (B) GA response of 1-MCP treated pistils. Pistil or fruit length in inflorescences treated daily with 1000 ppm 1-MCP from 1 day before anthesis to the day of top essay software, GA 3 treatment (?), and in steps to writting a research paper control plants ( o ). Plants were in the cer6-2 background. Unfertilised pistils of different ages were simultaneously treated with 330 ?M GA 3 . Pistil or fruit length was measured 10 days after GA 3 treatment, and the data (mean ± SE) were plotted against the pistil age at the time of treatment. Experiments were repeated three times. Ethylene's implication in top essay writing the control of pistil viability through the pistil fruit set response to GAs was further confirmed by a genetic approach. This involved testing pistil responsiveness to steps paper GA 3 in ethylene-insensitive mutants ein2-5 and ein3-1 , and in the ethylene constitutive response mutant ctr1-1 (Figure 2). Ethylene-insensitive mutants showed an approximately one-day delay in their loss of pistil responsiveness to top essay software GA 3 , a similar trend to that observed for the STS- and 1-MCP-treated pistils. Conversely, the loss of eassay writting, GA response in ctr1-1 took place one day earlier if compared to the control. These results genetically support ethylene's involvement in the modulation of pistil senescence. Figure 2. Ethylene insensitive or constitutive response mutants show delayed and writing, premature loss of pistil fruit set responsiveness to GA 3 , respectively . (A) GA response in pistils of ethylene insensitive mutants ein2-5 (?), ein3-1 (¦), and in control plants ( o ). Phd Comics! (B) GA response in pistils of the top essay writing ethylene constitutive response mutant ctr1-1 (?), and in eassay writting control plants ( o ). Plants were in the cer6-2 background.

Unfertilised pistils of different ages were simultaneously treated with 330 ?M GA 3 . Pistil or fruit length was measured 10 days after treatment, and the data (mean ± SE) were plotted against the pistil age at the time of treatment. Data were normalised, and the size of the fruits treated at software 0 DPA was 100%. Experiments were repeated three times. Ethylene signalling mutations also affected pistil and fruit growth. How To Make Format! In the completely insensitive ein2-5 mutant, pistils at anthesis were similar to those in parental plants, although the parthenocarpic fruits at 10 DPA after GA 3 treatment were significantly larger (Additional file 1). On the other hand, constitutive ctr1-1 already displayed significantly shorter pistils at anthesis, and final fruit length was also significantly shorter than in parental plants.

Additional file 1. Ethylene signalling affects pistil and software, fruit length . Length of the untreated pistil at anthesis (left axis, in mm) and 10-day-old parthenocarpic fruit induced by GA 3 treatment at anthesis (right axis, in mm) were measured in eassay writting the control cer6-2 and top essay, ethylene response mutants ein2-5, ein3-1 , and ctr1-1 , all of them in the cer6-2 background. In insensitive ethylene signalling mutants ein2-5 , fruits are significantly larger than the control. Conversely in essays on locke the constitutive ethylene signalling mutant ctr1-1 , both pistils and fruits are significantly shorter than in the control. Data are the mean ± SE. Two asterisks indicate significant differences ( p- value 0.01) with the corresponding cer6-2 control. Activation of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes upon unfertilised ovule senescence. A transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis unfertilised pistils carried out previously [4] was revisited to indirectly test whether the ethylene biosynthesis pathway could be activated in unfertilised pistils. Several genes encoding ethylene biosynthesis enzymes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) OXIDASES (ACOs) and ACO-like, were up-regulated at 2 DPA (Figure 3A).

The expression of writing, other genes of the ethylene biosynthesis was not detected or did not significantly change during unfertilised pistil development (data not shown). We studied how senescence affects the thesis expression of ACC SYNTHASE (ACS), the enzyme catalysing the top essay writing software limiting step in phd comics ethylene biosynthesis, in unfertilised ovules by testing those transgenic lines that express GUS under the control of top essay writing, ACS promoters [27]. Most transgenic lines showed GUS expression in the unfertilised pistil after anthesis (data not shown). One interesting finding was that ACS2 [TAIR: At1g01480 ] was up-regulated in the unfertilised ovule; the GUS expression directed by the ACS2 promoter was detected at 2-3 DPA in the unfertilised pistil and was ovule-specific (Figure 3B). No GUS expression was observed along the pistil at anthesis or at 1 DPA (data not shown). It is remarkable to note that the temporal and spatial gene expression patterns of genes of the ethylene biosynthesis and GUS activity in the ACS2:GUS line closely matched the unfertilised ovule senescence [4]. Figure 3. Up-regulation of frankenstein, ethylene biosynthesis genes in ovules during unfertilised pistil development. Top Essay! (A) Expression profile of essays on locke, genes of the ethylene biosynthesis differentially expressed during unfertilised pistil development. Data from the microarray analysis in [4] were used. ACO , ACC oxidase; ACS , ACC synthase. (B) GUS expression under the control of the ACS2 promoter in ovules at 2-3 DPA. In view of the fact that the up-regulation of those genes of the ethylene biosynthesis was coincident with the onset of top essay writing, ovule senescence, the short essay on a book ethylene transcriptional response was also analysed. To this end, we made use of top essay writing software, previously published transcriptomic data for leaf senescence, which compared the wild-type and the ein2 ethylene-insensitive mutant [28], and also for the unfertilised pistil's post-anthesis development [4].

We identified those genes induced during leaf senescence in the wild-type, but not in the ein2 mutant (ein2/wt expression ratio below 0.5 [28]), and those up-regulated in phd comics the unfertilised pistil at 2 DPA (genes showing more than 2-fold change increase of expression between 0 and top essay writing software, 2 DPA [4]) (Additional file 2). Of the 78 ethylene-dependent (EIN2-dependent) leaf senescence-induced genes [28], 75 were present in both microarray platforms used, of which 25 (33%) were up-regulated in 2 DPA unfertilised pistils (Additional file 2). This implied a significant enrichment in format the EIN2-dependent leaf senescence-induced genes among those induced in 2 DPA unfertilised pistils (Table 1). Writing Software! On the other hand, a lower amount (21.7%) of the eassay writting leaf senescence-induced genes identified by Buchanan-Wollaston et al. [28] was also up-regulated in the pistil at writing software 2 DPA (Additional file 2). The significant enrichment in fair the senescence-activated genes dependent on ethylene among the up-regulated genes in the pistil at the onset of ovule senescence further suggests that ethylene plays a role in the process. Additional file 2. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomic data from top essay writing, unfertilised pistil senescence and frankenstein a modern essay, EIN2-dependent leaf senescence . The expression ratio of the genes up-regulated from 0 to 2 DPA in top essay writing the unfertilised pistil according to [4] is shown. The ein2 /wild-type expression ratio in leaves undergoing senescence from [28] is shown for those genes being also up-regulated during leaf senescence.

Table 1. Significant enrichment of genes induced during leaf senescence and EIN2-dependent leaf senescence among those induced in essays on locke unfertilised pistils from 0 to 2 DPA. The onset of ovule senescence in unfertilised pistils is top essay affected in ethylene signalling mutants. The progression of ovule senescence along the pistil closely matches the loss of pistil growth responsiveness to GAs [4]. Here we show that ethylene modulates the initiation of the pistil's loss of GA response. In addition, the expression data also support the activation of ethylene biosynthesis and response upon the onset of steps, ovule senescence. To directly test whether ovule senescence could be regulated by ethylene, we analysed the expression of the senescence marker gene SAG12 [TAIR: At5g45890 ] in wild-type and ethylene signalling mutant plants by using a line that expresses GUS under the top essay control of the SAG12 promoter ( SAG12:GUS ) [29,30]. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the SAG12 expression was activated in unfertilised pistils shortly after anthesis, decreased afterwards, and to writting a research paper, increased again at the end of top essay software, pistil development, at around 10-12 DPA. (Additional file 3). In the present study, by phd comics thesis, following the GUS expression under the control of the SAG12 gene promoter during unfertilised pistil development in Col-0 plants, we were able to confirm this expression pattern, which was coincidental with the senescence of ovules and valves, at top essay writing 2 and a research paper, 12 DPA, respectively (Figure 4A and Additional file 3 inset). GUS activity was first detected in the ovules at top essay writing software the basal zone of the ovary by to writting paper, the end of software, 2 DPA. Afterwards, it progressed acropetally along the ovary, and short to a book fair, had extended to all the ovules by 4 DPA. Writing! Strong GUS activity was detected in essay on a fair all the tissues of pistils at 12 DPA (Additional file 3, inset).

By looking in top essay writing software more detail, we noted that the GUS signal in the SAG12:GUS line indicated that ovule senescence began at the chalazal end, and that it later extended to cover the whole ovule (Additional file 4). Additional file 3. SAG12 expression during unfertilised pistil development . The data derive from the microarray analysis by Carbonell-Bejerano et al. Eassay Writting! [4]. Top Essay Software! The SAG12 expression was statistically up-regulated in a biphasic fashion, with a prominent peak of expression at 2 DPA and a second one at resume 12 DPA. Inset, the GUS histochemical assay in the unfertilised pistils of the SAG12:GUS line at 12 DPA, showing expression in the valve and in other tissues. Figure 4. GUS expression under the control of the SAG12 gene promoter during unfertilised pistil development in ethylene signalling mutants. (A) GUS histochemical assay in top essay writing software unfertilised pistils of the SAG12:GUS line reveals onset of ovule senescence at 2 DPA, and that senescence progressed acropetally over the next two days. (B and eassay writting, C) GUS histochemical assay in the unfertilised pistils of the SAG12:GUS line in (B) ein2-5 , and (C) ctr1-1 . Writing! The onset of ovule senescence is delayed by essays on locke, 1 day in top essay software ein2-5 and is advanced by 1 day in ctr1-1 . A Modern Prometheus Essay! Senescence progression follows a similar kinetics as in top essay writing the wild-type plant (A). A Modern Prometheus Essay! Plants were in the cer6-2 background. Additional file 4. Writing Software! Progression of ovule senescence monitored with the SAG12 expression in the unfertilised ovules of SAG12:GUS plants . The SAG12 expression was first detected in ovules at 2 DPA and extended from outer integuments to inner layers.

The expression finally extended to the chalazal pole by 3 DPA. The expression was never detected at the micropylar end. ch, chalaza; m, micropyle; i, ovule integuments; f, funiculus. Next we tested the SAG12:GUS expression pattern in the unfertilised pistils of ethylene mutants ein2-5 and ctr1-1 . Thesis! Consistently with the top essay software loss of essays on locke, pistil response to GA 3 (shown in Figure 3), the ethylene-insensitive mutant exhibited a one-day delay in the initiation of the ovule senescence (Figure 4B). The ovule senescence of the ein2-5 mutant initiated at 3 DPA, while it initiated at software 2 DPA in steps parental plants (Figure 4A). Once it is top essay writing software initiated, the progression of resume, ovule senescence in the ethylene-insensitive mutant followed a similar kinetics to top essay that in frankenstein prometheus parental plants. On the other hand, ovule senescence in the ethylene constitutive response mutant ctr1-1 began at 1 DPA (data not shown). The number of ovules expressing GUS under the control of the SAG12 promoter in top essay software ctr1-1 at 2 DPA was much higher than in parental plants (Figure 4C). The progression of ovule senescence in a modern ctr1-1 was similar to that in parental plants, and like that observed for the ein2-5 mutant. These experiments were repeated three times for each genotype and consistent results were obtained.

These results are in agreement with our data obtained using inhibitors of ethylene action, and reveal that the role of ethylene in accelerating the onset of ovule senescence without affecting the progression pattern. The experiments described in this article unveil the role of the hormone ethylene in modulating the onset of ovule senescence in Arabidopsis and, therefore, the period at which the top essay pistil is competent to set fruits upon GA 3 treatment. In Arabidopsis and other plant species, ethylene is short essay visit dispensable for vegetative or reproductive development under favourable conditions. However, the ethylene pathway can prove vital for plant plasticity to overcome stressing environmental conditions [31-34]. Therefore, the modulation of the ovule lifespan and pistil fate by ethylene may be important to software ensure seed production under adverse conditions. Ethylene modulates pistil competence to develop fruits. Blocking ethylene perception extends the period in which the pistil is able to grow in response to exogenous GA in Arabidopsis , thus supporting similar results previously described for resume, the unfertilised pea pistil [6].

This suggests that ethylene plays a key role in modulating the timing of pistil senescence in pea and Arabidopsis since the loss of pistil growth-responsiveness to GA in writing both species correlates with the onset of pistil senescence [4,5]. Eassay Writting! The delay of the loss of the top essay pistil responsiveness to how to resume format GAs by blocking the software ethylene response, using both genetic mutants ( ein2-5 and ein3-1 ) and pharmacological treatments (1-MCP and STS), further support the role of ethylene in modulating the fate of the steps to writting a research paper unfertilised pistils in Arabidopsis . Additional support derives from the shortened period of pistil responsiveness to top essay writing software GAs in the ctr1-1 constitutive ethylene-response mutant. However, the lack of ethylene signalling in the ein mutants, or after inhibiting perception upon STS- and 1-MCP-treatment, delayed but did not prevent the visit loss of fruit set responsiveness to GA. Therefore, ethylene is not necessarily behind the loss of this capacity, but acts as a modulator of its initiation instead. Ethylene affects pistil and fruit size.

In Arabidopsis , enhanced growth is the major distinctive characteristic between fruit and unfertilised pistil development [4]. The longer final length in both the GA-induced fruits and unfertilised pistils in the ein2-5 ethylene-insensitive mutant, as well as their smaller size in the ctr1-1 constitutive ethylene-response mutant, suggest that ethylene controls pistil and top essay, fruit growth. A similar control of thesis, adult rosette leaf size by ethylene has also been reported [35-37]. Given the fact that unfertilised pistils and top essay, GA-induced fruits grow almost exclusively by cell expansion after anthesis [38], one may consider that ethylene signalling reduces pistil and fruit length by reducing cell growth. Increased stabilisation of DELLA proteins, repressors of a research, GA responses [39], promoted by ethylene signalling via CTR1 may be one of the causes of growth inhibition, which has already been proposed for roots [40]. Ethylene synthesis is regulated by developmental signals and other hormones, including GAs, and is enhanced by stresses, ageing and senescence [25]. Here we show an increase in software the activity of ethylene biosynthesis genes in the ovules of unfertilised pistils. The ACS2 expression is specifically activated in ovules shortly before their senescence. The ACS2 expression has previously been linked with floral organ senescence [41]; similarly, a correlation between programmed cell death and increased ethylene levels during wounding and leaf senescence has been found [42]. Essays On Locke! In addition, the high expression of an ACC oxidase [TAIR: At1g12010 ], specifically in the ovules of 2 DPA unfertilised pistils [4], also supports activation of ethylene biosynthesis upon the initiation of top essay software, senescence in unfertilized ovules. Ethylene biosynthesis could be up-regulated as part of the ovule developmental programme (i.e., ovule ageing) to precipitate the progress of ovule senescence.

Therefore, increased ethylene synthesis or perception would result in eassay writting premature ovule senescence. Indeed, the top essay writing software accelerated onset of format, ovule senescence in the ctr1-1 mutant supports a causal relationship between increased ethylene signal and top essay writing, premature ovule senescence. Although ethylene modulates the onset of ovule senescence, as indicated by the alteration of the SAG12 expression in the unfertilised ovules of ethylene signalling mutants, our data indicate that ethylene is not absolutely necessary for eassay writting, the progression of ovule senescence. A small time window of top essay, competence of ethylene has also been found; for to writting, instance, in Alstroemeria flower senescence and abscission [43], in contrast to other species like petunia, where suppressing ethylene action is able to delay flower senescence for longer periods [44-46]. The cases described for leaves are also similar to our results in Arabidopsis pistils: ethylene signalling also accelerates, but is not strictly necessary for senescence onset in Arabidopsis [14,47], tomato [17] and Nicotiana sylvestris [48]. An EIN2- dependent modulation of the expression of ageing-regulated factors triggering senescence in writing software leaves has been recently defined [49], and a similar mechanism may operate in the ethylene signalling-dependent modulation of ovule longevity. It is possible that the ethylene production rate in those ovules undergoing senescence increases under stress conditions. Indeed, the ethylene response is activated in pistils after a few hours of salt stress [50], while approximately three quarters of ovules die prior to essay fertilisation under stress conditions [51]. This mechanism could reallocate nutrients and energy from senescent ovules to vital sink organs like developing seeds. Integration of ethylene into the regulation of ovule senescence and pistil responsiveness to GA.

The modulation of two temporally correlated processes by ethylene, progressive ovule senescence along the pistil and loss of the pistil fruit set response to GA, and their alterations observed in ethylene mutants, strongly indicate a causal relationship. In light of this, we recently showed that mutants defective in ovule development have impaired response to GA 3 in the unfertilised pistils [4]. All in all, these data suggest that a viable ovule is top essay writing software required to accomplish adequate pistil response to essays on locke GAs, and that ethylene plays a key role in regulating this response. We propose a model in which viable or competent ovules are a requirement for proper GA-mediated fruit development. In this model (Figure 5), ethylene would modulate the onset of ovule senescence and, consequently, the window of GA fruit set responsiveness.

Therefore, the final parthenocarpic fruit length would depend on top essay writing the number of viable ovules present in the pistil at the time of GA treatment given the essays on locke correlation between the number of writing, non-senescent ovules and the fruit size reached. At 2 DPA, when only a few ovules are senescent in the proximal region of the pistil, final fruit size is only slightly affected. Later at 3 DPA, most ovules are already senescent and fruit size reaches only partial length. Finally at 4-5 DPA, when all the ovules become senescent, the response is completely lost. In our model, we envision two different scenarios, depending on where GA perception and signalling are located: the ovules or the ovary wall. GA perception and/or signalling may be required in ovules to trigger fruit development, and the ethylene produced in a modern prometheus ovules would directly prevent the response, for example, by the stabilisation of the DELLAs via CTR1 [40]. The limited fruit set response to GA 3 shown by ovule defective mutants [4] supports this hypothesis. Figure 5. Software! Model for the ethylene regulation of essays on locke, ovule senescence and pistil response to top essay writing GA 3 . Proper ovules would be required to establish the fruit set response to GAs. Phd Comics Thesis! Ethylene level would increase in top essay writing ovules upon steps their senescence, accelerating the process and preventing the GA response.

Ethylene can indirectly affect the GA response mechanism by top essay writing software, promoting ovule senescence, or can also directly interfere with GA signalling (perception and/or response). GA, gibberellins; Et, ethylene; Sen, senescence. Besides the direct effect of essay on a visit to a, ethylene on top essay writing software GA signalling in the ovule, a different hypothesis can also be put forward. Ethylene could accelerate ovule senescence, which implies the degradation of all tissues and short on a book, cell organisation which, in turn, would disassemble the GA perception and signalling machinery. In this case, the effect of ethylene would be indirect by writing software, promoting the a research paper degradation of all tissues in writing software the ovule. Despite all this evidence, the independence of the pistil responsiveness to frankenstein GA of the top essay writing software ovule fate cannot be completely ruled out. Elucidation of the location of the relevant GA perception for fruit development, and the intercommunication between ovules and other ovary tissues, are essential to further define the model. However, the results obtained in the present work may be considered to extend ovule longevity using a biotechnological approach. For instance, expressing an steps to writting a research ACC deaminase transgene or a dominant etr1 mutant allele under the software promoter of a gene specifically activated early after anthesis in unfertilised ovules may serve to reduce ethylene production/signal and then delay ovule senescence. The data presented in our manuscript expands the physiological role of ethylene to modulate the onset of ovule senescence with new consequences for fruit set and development. Ethylene's involvement in ovule senescence further supports previous evidences suggesting that viable and non-senescing ovules are required to how to make resume format establish the parthenocarpic response in pistils.

In addition, the present findings may be considered for biotechnological proposals; for instance, alterations in the ethylene signalling specifically directed in ovules could result in the prolongation of the software ovule lifespan and, therefore, in greater seed and to writting a research, fruit yields. The Arabidopsis thaliana plants used were in the Col0 genetic background, except for 1-MCP and writing software, STS treatments, which were in L er . To avoid self-fertilisation and obtaining unfertilised pistils, all plants had the male conditional sterility mutation eceriferum6 ( cer6-2 ) [52,53]. The ACS2:GUS line and essay, cer6-2 in L er were obtained from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC, http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu webcite). Top Essay Software! cer6-2 in Col0 was generously provided by Dr. A Vera (Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Spain). The SAG12:GUS transgenic line was a kind gift from Dr. RM Amasino (University of to writting a research, Winsconsin, WI, USA). ein2-5, ein3-1 , and ctr1-1 were kindly provided by Dr.

JM Alonso (North Carolina State University, NC, USA). SAG12:GUS cer6-2, cer6-2 ein2-5, cer6-2 ein3-1, cer6-2 ctr1-1, SAG12:GUS cer6-2 ein2-5 , and SAG12:GUS cer6-2 ctr1-1 plants were generated by genetic cross. Software! Plants were grown at 22°C under a 16 h light/8 h dark regime, with 50% relative humidity. Eassay Writting! To determine the age of each pistil in the primary inflorescence, the number and position of flowers at anthesis were recorded every day. Chemical treatments and fruit set responsiveness assays. Parthenocarpy was assayed by top essay writing software, application of GA 3 to unfertilised pistils. Inflorescences were sprayed with 330 ?M GA 3 (Fluka) and eassay writting, 0.01% (v/v) Tween 80, pH 7. Fruits and pistils were harvested 10 days after treatment, and scanned to measure final length with the ImageJ software [54]. STS and 1-MCP were used to inhibit ethylene action during the parthenocarpy responsiveness to top essay writing GA 3 assay.

For STS, inflorescences were sprayed with 50 ?M STS, 0.01% Tween 80 at 5 and 3 days before treatment with GA 3 . The efficiency of STS, applied for several days after the spray, was evidenced by the delayed petal abscission (data not shown). For each treatment, a fresh 20 mM stock of thesis, STS was prepared by mixing a 1:4 (v:v) ratio of 0.1 M AgNO 3 (Sigma) and software, 0.1 M Na 2 SO 3 (Sigma). Eassay Writting! Nearly all the silver in the solution was in the form of [Ag(S 2 O 3 ) 2 ] 3- , which is the active complex for the inhibition of writing software, ethylene action. STS stock solutions were kept at 4°C in light-tight vessels. For 1-MCP, pistils were treated daily from 1 day before anthesis to the day of GA 3 treatment. Phd Comics Thesis! Two hundred mg of software, a 1-MCP-releasing powder (SmartFreshTM, 0.14% of active ingredient; Rohm and Haas, Springhouse, PA, USA) was dissolved in 2.5 mL of water to provide a final gas concentration of 1000 ppm of 1-MCP inside a 0.125 m 3 air-tight glass box. Essays On Locke! Each day, three flowers at around 1 day before anthesis from top essay writing, 6-9 different primary inflorescences were emasculated to avoid self-fertilisation due to high humidity. Towards the end of the light period, pots were introduced into the box for the overnight treatment. Control plants were manipulated identically, but without 1-MCP. ?-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical assay.

Samples were harvested and fixed for 30 min in phd comics ice-cold 90% acetone, washed once in the rinse buffer [50 mM NaPO 4 buffer, pH 7.0, K 3 Fe(CN) 6 , K 4 Fe(CN) 6 , and 0.2% Triton X-100], and top essay writing software, then vacuum-infiltrated and phd comics, incubated for 24 h at 37°C in staining buffer (equal to the rinse buffer but supplemented with 2 mM X-GlcA (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-b-D-glucuronide cyclohexylammonium) (Duchefa). K 3 Fe(CN) 6 and K 4 Fe(CN) 6 , concentrations were adjusted for each line (2 mM for SAG12:GUS or 0.5 mM for ACS2:GUS ). Top Essay Software! After staining, samples were dehydrated in eassay writting a series consisting of 20, 35, 50, and 70% (v/v) ethanol. Finally, samples were cleared for 7 days in chloral hydrate prepared in a solution of chloral hydrate (Acros Organics, Geel, Belgium):glycerol:water in a 8:1:2 (g:mL:mL) ratio, and writing software, observed under an Eclipse E600 microscope. The significant enrichment of leaf senescence-induced genes and EIN2-dependent leaf senescence-induced ones [28] was tested among those induced from 0 to 2 DPA in eassay writting the unfertilised pistil [4]. Writing Software! For this purpose, only the gene set shared by Qiagen-Operon AROS [4] and Affymetrix ATH1 [28] microarrays (20,560 genes) was taken into account. Significance, according to a p -value below 0.05 in to writting a Fisher's exact test after Benjamini and writing software, Hochberg correction, was analysed by mediating the eassay writting Babelomics 4 functional enrichment tools [55]. The full microarray dataset from top essay software, [4] is available in accession series in the NCBI GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) repository [GEO:GSE13113]. ACC: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid; ACO: ACC OXIDASE; ACS: ACC SYNTHASE; DPA: days post anthesis; GAs: gibberellins; GA 3 : gibberellic acid; GUS: ?-glucuronidase; GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus; 1-MCP: 1-Methylcyclopropene; STS: silver thiosuphfate.

PCB generated the plant material and conducted most of the experiments. CU collaborated in the GUS assay experiments. AG and JC participated in the experimental design and edition of the manuscript. Short Essay Book Fair! MAPA coordinated the study and drafted the manuscript. All the authors have collaborated in the edition of the manuscript and have approved it. The authors wish to thank Drs.

Alonso and Amasino for their gifts of seeds; Drs. Alonso, Alabadi, and Blazquez for critically reading the manuscript, and Ms. Writing Software! Argomaniz and Ms. Fuster for steps paper, technical assistance in the lab. This work has been supported by grants BIO2005-07156-C02-01 and top essay software, BIO2008-01039 from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Plan Nacional de I+D. PCB received a PhD fellowship from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. Carbonell J, Garcia-Martinez JL: Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and fruit-set or degeneration of unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. Vercher Y, Carbonell J: Changes in how to resume the structure of ovary tissues and in top essay writing software the ultrastructure of mesocarp cells during ovary senescence or fruit-development induced by plant-growth substances in Pisum sativum . van Doorn WG, Woltering EJ: Physiology and molecular biology of petal senescence. Carbonell-Bejerano P, Urbez C, Carbonell J, Granell T, Perez-Amador MA: A fertilization-independent developmental program triggers partial fruit development and senescence processes in pistils of Arabidopsis. Garcia-Martinez JL, Carbonell J: Fruit-set of unpollinated ovaries of a modern prometheus essay, Pisum sativum L. Influence of plat-growth regulators.

Orzaez D, Granell A: DNA fragmentation is regulated by ethylene during carpel senescence in Pisum sativum . Carrasco P, Carbonell J: Involvement of a neutral proteolytic activity in the senescence of unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum . Carrasco P, Carbonell J: Changes in the level of peptidase activities in pea ovaries during senescence and fruit set induced by gibberellic acid. Granell A, Harris N, Pisabarro AG, Carbonell J: Temporal and spatial expression of a thiolprotease gene during pea ovary senescence, and its regulation by gibberellin. Yi W, Law SE, Wetzstein HY: Fungicide sprays can injure the top essay stigmatic surface during receptivity in almond flowers. Yi W, Law SE, McCoy D, Wetzstein HY: Stigma development and receptivity in almond ( Prunus dulcis ). Huang Z, Zhu J, Mu X, Lin J: Pollen dispersion, pollen viability and pistil receptivity in Leymus chinensis . Hedhly A, Hormaza JI, Herrero M: The effect of temperature on stigmatic receptivity in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.). Grbic V, Bleecker AB: Ethylene regulates the frankenstein a modern timing of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Lim PO, Kim HJ, Nam HG: Leaf senescence. Lim PO, Nam HG: The molecular and top essay software, genetic control of leaf senescence and longevity in book Arabidopsis.

Lanahan MB, Yen HC, Giovannoni JJ, Klee HJ: The never ripe mutation blocks ethylene perception in tomato. Patterson SE, Bleecker AB: Ethylene-dependent and writing software, -independent processes associated with floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis. Butenko MA, Stenvik GE, Alm V, Saether B, Patterson SE, Aalen RB: Ethylene-dependent and -independent pathways controlling floral abscission are revealed to converge using promoter::reporter gene constructs in the ida abscission mutant. Adams-Phillips L, Barry C, Giovannoni J: Signal transduction systems regulating fruit ripening. Orzaez D, Blay R, Granell A: Programme of senescence in petals and carpels of Pisum sativum L. flowers and its control by ethylene. Kendrick MD, Chang C: Ethylene signaling: new levels of complexity and regulation. Stepanova AN, Alonso JM: Ethylene signaling and response: where different regulatory modules meet. Lin Z, Zhong S, Grierson D: Recent advances in ethylene research. Yoo SD, Cho Y, Sheen J: Emerging connections in the ethylene signaling network.

Alonso JM, Hirayama T, Roman G, Nourizadeh S, Ecker JR: EIN2, a bifunctional transducer of ethylene and stress responses in Arabidopsis. Tsuchisaka A, Theologis A: Unique and overlapping expression patterns among the Arabidopsis 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family members. Buchanan-Wollaston V, Page T, Harrison E, Breeze E, Lim PO, Nam HG, Lin JF, Wu SH, Swidzinski J, Ishizaki K, Leaver CJ: Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals significant differences in gene expression and eassay writting, signalling pathways between developmental and top essay software, dark/starvation-induced senescence in Arabidopsis. Lohman KN, Gan S, John MC, Amasino RM: Molecular analysis of phd comics, natural leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana . Noh YS, Amasino RM: Identification of a promoter region responsible for writing, the senescence-specific expression of SAG12 . Knee EM, Hangarter RP, Knee M: Interactions of light and ethylene in hypocotyl hook maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Achard P, Cheng H, De Grauwe L, Decat J, Schoutteten H, Moritz T, Van Der Straeten D, Peng J, Harberd NP: Integration of plant responses to environmentally activated phytohormonal signals. Achard P, Baghour M, Chapple A, Hedden P, Van Der Straeten D, Genschik P, Moritz T, Harberd NP: The plant stress hormone ethylene controls floral transition via DELLA-dependent regulation of floral meristem-identity genes.

Pierik R, Sasidharan R, Voesenek LACJ: Growth control by ethylene: Adjusting phenotypes to the environment. Bleecker AB, Estelle MA, Somerville C, Kende H: Insensitivity to Ethylene Conferred by a Dominant Mutation in on a book Arabidopsis thaliana . Guzman P, Ecker JR: Exploiting the triple response of Arabidopsis to identify ethylene-related mutants. Kieber JJ, Rothenberg M, Roman G, Feldmann KA, Ecker JR: CTR1, a negative regulator of the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis, encodes a member of the raf family of protein kinases. Vivian-Smith A, Koltunow AM: Genetic analysis of top essay, growth-regulator-induced parthenocarpy in Arabidopsis. Fleet CM, Sun TP: A DELLAcate balance: the essays on locke role of gibberellin in plant morphogenesis. Achard P, Vriezen WH, Van Der Straeten D, Harberd NP: Ethylene regulates Arabidopsis development via the modulation of DELLA protein growth repressor function. Okushima Y, Mitina I, Quach HL, Theologis A: AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 (ARF2): a pleiotropic developmental regulator. Kim CY, Bove J, Assmann SM: Overexpression of wound-responsive RNA-binding proteins induces leaf senescence and hypersensitive-like cell death. Wagstaff C, Chanasut U, Harren FJ, Laarhoven LJ, Thomas B, Rogers HJ, Stead AD: Ethylene and flower longevity in Alstroemeria : relationship between tepal senescence, abscission and ethylene biosynthesis.

Wilkinson JQ, Lanahan MB, Clark DG, Bleecker AB, Chang C, Meyerowitz EM, Klee HJ: A dominant mutant receptor from Arabidopsis confers ethylene insensitivity in heterologous plants. Langston BJ, Bai S, Jones ML: Increases in DNA fragmentation and top essay, induction of a senescence-specific nuclease are delayed during corolla senescence in steps paper ethylene-insensitive ( etr1-1 ) transgenic petunias. Jones ML, Chaffin GS, Eason JR, Clark DG: Ethylene-sensitivity regulates proteolytic activity and cysteine protease gene expression in petunia corollas. Oh SA, Park JH, Lee GI, Paek KH, Park SK, Nam HG: Identification of three genetic loci controlling leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana . Yang TF, Gonzalez-Carranza ZH, Maunders MJ, Roberts JA: Ethylene and the regulation of senescence processes in transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris plants. Kim JH, Woo HR, Kim J, Lim PO, Lee IC, Choi SH, Hwang D, Nam HG: Trifurcate feed-forward regulation of age-dependent cell death involving miR164 in Arabidopsis. Sun K, Cui Y, Hauser BA: Environmental stress alters genes expression and top essay writing software, induces ovule abortion: reactive oxygen species appear as ovules commit to abort. Sun K, Hunt K, Hauser BA: Ovule abortion in Arabidopsis triggered by frankenstein, stress. Preuss D, Lemieux B, Yen G, Davis RW: A conditional sterile mutation eliminates surface components from Arabidopsis pollen and disrupts cell signaling during fertilization. Fiebig A, Mayfield JA, Miley NL, Chau S, Fischer RL, Preuss D: Alterations in CER6 , a gene identical to top essay CUT1 , differentially affect long-chain lipid content on essay the surface of pollen and stems. Abramoff MD, Magelhaes PJ, Ram SJ: Image Processing with ImageJ.

Medina I, Carbonell J, Pulido L, Madeira SC, Goetz S, Conesa A, Tarraga J, Pascual-Montano A, Nogales-Cadenas R, Santoyo J, Garcia F, Marba M, Montaner D, Dopazo J: Babelomics: an integrative platform for the analysis of transcriptomics, proteomics and top essay writing, genomic data with advanced functional profiling. 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Eassay Writting! Part of Springer Science+Business Media.

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The Coca-Cola Resume/CV Submission Policy. Coca-Cola Resume/CV Submission Policy , tablet:The Coca-Cola Resume/CV Submission Policy , mobile:The Coca-Cola Resume/CV Submission Policy ' The Coca-Cola Resume/CV Submission Policy. Last updated: February 2, 2017. The Coca-Cola Company is committed to protecting your personal information. We have developed this Resume/CV Submission Policy (the “Policy”) to inform you of how The Coca-Cola Company (referred to as “Coca-Cola” or “we”) will use your personal information that we gather during the application/recruiting process regardless whether you have submitted such information through the writing software online job search, job application functions of our Careers section (the “Section”), or we obtain them through other means including without limitation through interviews, through third party recruiting agencies, and from public domain (collectively referred to as “Personal Information”).

Personal information submitted elsewhere on the. Coca-Cola web site will be used in accordance with our general Privacy Policy. Personal information you submit through our Section, including through our online job search tool or to one of the steps a research paper email addresses provided in the Section, will be collected by Coca-Cola in the United States and/or in the jurisdiction where the position contact is writing software, located and may be shared with our affiliated entities, subsidiaries or joint ventures in other jurisdictions (see the list of to writting paper our affiliates below). Top Essay Software! This Policy is governed by United States law. For individuals who are located in the European Union, you should be aware that Due to make the global nature of The Coca-Cola Company operations, the top essay software Company may disclose Personal Information to essays on locke personnel and top essay software, departments throughout The Coca-Cola Company . This may include transferring Personal Information to other countries (including countries other than where you are based that have a different data protection regime than is found in the country where you are based). If you are located in the European Economic Area (the “EEA”) this may include countries outside of the EEA. You are free to decide what types of essays on locke personal information, if any, to submit to us.

Submitting your personal information is entirely voluntary. However, if you choose not to submit your personal information, this may limit our ability to consider your candidacy. Please read this Policy carefully. What types of information does this Policy cover? This Policy covers any personal information you submit through our Section, including through our online job search tool or to one of the email addresses provided in the Section, as part of the job application or job search process that includes without limitation: name, address, telephone number, email address, other contact information; log-in and password; CV, resume, cover letter, previous work experience/history including salary and allowance, education, transcripts; employment preferences, willingness to relocate, desired salary, marital status and family information; results of your assessments, if applicable and; how you heard about the position, and writing software, information relating to essays on locke references.

If you intend to provide us with details of top essay a reference or any other third party as part of your CV/ resume, it is your responsibility to obtain consent from that third party prior to passing their personal information to steps to writting paper us. You are responsible for the content of the information you provide to us either directly or indirectly through an agent and you must ensure it is legal, honest, truthful, accurate and not misleading in top essay writing software any way. You must ensure that the information provided by you does not contain material that is obscene, blasphemous, defamatory, infringing on any rights of any third party, or otherwise legally actionable by such third party. How will the phd comics thesis personal information be used? The personal information you submit here will be used for the following purposes: To assess your capabilities and qualifications for software, a job; To conduct reference checks; To develop questionnaires and how to make, interview scenarios; To conduct background checks if you are offered a job; To use as a reference data for future candidate if you are offered a job; To create and top essay writing software, submit reports as required by law or regulation; and eassay writting, To contact you about career opportunities.

If you become an employee, any personal information that you submit may become a part of your file and may be used for writing, other employment/work-related purposes. Who may access your data? The personal information may be stored in the United States (and in relevant jurisdiction(s) if the job is phd comics thesis, with a Coca-Cola entity outside of the United States) and will be reviewed by top essay writing software, employees and consultants of Coca-Cola in order to eassay writting evaluate your qualifications and experience for existing or future job opportunities with our organization. A list of The Coca-Cola Company's subsidiaries may be found here. Writing! The Coca-Cola Company will remain responsible for the personal information collected. In addition, we have contracted with Peopleclick, Inc. to provide us with an online recruitment tool that enables us to manage our recruitment process more efficiently. Eassay Writting! Peopleclick, Inc. collects and maintains Coca-Cola's recruiting database for some geographic regions according to our instructions.

Coca-Cola works with third parties who provide services to us and we may share personal information about you with those third parties, including without limitation: Web site hosting or information technology consulting services; Web site management; data analysis; data storage; recruiting services; legal services; accounting services; and other administrative and back-up and security services. The Coca-Cola Company will take appropriate technical, organizational, and legal steps to writing software secure your personal information. Does Coca-Cola keep your data? United States Federal law requires Coca-Cola to retain information of candidates applying for how to make resume format, jobs within the United States. Personal information of software candidates applying for jobs in other parts of the eassay writting world will be retained in writing software accordance with local law. We will retain information you submit to essays on locke consider you for other jobs for which you may be qualified. If you would prefer that we not retain your information for such purposes, please let us know by contacting us as indicated below. We may delete your personal information at any time (including your CV/resume), without any reason. Therefore, you should retain your own copy of the personal information provided to us. If you are using our online job search tool, you can access, review, and change some of the personal information collected about you and stored in top essay software “My Account” by logging into phd comics thesis the Section. The updated profile will be used the next time you apply for a job using your account online.

To change personal information that you already have submitted for consideration for a specific position, please resubmit your application to top essay writing update personal information about you that is frankenstein a modern, associated with that job application. We encourage you to writing software promptly update your personal information if it changes or is inaccurate. Upon your request, we will deactivate or remove your personally identifiable information from our active databases, although some information may be retained as permitted or required by law. For those persons submitting information in Europe: By agreeing to prometheus this Policy, you agree to the transfer of personally identifiable information about you to countries outside the European Economic Area (EEA). Coca-Cola will take appropriate technical, organizational, and legal steps to secure personally identifiable information about you. Diversity and top essay software, Equal Employment Opportunity.

The Coca-Cola Company is an equal opportunity employer, which means we offer equal treatment to all applicants. The Coca-Cola Company prohibits discrimination, directly or indirectly, on the basis of race, gender, color, national origin, religion, marital status, age, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity and / or expression, genetic information, veteran status or any other classification protected by to writting paper, applicable law (“Protected Information”) in top essay writing any area of recruitment. In some countries we ask applicants for essays on locke, Protected Information for top essay, the purpose of monitoring equal opportunity. Short Essay On A Visit Book! This information will be recorded and separated from writing software your application before the selection process begins. Essays On Locke! In some countries we ask our applicants for top essay writing, Protected Information where this information is required by phd comics, local law (e.g., ethnic origin will be requested of top essay writing software applicants in essays on locke South Africa). Top Essay Software! If you have a disability and phd comics, would like to software indicate as part of your application any relevant effects of your disability and any adjustment which you consider should reasonably be made to prometheus the process to writing software assist your application, please do so in the relevant field during the application process. To the extent the phd comics thesis personally identifiable information you provide contains details of top essay writing your: racial or ethnic origin; political opinions or beliefs; religious beliefs; membership in a trade union or political party; physical or mental health or condition; sexual orientation; commission (or alleged commission) of an offense or related proceedings; job evaluations or educational records, you expressly authorize The Coca-Cola Company to handle such details for the purposes of short essay on a to a book your job application. No Offer of Employment. This Policy does not constitute an offer or promise of employment with respect to any employment position posted or described on top essay, this Section or with any third party services. Essays On Locke! Coca-Cola may eliminate, modify or change without notice any aspect(s) of the employment positions, compensation, and benefit plans described herein. Our websites and related third party job sites provides descriptions of top essay writing possible roles within Coca-Cola, which should not be interpreted as binding offers, terms or conditions of employment.

Any employment offer that may follow as a result of the essays on locke identification of writing a potential opportunity by make, a user, or submission of information to Coca-Cola, is in accordance with the writing specific terms of that offer, and not based in any way upon the description of the opportunity on our websites and related third party job sites. Law Applicable to Job Application. Our websites allows you to apply for essay on a visit fair, jobs based in writing countries (or territories) other than the essay country where you are resident or from writing which you make your application. Job opportunities posted on our websites will be governed by phd comics, the laws of the country where the top essay writing job is located. By applying for a job through The Coca-Cola Company or any of its subsidiaries or affiliates, you accept that (i) the laws of the country where the job is located will have exclusive jurisdiction over any disputes arising from on a visit your application; (ii) the laws of the country where the job is software, located shall apply to your application; and (iii) Coca-Cola, including the local Coca-Cola entities in the country you submitted your application from, is not responsible or liable for the prerequisites or limitations your application is subject to under the laws of the country where the job is located.

This Policy is not intended for distribution to, or use by, any person or entity in essay fair any jurisdiction or country where such distribution or use would be contrary to local law or regulation. Changes to this Policy. We may change this Policy from time to time. Top Essay! All changes to this Policy are effective after they are initially posted on phd comics thesis, our website. Software! If you do not agree to the changes, please contact us to deactivate your account. You can always tell when we have last updated the Policy by checking in the “Last Updated” line at the beginning of this Policy. Please feel free to ask us questions concerning our jobs database system and this Policy.

Questions and requests related to your personal information may be directed to essays on locke the postal address listed below or contact us online and we will respond to such requests in top essay accordance with applicable law. Please do not submit your resume via the Contact Us form (link in previous sentence) or the mailing address below as you cannot be considered for employment opportunities unless you submit your resume through the Careers area of The Coca-Cola Company website. The Coca-Cola Company. Atlanta, GA, USA 30301. COCA-COLA ON SOCIAL ,tablet: COCA-COLA ON SOCIAL ,mobile: COCA-COLA ON SOCIAL ' COCA-COLA ON SOCIAL. Coca-Cola Journey,tablet:About Coca-Cola Journey,mobile:About Coca-Cola Journey'About Coca-Cola Journey. California Transparency in Supply Chain Act. The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is the world’s largest beverage company, offering over 500 brands to people in more than 200 countries. Of our 21 billion-dollar brands, 19 are available in lower- or no-sugar options to help people moderate their consumption of to writting a research added sugar. In addition to our namesake Coca-Cola drinks, some of our leading brands around the world include: AdeS soy-based beverages, Ayataka green tea, Dasani waters, Del Valle juices and nectars, Fanta, Georgia coffee, Gold Peak teas and coffees, Honest Tea, Minute Maid juices, Powerade sports drinks, Simply juices, smartwater, Sprite, vitaminwater, and Zico coconut water.

At Coca-Cola , we’re serious about making positive contributions to the world. That starts with reducing sugar in our drinks and top essay writing, continuing to introduce new ones with added benefits. It also means continuously working to reduce our environmental impact, creating rewarding careers for steps to writting paper, our associates and bringing economic opportunity wherever we operate. Together with our bottling partners, we employ more than 700,000 people around the world.

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10 Ways to top essay software Screw Up Your Cover Letter. Discover skills to phd comics thesis earn more. Cover letters give you a golden opportunity to get across your passion, communication skills and technical smarts, all of writing software which should make the eassay writting reviewer want to writing take the next step and look at visit to a, your resume. Unfortunately, most of writing them blow it by making one of resume these mistakes. Sending a blatantly generic cover letter that just regurgitates the information in your resume won’t cut it. The only software, message reviewers will receive is that you didn#8217;t think their job was worth any real thought and effort. To fix that, reference the specific position and how to format company in writing the first paragraph. Essay To A Book. If someone referred you, be sure to mention that, too. Writing Software. Then, show that you’ve done your homework by mentioning some of the company’s issues or pain points. Eassay Writting. And be specific, says Laura Smith-Proulx, a resume writer in Arvada, Colo. Top Essay Writing Software. #8220;Whether the company is phd comics experiencing growing pains or needs to cut costs, show them that you understand their issues and explain how you can help.#8221; Don#8217;t use an impersonal greeting or salutation like To Whom It May Concern or Dear Sir or Madam . Track down the hiring manager and address your letter to him or her by name.

If you can#8217;t do that by searching the Web or calling the company, try something like Dear Members of the Selection Team at ABC Company or Dear Project Manager . They#8217;re not ideal, but they#8217;re better. If you don#8217;t like those suggestions, simply reference the job title and top essay writing software jump right into your opening paragraph. No. 3: Tacky Attention-Grabbing Headline. Starting off with headlines like these are simply going to hurt you.

Actually, they might get you some attention, though being passed around the office as a joke isn#8217;t the kind of notice you#8217;re looking for. So don#8217;t be cute. Use a crisp opening line like this: After reading about ABC Company’s recent triumphs in the global marketplace, I#8217;m certain that my diverse experience as a user experience architect can help you to phd comics maintain your positive momentum. No. 4: Tone is writing Too Formal or Informal. The key is to demonstrate both your personality and enthusiasm without violating the tone of a formal business letter. Use adjectives to describe your activities and expertise and avoid contractions, words you don#8217;t normally use, slang, acronyms and a modern prometheus industry buzzwords. Remember, a cover letter is a blank canvas. Writing Software. It#8217;s your chance to prove that you really do possess excellent communication skills. You may be looking to code like crazy or create killer mobile apps, but unless you spell out how you#8217;ll benefit the company, you#8217;re not going to generate much interest. #8220;Don’t make too many #8216;I#8217; statements or focus on your own goals,#8221; says Jason Reece, writing center manager for phd comics Washington State-based Career Perfect Resume Writing Services. #8220;Show how your technical skills and top essay software experience create value by meeting the company’s needs.#8221; If you don#8217;t believe in yourself, no one else will.

Use words like confident , sure and convinced to describe your abilities and how you plan to hit the ground running. If you use specific examples and eassay writting quotes from writing managers and co-workers to validate your claims, you won#8217;t come off as cocky. For example: After increasing revenues at XYZ Company by 35 percent over the last three years, I’m confident that my data base management and analysis skills can help ABC Corporation penetrate new markets by bolstering the efforts of your sales and marketing team. If you#8217;re responding to an ad for a security operations analyst or JavaScript engineer, don’t expect the hiring manager to take you at essays on locke, your word. Talk about the number of attacks you#8217;ve thwarted or how you were recognized by the CIO for keeping customers secure.

That way, you#8217;ll prove that you#8217;re as qualified as you say you are. No 8: Including Inappropriate Information. Your cover letter is definitely the place to discuss an top essay writing software employment gap or desire to change careers. But it#8217;s not the place to vent about your recent divorce, the issues that led to your termination or your disdain for noisy work environments. Also, don#8217;t include salary expectations unless they#8217;re required. At this stage, employers are looking for reasons to screen out candidates.

Don#8217;t give them any ammunition. Keep your letter focused on your relevant experience and skills, and make sure you do it in no more than 300 words. Don#8217;t wander off track, tailor your message toward the job description and always remember the manager#8217;s needs. If you’re squeamish about making a bold closing statement, just be polite and re-cap your value before outlining your next step. For example: I#8217;m very interested in eassay writting the systems analyst position and confident that I can benefit the entire enterprise by identifying and resolving pressing hardware and top essay writing software networking issues. I will call next week to arrange a time to meet so we can discuss my plan to surpass your expectations. How To Make Resume. Yes, it might sound like a sales letter. But when you get right down to it, that#8217;s what a cover letter is. It#8217;s your first shot at convincing the employer that you#8217;re a serious candidate who understands their business and top essay writing software their challenges — and knows how to address them.

ONCE AGAIN, a whole list of #8220;don#8217;ts#8221;, yet NOTHING about what I COULD put in a cover letter. Frankenstein A Modern. When you need to writing do a cover letter to a company that has intentionally obscured their identity, industry, contact names, etc through agencies and vague job listings, just ***HOW*** are you supposed to essays on locke write a meaningful cover letter? The answer is, you CAN#8217;T. Face it folks, the person doing the hiring intentionally doesn#8217;t want you to know the first thing about them, so a generic cover letter is the top essay software only thing you can do. Also, if you are trying to get your resume/applications out to as many potential employers as you can, then spending half a day to try and how to resume format research any one company is just ridiculous. @Jelabarre: We#8217;ll write up some posts about how to craft your cover letter, step by step.

But the fact they#8217;re not listed here doesn#8217;t change the fact that all of top essay writing these things are pitfalls you have to avoid. I don#8217;t agree with your notion that no one can write meaningful cover letters. It#8217;s true that you can#8217;t always find the name of the manager, which is why Leslie suggested ways to handle that. But the idea that a generic cover letter is the only thing you can do and, worse, that you#8217;re better off spending your time sending out generic packages is short essay visit book just wrong. Doing that makes it all a crap shoot, pure and simple. If you send out the same letter and resume to every job you apply for, the chances of your looking like a good fit are minimal. Writing. People know when they#8217;re looking at something that#8217;s generic, and the first thing that tells them is that you didn#8217;t bother to learn something about the company. A Modern Prometheus Essay. At the least, it doesn#8217;t take half a day to do a Google search. Top Essay. An individualized approach is frankenstein essay more effective. It takes more time, absolutely, but it gives you a better shot for each application you send out.

You#8217;re way better off spending your time on sending out the right packages to the right employers than blasting out identical packages to everyone. Perhaps you shouldn#8217;t waste time responding to top essay software confidential job postings. Why not maximize your return by focusing on companies that want job seekers to eassay writting do their homework and top essay submit a customized cover letter and resume. By the way, if you need research tips ask your peers for pointers on Dice Discussions. What i dont understand is make resume format how recruiters have 6 seconds or less to writing scan a resume, but have enough time to read cover letters? I was on an IT team where we all got copies of applicant#8217;s resumes to review and select five or so for interviews for a position on prometheus, our team. The spelling mistakes were the first to get culled out. After that, I looked for fluff, lies, and irregularities. Those were then discarded. Writing. Getting to steps a research paper the meat of the resume was what was important to me. The salutation of the cover letter was the least important.

Just tell me what I want to hear. I don#8217;t have time for novellas and biographies. Top Essay Writing Software. That is just sad and eassay writting fortunately not always true. Maybe some big American companies which are getting 5000 applicants a week because their job postings is to find here, there and everywhere. Writing Software. In the to writting old days you would send your application in a red envelope, sadly today a computer scanning pick out 10 of 1000 for a human look. Software. The truth however is steps to writting that if the company cares about the person they hire and you have the top essay writing software qualifications they need they really do not care about spelling and how bad you are at writing the cover letter (except of course if you need to do read proof things). And that is the company you want to work for! Most of these companies will not use mass media for their job postings, but meet them where the eassay writting candidates are or use specific search tolls through eg. Writing Software. linkedin so the field of potential candidates are very limited. And here they look for honesty written in your own words. #8220;Just tell me what I want to hear#8221; must be the eassay writting number one thing not to do in top essay writing software a cover letter except of course you just want any job and do not care for whom and the job you will get will also be just that just to fill up the empty seats with whoever wants to sit in it!

If you can#8217;t use simple pleasantries like dear sir or madam, or to whom it may concern as we were taught at school. What#8217;s the point of having a cover letter at all. Maybe send your CV in to to writting the overly sensitive [expletive] anyway as you will never hear from them anytime. Great suggestions but all of your examples have contractions in it, when rule #4 says not to do that. Quite confusing. A question about top essay, using contractions was exactly what brought me to how to format this article and it didn#8217;t answer my question at all #128577;

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College Is the Goal. Will These Three Teenagers Get There? By ANEMONA HARTOCOLLIS. The Times followed three teenagers in writing, Topeka, Kan., as they decided where to apply to college – and even whether college was the right choice for them. Here’s a look at their journey: Nearly all high school students want to go to college these days, studies show, but many never make it. Of those who do, many fail to earn their degrees. Researchers call this the “aspirations-attainment gap.”

What stops kids from getting a college degree? Poor academic preparation, rising college costs, the how to make resume format declining value of financial aid and, not least, just managing the process. Top Essay Writing Software. Applying to college requires a huge amount of social capital — the a modern support of family, friends, mentors and teachers — as well as personal drive and initiative. In the last month, I have been visiting Topeka High School, talking with seniors, and writing their parents and guidance counselors, about their college plans as they take standardized tests, decide where to apply, write essays, fill out financial aid forms and essays on locke send in top essay writing software, their applications. I’ve followed their successes and mishaps along the make format way and top essay software will look in again in a few months to to writting a research paper see where they end up, whether in college, vocational school, a job or at home. Topeka High is in many ways an all-American school, the software largest public high school in this sprawling low-rise city of about 127,000 people. Phd Comics. The school has a strong racial, ethnic and economic mix among its 1,800 students.

As in many American schools, black students are often the most disadvantaged, despite integration. But Topeka High also has many poor and writing software struggling white students, as well as students of Mexican descent and essay on a children of top essay, migrant farmworkers, some undocumented. A handful of students, mainly affluent ones, will go to the Ivy League. But the essays on locke graduation rate hovers in the low 70 percent range, the principal said; 45 percent of graduates go to a four-year college, and 17 percent go to a two-year college. Top Essay Writing Software. More than half the students are poor by federal standards. Topeka High is also where I went to high school, before going on prometheus to college on writing software the East Coast. Eassay Writting. Many of my friends stayed closer to writing software home or chose not to go to college, saying they did not see the a research paper value in top essay writing, it. Has that pattern changed or stayed the steps to writting same? How did the Great Recession affect the ambitions and dreams of students here?

I set out to get to know some of the top essay software kids and find the answers. The Pros and Cons of Delaying College. He is Nate in paper, the country and writing software Nathan in the city, torn between two worlds. Nathan Triggs lives with his mother in Topeka on essays on locke weekdays. Top Essay. On weekends, he drives his scruffy Chevy S-10 pickup truck to his father’s farm outside Holton, population 3,300, about 45 minutes to the north. In the country, what matters is how to make format, what you can do with your hands: baling hay, hunting or fixing a broken U-joint. In the city, what matters is top essay writing software, what you can do with your brain, whether it’s understanding the eassay writting difference between kinetic and top essay writing software potential energy in thesis, physics class or being able to explain the meaning of writing, social capital in essays on locke, government class. Nathan/Nate can do both. Top Essay Writing Software. That push and short on a visit book pull between these worlds is working on software him now as he tries to decide, amid conflicting advice from family and friends, whether to go to college or to trade school. But are the life of the farm and essays on locke the life of the mind mutually exclusive? The college decision is a critical turning point and a central point of satisfaction in life, economists say.

That’s why college admissions directors say everything matters — not just grades, but also life experience. Nate, who is about to turn 18, sees a number of gates ahead of him, all attractive. Writing. Which one will he choose to go through? To get to Nate’s father’s farm, you drive north from Topeka on U.S. 75, past the ubiquitous grain elevators and a sign advertising Goodyear, one of Topeka’s largest employers. The landscape undulates from a gritty urban setting to more idyllic cornfields, sunflowers and essays on locke church spires. About a half-hour on, Holton flashes by in two stoplights. The gravel driveway to the farm is marked by stars and stripes painted on top essay writing boards, like a Jasper Johns painting, with a baby’s footprints where the stars should be. Its whimsy hints at the affectionate family life inside. In the kitchen, the grocery list on the chalkboard shows requisitions, in how to make resume format, different handwriting, for “man soap” and “sanity.” Well-seasoned cast iron pans hang on the wall, and in top essay, a freewheeling spirit, nobody minds that the bathroom has no door. At school in town, Nathan is the quiet boy in the back of the classroom, whom nobody notices.

The student government leaders and the high school principal have to think for a couple of minutes before he gradually swims into view — lanky, in steps a research, jeans and cowboy boots. Oh yes, they say, the farm boy. What is he doing at Topeka High? He does not seem to belong. In Holton, Nate has learned skills that are not clearly measured on a college application.

He even speaks differently, mixing his tenses and sprinkling in some ain’ts. In Topeka, he is a committed student who eagerly signed up for a college-prep program when he was still in seventh grade. “Is that why you’re in all those honors classes?” his grandmother Ann Matthews asked the other day when she heard him talking about his schoolwork. Nate nodded shyly. His grandfather Al Matthews, a retired insurance claims manager who, like his wife, has a college degree, is pushing the military, saying Nate can find himself in the service before making a life-changing decision like going to software college. “Does one go to college, and run the risk of short on a to a, spending four years and a lot of money and getting out and there’s no jobs?” Mr. Matthews said, sitting on his comfortable front porch in nearby Netawaka, Kan., as Nate listened quietly. Writing. “Use the military as an intermediate step while you can see what is a modern prometheus essay, going on with the economy.” Or, he said, “lay out for a year” and work. Software. To which Nate instantly replied, “I don’t want to lay out for phd comics, a year.”

A few years ago, TaTy’Terria Gary and her mother made a pact. After TaTy finished at Topeka High School, her mother would move out of Kansas, and TaTy would consider leaving the state to go to college. “She feels like Topeka is not a good place for people who have dreams,” TaTy said. “Go where your heart is. There’s 49 other states. Why stay in writing, this one?” That deadline is approaching, and TaTy, 17, a senior, is one of the few students in frankenstein prometheus, the college-prep program here who want to top essay writing software go to college out of state.

Not much seems to intimidate her. She is make resume, tall and full-bodied. Top Essay Writing Software. She wears her hair swept up and has learned to look camera-ready through her job selling cosmetics at frankenstein a modern a beauty store. Teachers sometimes criticize her for being sassy. She may not always fit feminine stereotypes of being agreeable, but she has steel. TaTy’s life seems tailor-made for a college application. She has a clear, long-term ambition: to writing software be an obstetrician and gynecologist. She has an how to instinct to help people that she traces to her childhood, when she helped her grandmother shop for groceries.

She has been doing volunteer jobs since seventh grade, like serving food at a nursing home and helping out at a preschool. She does it because the college-prep program requires it, but she has found that “honestly, it’s better than sitting in the house.” Even with her job and her responsibilities as captain of the school step team, she has a grade point average of about 3.7, she said, with an 87 in human anatomy. Change has been a theme of her life lately. To escape the writing jangling police and ambulance sirens of essays on locke, central Topeka, her family moved last year to rural Pauline. “I like seeing the stars at top essay night,” she said. She drives a half-hour to school each morning, sometimes taking her younger brother and frankenstein essay sister to school first, which adds another half-hour. Her mother was turning 18 when she had TaTy, dashing her own hopes of software, going to college. Frankenstein A Modern Essay. She now works at top essay a group home for abused and abandoned children, and thesis she is writing, studying for a bachelor’s degree in criminal justice at Washburn University, a public institution in Topeka. TaTy avoids her father, who, she said, has been in and out of short visit fair, jail. “He likes to writing blame everyone else for his problems,” she said. TaTy does not want to have children, she said, so she does not expect to repeat her mother’s experience of becoming pregnant at a young age. For her 16th birthday, she asked for a “purity ring,” a silver ring symbolizing a pledge that she will abstain from sex before marriage, or until she is ready.

She embraces the a modern prometheus essay role of the independent woman. Top Essay Writing. The step team that she leads, a kind of stomp-dancing group, has become a bonding experience for eassay writting, its mostly black and writing software Hispanic members, many of them girls who are not the cheerleader type: too heavy or not popular enough. She wants to be an OB-GYN partly so she can help young women understand their bodies. “I definitely think that women are so much stronger than they know,” she said. A Familiar Feeling at 18: ‘I’m Panicking’ Zachary Shaner was truant when other marching band members received their dress uniforms, so the steps a research paper other night he was rummaging around the empty band room, hoping to find one that fit in time for the next game. Then he went down to top essay software the cafeteria, where teachers were sitting behind rows of eassay writting, tables for parent-teacher conferences. “I’ll take that,” said Eric Bradshaw, the band director, snatching the marching band hat out of Zac’s hand as he walked up to the table with his mother for software, their conference. It is the wrong color hat, and it has a broken black feather plume on top.

He can’t wear it. At that moment, the broken plume seems symbolic of the wounded spirit that is Zac’s senior year at Topeka High School. How To Make Resume. He is the gifted boy everyone complains is not living up to his potential. Zac, 18, has been raised by a single mother on disability insurance in a poor part of Topeka. He transferred from his neighborhood’s sports-oriented high school to Topeka High in search of a better education. Writing Software. He sings, composes music and makes his own puppets for puppet shows. He plays so many instruments that when people ask him which ones, he just says, “All of them.”

By all rights, Zac should be a find for an artsy college like Bard or Bennington. Everyone has known someone like him in eassay writting, high school: the exceptionally smart, glib kid destined for great things despite a troubled background. But in time, that trouble seems to catch up, and the dreams to turn to dust. Zac may be at that pressure point. His teachers say that he has chosen easy courses he can glide through with minimal effort, and that he is often late or absent.

Zac admits he stays up late at writing night, composing and recording music, and then has power struggles with his mother over getting to school. He has no license or car, so she has to drive him. He took the ACT college admissions test without practice and got a 27, about the 86th percentile, a high score for having taken it cold. But he knows that to really stand out, he has to nudge up his score. “I’m panicking,” Zac said this fall, a few weeks before he was supposed to take the ACT for the second time. The truancy began junior year, when he decided he needed an eassay writting after-school job to make money to buy musical equipment. He put on top essay writing a collared shirt, a tie and dress shoes for an interview to bag groceries at Mike’s IGA, three blocks from his house. Essays On Locke. “I can’t believe I was worried that I wouldn’t get the top essay software job,” he said, laughing. He earned $7.25 an essays on locke hour after school, and a dollar more on Sundays.

But he was taking hard courses like honors precalculus and trig, and his grades dropped. He stopped working at the supermarket this fall to concentrate on his studies. But he sees himself falling into the same pattern as his older brother, Chris, 20, who became so depressed in high school that he barely graduated. Top Essay Writing Software. Chris lives at home, drifting through part-time minimum-wage jobs, contemplating a factory job. Zac craves success yet fears failure. He plays bass in the school orchestra, bass guitar in jazz band and saxophone in marching band. He can imitate Johnny Cash’s testosterone-filled growl in frankenstein a modern prometheus essay, “Folsom Prison Blues,” or Art Garfunkel’s angelic high notes in “The Sounds of Silence.” Broad-shouldered, with a hangdog stoop and long dirty-blond hair, he was once a misfit, teased for using big words. But playing music with his big brother and their band, Pegasi, at software Topeka venues like a dive bar called the Boobie Trap has brought him out of his shell. “My fantasy job would be making it big as a musician,“ he said. “I don’t know what a more realistic option would be.” At the parent-teacher conference, his band teacher, Mr.

Bradshaw, asked Zac what his plans were after graduation. To study sound engineering, Zac replied. You need to phd comics thesis show up, the teacher told him: “The thing about college is, there’s no grade recovery. You get one shot.” In late September, Topeka High held a senior parent information night, encouraged by the new superintendent, Tiffany Anderson, who has made college attendance a priority. Top Essay Writing. The guidance counselors were startled — and pleased — to find a line of parents stretching down the main hallway of the short on a visit book fair school. The parents were told that to top essay be assured admission to most of the big state universities in Kansas, students had to have at least a 21 on the ACT, the average at Topeka High, or be in the top third of their class. Scholarships, a counselor warned the parents, are harder to get than they might think.

But the counselors did not assume that all students aspired to go to college. “College is not the only option,” Angela Locke, a guidance counselor, told the audience. Frankenstein. “Sometimes it’s not even the best option.” While the counselors “firmly believe the philosophy that college is great,” Ms. Top Essay. Locke told the steps to writting a research parents, “Our world is a different place than when most of top essay, us were going to school.” She added, “I know when I was going to steps school, if you were going to college, you probably were going to get a very good job.” A very good job could no longer be taken for granted, she implied. Last year, she said, Washburn Institute of Technology, once the vocational arm of the writing software Topeka public schools and now a division of Washburn University, had added a phlebotomy program. “How cool would it be to on a visit book be able to work my way through college as a phlebotomist?” Ms. Top Essay Writing Software. Locke said. This year, Washburn Tech added cosmetology, which is “wonderful for Topeka,” she added. “We feel pretty confident that they’re not going to take a lot of to writting a research paper, tuition money from our students and disappear.” Ms. Locke went on to extol Topeka High’s R.O.T.C. program and top essay the benefits of an apprenticeship or a union. Essays On Locke. “We are going to help students get from top essay writing, Point A to Point B, and it’s not always going to be college, and that’s O.K.,” she said.

There was little talk of how to prepare for standardized tests like the ACT or the SAT. Essay On A Fair. At the top essay writing very end, responding to a question from the audience, a counselor said that “a lady from Manhattan” would be offering one session of steps to writting paper, ACT prep during the school day in the week before the test, and that it would cost $40. Top Essay. The session had been arranged by the school’s gifted facilitator, and people were told that for further details, they could go to the counseling center and pick up a flier. Prometheus Essay. They were also told to top essay go to phd comics thesis a website, Number2.com, for free online test prep. “We do have some study materials for you, practice test booklets” and writing links to online resources, said Kayla Banzhaf, the testing coordinator. A parent asked about the deadline to phd comics sign up for the ACT. “Last Friday,” a counselor replied. “There is top essay, a late fee.“

How to Become the First in the Family to Go to College. For Nathan Triggs’s mother, Tera, Topeka High was the bright light of her life. She hung out at the mall; worked at Bobo’s, a local diner; and performed with the flag team. She loved French class, because it was easy for her and she liked the teacher’s accent. She learned to make crepes in prometheus essay, French club. After passing home economics, she took interior design, and fantasized about becoming an interior designer. But she is also an top essay writing software object lesson in paper, how elusive college can be, and how hard it often is to get there without role models and writing software help from a wealth of phd comics thesis, people, including parents, teachers and software tutors. Ms.

Triggs, 39, graduated in 1995 and wanted to go to college, but somehow the opportunity passed her by and she never applied. “I wasn’t a very good student,” she said, apologetically. “I only made the honor roll a couple of times.” Soon she was pregnant with Nathan’s brother, “and then I was a mom,” she said. Now she works in a center for phd comics, people with developmental disabilities, and was recently promoted from aide to secretary. As she spoke, Ms. Triggs sat in her cozy living room in a small bungalow on a red-brick street, in a part of Topeka where a real estate agent warned me to watch my back. But on top essay writing a street without public street lights, the Triggs house is thesis, strung with twinkling white decorative lights that blink out a welcome.

As the memories of high school came flooding back, she dashed upstairs to her bedroom. On the bureau, under a pile of clean clothes, was a pale blue-glazed ceramic vase, decorated with rosettes. Top Essay Writing Software. She had made it in high school art class and saved it for more than 20 years. It would be “awesome,” she said, for Nathan to go to a research college. But Ms. Top Essay Writing Software. Triggs’s inexperience means she does not know how to essays on locke help put him through the paces of applying.

His father, Tim Sturgeon, never went to college either. His older brother dropped out of high school. Has Ms. Triggs looked at Nathan’s college choices? “No,” she said. Has she looked at his essay? “What essay?” she asked, softly, as Nathan sat across from her in writing software, their living room, petting his black dog, Lucky. “I am a very determined person. I have always found a way to frankenstein get the job done, no matter the level of difficulty the task may hold. Software. I developed this trait at a young age by working for everything that I have by earning money doing farm work. On a farm, nothing comes easy enough.” – from Nathan’s first draft of on a visit to a book fair, his college essay. Two Generations, Two Different Paths to College. “She knows what she needs to do,” Jennifer Womack, a college-prep teacher, told TaTy’Terria Gary’s mother at a recent parent-teacher conference night at Topeka High School. “She knows what she wants to do, and she’s taking care of it.”

The glowing comments from one teacher after another came to sound like a broken record, though with a happy tune. But TaTy, whose teachers have encouraged her long-term plans to go to medical school, was not the only one on the receiving end. Her mother, Tracy Gary, 35, came in for writing software, some of the credit. “She’s defying that whole stereotype that a single mother cannot raise a child successfully — pshaw!” said Teresa Leslie-Canty, the teacher in a class where TaTy mentors younger students, as mother and short essay on a visit fair daughter sat across from her in the high school gymnasium. Teenage pregnancy can be part of the high school experience at writing schools across America, and Topeka High is no exception. Several girls here told me that they had classmates who had become pregnant, and that they felt sorry for them because life was suddenly much harder, and they were stigmatized. “So many girls are looked down upon because of it,” said one of TaTy’s classmates, Mya McFadden, whose mother was a student at Topeka High when she had Mya and essays on locke her twin sister, Deja, 17 years ago. The twins’ mother and father were high school sweethearts, a dream couple, so good-looking that they turned heads as they walked through the halls holding hands. Writing. But the gloss quickly wore off when their father, Michael McFadden, had to join the Army to support his children and was posted to make resume the war in Iraq. He came back with severe post-traumatic stress disorder. The couple split, and the girls went to live with him.

Like TaTy, they have taken their family history as a warning, and they are determined to go to college. Tracy Gary was a senior at Topeka High when she gave birth to TaTy, her oldest child. She turned 18 two weeks after giving birth. Though she was allowed to walk in her high school graduation, she had half a credit left to top essay software earn, she said, and did not receive her diploma until more than two years later. TaTy was not planned, Ms. Gary said, “She was a rebellion against my family.”

But Ms. Gary was also repeating history. Her mother was 15 or 16 when she had a son. Ms. Gary’s sister had her son at about 15 or 16, too. Ms. A Modern Prometheus Essay. Gary was raised mainly by her grandmother, because her own mother, she said, had other interests. Writing. “My mother cared more about the men,” she said. She resisted her mother’s pressure to have an abortion, and being a mother forced her to mature. Essays On Locke. “When I had her, I started to grow up,” Ms. Gary said. “I knew I was responsible.” Ms.

Gary has two other children, a 10-year-old girl and a boy about to turn 14. But as TaTy’s teacher said, Ms. Writing. Gary broke the cycle. She worked at fast-food jobs, advancing into management, to support her children, then realized she wanted more out of a career. So she enrolled at Washburn University, a public institution in thesis, Topeka with a neatly groomed campus and a serious atmosphere. She is top essay software, close to a degree in criminal justice, a field she chose because she always wanted to be lawyer, and this comes close.

Ms. Gary was ambitious in high school but not academically focused. She was a manager for track and basketball teams and eassay writting spent four years in the Marine Corps R.O.T.C. because she liked the structure and having “somewhere to go, something to do.” She thought about top essay going into the Marines, until she became pregnant, but she did not consider college an option. She is proud of TaTy for being more committed to her studies than her mother was. She attributes much of her daughter’s success to the guidance of her college-prep teachers. “I didn’t have anybody telling me, ‘Hey, you’re good in English, so you should take those A.P. classes,’ ” Ms. Gary said.

Last year, Ms. Gary moved TaTy and her two younger siblings to Pauline, on eassay writting the outskirts of software, Topeka, where the city gives way to antique stores, gas stations and car dealerships, then finally to railroad tracks and cows. The family lives in a ranch house in essays on locke, a subdivision of similar houses. “I’m real big on stability,” she said. Ms. Gary works taking care of children at the Villages, a group home for children who have been abandoned, abused or in trouble with the law. Top Essay Software. So she relies on TaTy to help take care of her younger sister and brother. When it comes to college, Ms. Gary said, she will support TaTy in phd comics, whatever she decides to do. But she hopes her daughter will go far enough from Topeka that she will not be able to return home on weekends, even if she feels homesick. Writing. “I don’t want her to ever think about quitting,” Ms.

Gary said. “I don’t want her to walk in eassay writting, my shoes.” Wondering if Higher Education Is the Cure-All. When Charla Shaner appeared at a recent parent-teacher conference with Zac, she looked immaculate in software, pressed coral blouse, skirt and smooth blond hair. Few of the teachers realized how much effort went into maintaining that middle-class facade. Ms.

Shaner’s intense focus on her two sons helped steer them into the Topeka public school system’s gifted track, based on their exceptionally high IQ’s in elementary school. She has a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education and for some years ran a daycare center out of how to, her house. But Zac’s family is downwardly mobile. Ms. Shaner, 51, and her two sons are barely making ends meet, surviving mainly on government benefits.

They are emotionally overwhelmed by the day-to-day tasks of life and school. Zac and top essay his brother wonder whether the thesis American dream of a college education is still attainable for them, and if it is, whether they can afford to go to a college where they will blossom. About seven years ago, Ms. Shaner lost her daycare license after dropping a 6-month-old on the head while she tried to hold the top essay baby, talk on the phone and watch out for a pot of boiling water in the kitchen. She attributes the accident to a traumatic brain injury she suffered in a childhood car crash, which left her in a coma. She still has damaged peripheral vision and a squint in her right eye. She misses taking care of babies.

But she has not tried to renew her daycare license or find another job in her field, because, she said, the short essay on a visit to a fair accident made her realize that she should not be taking care of other people’s children. So she supports the family largely on writing software her disability payments, in prometheus essay, addition to small amounts in child support from her ex-husband, which she expects to run out now that Zac is older. The family lives in Oakland, in northeast Topeka, a neighborhood of small houses, porch ornaments, chain-link fences and barking guard dogs. Ms. Shaner’s parents grew up in the same predominantly white, working-class enclave in its golden era, but the community ties have frayed since then. She rents her house at a discount from her father, Charles Wray, 78, who has worked as a pastor, a Goodyear tire maker and a salesman of church directories. In retirement, he is a self-taught Norman Rockwell-style painter of software, portraits. Both he and Ms. Shaner’s mother have college educations.

Ms. Shaner sometimes quarrels with her Puritanical father about overdue rent. But she has made paying the water and essays on locke electric bills a priority. She has seen other houses in the neighborhood go dark, and top essay writing software people without running water who have had to wear donated clothes until they are dirty and then throw them away. She does not want that to happen to them. She volunteers at her Nazarene church’s food pantry and used clothing bank, partly from the goodness of her heart and partly out of necessity. In exchange, she takes home extra food and clothing for her family. The food selection can be arbitrary; one week, they ate a lot of pepperoni and tomato sandwiches.

The suit jacket that Zac wears in the orchestra came from the charity. Ms. Phd Comics. Shaner’s sons see that going to writing college as she did is not a panacea. Steps Paper. She still needs food from the food pantry. As he considers college, Zac alternates between optimism and top essay writing anxiety.

He has received many fliers in the mail saying he is a “priority candidate” for community college, but he is determined to go to a four-year college despite his spotty school record. “I know it sounds like blown opportunities, but I know what I want,” he said. Is it living or just existing. If living means a mask. Is it dying or is phd comics thesis, it trying. If dying means taking it off. — lyrics by Zac Shaner, a.k.a. Top Essay Writing Software. Shane Wray. For Some Students, It's Hard to Imagine Life Away From Home.

Topeka High’s principal, Rebecca Morrisey, understands how hard it is for short fair, kids to visualize going to college out of state, or even leaving Topeka. Ms. Morrisey, who took over as principal this year, grew up on top essay writing software a farm in Atwood, a city of 1,200 people in northwest Kansas. When she first arrived in short on a visit book fair, Topeka, many years ago, it struck her as “a metropolis.” The first thing you notice when she walks into a room is how tall she is, six feet in flats. Being so tall was her ticket to top essay writing software becoming a basketball player and coach, and a first-generation college graduate. Her coaches helped her figure out how to phd comics thesis apply to college. She cobbled together academic and athletic scholarships and low-income grants to go to St. Mary of the Plains College in Dodge City, Kan. (The college has since closed.) Her three children did not stay close to writing home.

One runs a cytogenetic lab at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., another is in Boston training to be an architect and the third is a nurse-anesthetist in Kansas City, Kan. “I have kids on the east side who have never been to the mall on the west side,” Ms. Morrisey said. “I grew up that way. My grandparents were six miles and 10 miles from us. I didn’t get to Oklahoma until I was an adult. I didn’t get west of Denver.” Just persuading students that going away might be an option can be hard. To nudge them, Ms. Morrisey and Phillip Wrigley, one of the phd comics college prep teachers, arranged a trip the other week to Rockhurst University, a Jesuit institution in Kansas City, Mo., where Ms.

Morrisey coached basketball and Mr. Writing. Wrigley earned his master’s degree. As they walked through the lush, green campus, one of the seniors, Mya McFadden, a petite, spunky twin, told her teacher why she wanted to be a midwife. Steps A Research Paper. “I have a soft spot for teenage girls because my mom was 15 when she had me and her,” she said, gesturing toward her twin sister, Deja, walking next to them. Mr. Wrigley urged her to consider leaving Topeka. Being in Kansas City, at a place like Rockhurst, would open the door to software practicing medicine in how to make, some of the writing software most sophisticated academic medical centers in the country. “I’m going to say something snobby,” he said. “Stormont Vail is a good hospital, but it’s in Topeka.” “But I like Topeka,” Mya said. Topeka Schools Chief: ‘Our Mind-Sets Are the short to a book fair Barrier’ Topeka High was authorized during the Roaring Twenties and writing opened in 1931, in defiance of the Wall Street crash. Designed as a Gothic temple to education, it is still a high school out of Hollywood casting, so prized by its graduates that it has an on-site archivist, Joan Barker, a 1971 graduate, whose salary is paid by donations.

Yet its record of achievement does not match its lofty architecture. The percentage of students who graduate from high school hovers in the low 70s, compared with about 10 points higher nationally. After graduation, about 45 percent enroll in four-year colleges, and 17 percent in how to resume, community colleges, in line with the national average for top essay software, urban schools. The new superintendent of city schools, Tiffany Anderson, wants to eassay writting change that. She arrived in Topeka this summer from top essay software, Missouri, where she was the superintendent of the essays on locke Jennings School District. That district adjoins Ferguson, where the writing killing of an eassay writting unarmed black man by a police officer who said the man had fought for software, his gun propelled the Black Lives Matter movement to the national stage. (A grand jury declined to indict the a research paper officer.) She was hailed as Topeka’s first African-American female schools superintendent. When Dr. Writing. Anderson began working here, she found that the school system was using a popular program, Advancement Via Individual Determination, or AVID, to identify middle school students with college potential, and to groom them for essays on locke, college by encouraging them to top essay take honors courses and then advising them on the application process. The program has had mixed results across the country. She said she was bringing a tracking system to Topeka from Jennings, which will follow every senior by name and document whether they have applied to college or the military, how many applications they have filed, whether they filled out a financial aid form, their highest standardized test score, and whether they were ultimately accepted. In Missouri, Dr.

Anderson became known for community-building innovations like installing washers and dryers in school buildings so families could do their laundry. She has already made an impression in Topeka for frankenstein essay, rushing around in suits paired with white sneakers, accessorizing to match school colors, and refueling with Dr Pepper, a popular drink among Kansans, who pride themselves on being nonconformist. Dr. Anderson keeps an writing software apartment in Topeka, but drives home most nights to Overland Park, where her husband is an OB/GYN and surgeon. But the commute has shrunk to an hour, as opposed to four hours from Jennings. She is the resume general to the troops, issuing inspirational declarations like: “Money’s no barrier, because it’s really not. Top Essay Writing Software. Our mind-sets are the barrier.” The Pitch for Technical School Over a Four-Year College. The wood shop and the metal shop have been closed, but if you want to frankenstein a modern prometheus essay learn how to fix cars, Topeka High School’s legendary auto mechanics class is for you.

The shop is a car addict’s paradise. Writing Software. At the moment, students are cutting a car in half as part of a project to build a homemade electronics trainer, a learning tool for mechanics. They are also overhauling a go-kart and practicing their painting skills on a bus that will be redone in phd comics, black and top essay writing software gold, the school colors, and paraded at football games. At the beginning of senior year, the teacher, Dean Fairweather, a blues guitar player who looks like a Hells Angel and speaks with a strong British accent, brought in eassay writting, a pitchman from Universal Technical Institute to speak to the students, so they could see, Mr. Fairweather said, “that there’s more to life than flipping burgers.” It was a slick exposition, one of the most persuasive the students will hear on the pros and cons of technical school compared with a four-year college. The pitchman, in fancy cowboy boots and writing software belt buckle, presented the technical institute as, effectively, the Harvard of what he called the transportation industry.

After graduation, he told the students, they would be in demand everywhere from Porsche to a modern essay Nascar. He did the math. The average rent in Topeka is close to $600, he said. A minimum-wage job brings in, he figured, about $15,000 a year, $1,000 a month after taxes. After paying rent, you still need a phone, a car, utilities, groceries, food, fuel, furniture. “What are your options?” “Get a better job,” one boy replied. Top Essay. Bingo.

But a high school diploma is essays on locke, not enough, the representative said. Writing Software. “Having just a diploma is like telling an employer you can brush your own teeth.” The military is a “phenomenal choice,” if you make a career out of it, he added. A traditional college degree is one approach. “You will never learn too much,” he said. “You will never be too smart.” But, he argued, if you feel at phd comics thesis home in top essay software, the shop and want to go right into eassay writting a job, “do not waste your money.” Americans are overeducated for the jobs available, he told them. “If everybody went to college, there’s going to be a lot of unemployed people like there is — there is going to be a lot of people not working in their fields.” Nathan Triggs, one of the class stars, was in the front row, listening carefully. He took the trouble to talk to top essay software the rep, and they bonded over trucks. Nate signed up for a personal interview — to phd comics thesis keep his options open, he said. One Student’s Calculation: College vs. Trade School.

The knowledge Nate Triggs has gained from the farm may not be from books, but it is shaping his vision of top essay software, his future, and of what he could do after graduating from Topeka High if he gets a college education. He works construction with his father. One of his favorite projects was the hip roof that they built for his grandfather’s house. I had never heard of a hip roof, but when he took me to see it, I thought it looked like the kind of roof that Frank Lloyd Wright put on how to make his celebrated prairie houses. Nate had never heard of Frank Lloyd Wright.

But he nodded appreciatively at software the concept of a prairie house. His father’s farm, outside Holton, Kan., is prairie country. Nate’s experience working construction makes him think that if he goes to a four-year college, he would like to become an architect. He has done the thesis research, and top essay found that Kansas State University has a good architecture and engineering program. He is good at math, so he would like to short essay visit fair try there.

Or maybe he will become a game warden, he said. As a hunter, he has seen animals horrifically mutilated by other hunters. Writing. He would like to prevent that. In his family, they never kill wild animals wantonly, and they always eat what they kill. But he is also a good auto mechanic, and can envision working at the Ford dealership in town. Nate has been hunting and thesis fishing for writing, as long as he can remember catfish, bass, rabbits, raccoons, coyotes, deer, quail, turkeys, doves.

He knows all their quirks and habits. One recent morning, he loaded his Mossberg shotgun, put on his camouflage vest and headed out through his 80-acre family property with his hunting buddy, Tyler, to frankenstein a modern prometheus essay the cedar copse where the doves roost. Two dogs followed: his black dog, Lucky, who commutes with him from Topeka each weekend in his Chevy S-10 truck, and a yellow Labrador trained as a bird dog. Top Essay Software. It was near dawn. On the eassay writting horizon, Tyler saw a truck passing slowly on the highway and waved. “It’s loaded down with corn,” Tyler said. “It’s harvest time.” They could tell the doves by software, their distinctively angled wings, their quickness and their flight pattern, more soaring than flapping. Tyler took three shots, but Nate never raised his gun. He reminisced about how he once let three male turkeys strut right past him down a creek bed as he sat behind a ground blind, because he was holding out for deer. “I coulda smoked ’em,” he said. “I didn’t think they was quite big enough.”

It is a character trait, this perseverance, this willingness to wait. Isn’t that what college is short on a visit to a book fair, all about? Delayed gratification. College or trade school? He is weighing the benefits of each. “With technical school, you go in for top essay, what you go in for,” he said. “With four years of college, you expand your interests.” His grandmother Ann Matthews, a retired teacher, said it should be up to him. “He’s analytical, so I think he’ll make a good choice,” she said. “Everyone’s going to have crisp and nice new pants this year,” TaTy’Terria Gary told the group of about 20 girls gathered around her in frankenstein a modern prometheus essay, the second-floor hallway at Topeka High.

They are members of the step team, a dance group that performs at basketball games, and TaTy is speaking to them as their captain. “From now on, you are upstanding citizens,” TaTy said. “Don’t talk back to your teachers. Don’t be starting fights. Don’t be causing drama. And y’all better be on time.” She sees herself empowering girls who probably wouldn’t make the cheerleading squad. She does not ask the girls for more than she asks of top essay writing software, herself. When something needs to be done, TaTy does it, and it is eassay writting, that ability to put one foot in front of the other and keep moving forward, ignoring any obstacles, that seems to be moving her toward college.

When she needs help, she asks for it. Last Saturday, Oct. 22, was the day for college-bound Topeka High seniors to take the ACT, the standardized test favored by Midwestern colleges and universities. That day, TaTy got herself up, dressed and went to McDonald’s for a breakfast of sausage and cheese on a biscuit with grape jelly and top essay writing hash browns. She drove herself the half-hour to school in short visit to a, her used 1999 Chevrolet Tracker, and top essay had enough time to steps to writting a research paper socialize with classmates before the test. The science section was hard, she said; English was easier. She’ll find out her score in about two weeks. Meanwhile, she has filled out the Fafsa, the financial aid form, putting down parental income of under $18,000. She was excited when the financial aid calculator estimated that she could be entitled to nearly $11,000 a year in financial aid. “If I go to Oklahoma Baptist University, that will cover one-third of everything,” she said gleefully, naming one of the schools she is applying to. Her college-prep teacher, Jennifer Womack, has tried to give the seniors a sense of the cost of college beyond tuition, including extras like “Walmart runs,” drugstore supplies, gas, parking, and room and board.

TaTy has absorbed this lesson. One of the colleges she is interested in has free laundry, she said. But she is not worried about college debt. Software. She is certain that education is a good investment. She is to writting, counting on making enough money eventually as an obstetrician-gynecologist to pay off her college loans. “Let’s say I go into top essay private practice and earn $5,000 a kid,” she said. “That’s very profitable.” Getting Motivated to Seek That Degree. It was Saturday night, and Zac Shaner’s four-man band, Pegasi, was setting up at the Boobie Trap, a small, dark cave of phd comics thesis, a bar on software a sketchy stretch of Sixth Avenue in central Topeka. Zac plays bass guitar and sings in frankenstein a modern essay, the band. This night, his drummer, a finance major at Washburn University who wants to go into bankruptcy law, is the first person in the door, and writing begins setting up. “I can tell a lot about someone’s playing just by their attitude,” the drummer said. A Modern Prometheus Essay. “How they carry themselves.

How they act around people.” He joined the band because he was touched by Zac’s gentle personality. “I don’t really sense any form of ego with him,” he said. That sweetness and humility come across in Zac’s interactions with teachers, as well, and have endeared him to them even as they worry that he is not living up to his potential. Is it fear of failure? Perfectionism? They aren’t sure, but they want to help. He has so much charm and talent, they say. He is college material good college material if only he could be more consistent in top essay writing software, his schoolwork. “Talk to me, Zac,” Murray Moore, his business teacher, said to him at parent-teacher conferences the essays on locke other day. Zac is taking business class in the hope that he can use the knowledge he gains to promote his music and help his band.

His grades range from strings of 100s one week, when he is coming to school, to writing software rows of short on a visit book fair, zeros the next, when he is not. “He will pass,” Mr. Top Essay Software. Moore said. But he could be a star. Thesis. Zac explained that he goes through “cycles of motivation.” Part of his problem is psychological, he said: “When everybody’s on my back and forcing me to do things, I want not to do it. When people say it’s up to me, I want to succeed.” Mr. Top Essay Writing Software. Moore listened, then told Zac’s worried mother, Charla, “He has to help himself.” Clearly uncomfortable with the visit discussion, Zac tried to change the subject. Top Essay Writing Software. “Is that a Jerry Garcia tie?” he asked, looking at his teacher’s neckwear. He has one at essays on locke home, he said.

“It’s Stacy Adams,” Mr. Top Essay. Moore replied. Then warming to the subject, he tried to turn the question into make a homily on positive thinking. Mr. Writing. Moore was an assistant basketball coach for a losing team, he said.

He told himself that every time the how to make team won, he would treat himself to a new tie. The team turned itself around and was 19-4. “That got expensive,” he said, but he persisted. The moral of the writing software story: “You’ve got to eassay writting invest in you and in what you do.” “He likes ties,” Ms. Shaner said. “It’s not about the tie,” Mr. Moore said. “You could buy a new set of picks. Software. Reward yourself. What you need is a Yates banjo or a Scheerhorn dobro.”

Zac grinned shyly. “I’m telling you, I know a thing or two,” Mr. Moore said. He reached for a modern, a business card from a pile on the table. “You got my card. You call if you need help.

You want to come to software class, you are always welcome.” What Is a College Education Worth? As they look to graduation, many Topeka High seniors are debating the how to make value of a college education. Is it worth their while to go to software a four-year institution? Or should they choose a two-year degree, technical school or the essays on locke work force instead? From an economic point of view, studies show there is little contest: The pay gap between people with four-year college degrees and everyone else is top essay software, bigger than ever. That gap has been growing since the visit to a book fair 1980s, according to an analysis by the Economic Policy Institute, not so much because wages for college graduates have risen, but because the top essay writing average wage for everyone else has fallen.

“If there is class mobility in America, it exists through the vehicle of education,” Sean C. Bird, an associate dean at Washburn University, a public university in Topeka, said the other day. Mr. Bird focuses on retaining first-generation and disadvantaged students at the college. College is transformational, he added. “They walk differently, they dress differently, they think differently, they talk differently,” after going to college, he said. Beyond the economics, proponents of college education point out that there is value in loving to learn, and in knowing how to how to resume learn. The market value of a college degree may be less tangible than the value of technical certification in a field like welding or auto mechanics, but college advocates say there is strength in versatility.

“You will be employable on top essay writing software the day you graduate, but it’s impossible to say what you’re going to do,” said E. Whitney Soule, dean of admissions and financial aid at Bowdoin College, a small, highly selective liberal arts college in Brunswick, Me. “Because the exposure in those four years is so broad that the steps a research possibilities will be incredibly broad. It will take the student’s experience and motivation to top essay software nail down what this will look like.” But, she added, “It can feel insecure if it doesn’t have a salary attachment and format a guarantee of a particular job.” That conflict between knowing right away what the future holds and software being willing — and how to make format perhaps able — to top essay assume some risk is to writting paper, exactly what the Topeka seniors are facing. Many of the best students will take that risk, move to more vibrant urban areas and never look back. “On the whole, Kansas is top essay writing software, facing a brain drain,” said Alan Bearman, a Washburn dean who works with Mr. Bird in helping keep students in college. “Some of our very top-achieving students leave after high school, and they don’t come back.” For those who stay, the goal after high school can be very practical. Phd Comics. “We’re looking at the next generation of Topeka police officers, attorneys and teachers,” Mr. Bird said.

In mid-October, some of the students here attended a fair given by Washburn Institute of writing software, Technology, the tech school in eassay writting, town. The parking lot was full of pickup trucks and 4x4s. Each presentation, in fields like construction, technology and health care, was crafted to writing give prospective students a precise sense of the wages they would make on essays on locke the day they graduated, and the companies that would be likely to hire them. In computer science, for instance, the teacher told them they would make $15 to writing software $20 an hour in their first year after graduation. If they learned to operate an excavator, they were told, they could make up to $22 an essays on locke hour. For a machinist, common starting wages ranged from top essay writing software, $12 to $17.

For masons, $15, “If you’re union,” the phd comics thesis teacher said, adding, “It’s a little bit labor intensive, but not like you’re out bucking bales of hay. That’s work. This is writing software, fun.” Data show that the frankenstein a modern prometheus essay average hourly wage for college graduates rose slightly to about $32.60 over the last decade, double the wage for top essay, everyone else. A few days later, the seniors took WorkKeys, a test to measure basic job readiness skills, and then filed into essays on locke the auditorium for a mandatory manufacturing presentation. Top Essay Writing Software. They were told that local factories for companies like Mars chocolate and Frito-Lay were looking for people who were at least 18 with a high school diploma and who could “show up to work on time” and be “part of a team.” “Does making between $13 and eassay writting $19 an hour sound good to you?” one of the presenters asked. But an edge of near-desperation often crept into the presenters’ voices. They knew it was an uphill battle to attract students who could show up to top essay writing software work on frankenstein time, let alone the best and writing brightest. “Sometimes young kids think about thesis manufacturing as a last resort,” Michelle Waggoner, a human resources manager at Mars, said after the presentation. “We don’t want them to view it as a last resort.” Missed Deadlines Complicate the writing Quest for Higher Education. Was it perfectionism?

Fear of failure? Or just teenage disorganization? It could have been any or all of those things, but the bottom line was that somehow, both Zac Shaner and a modern essay Nathan Triggs flubbed taking the ACT test for college admission in October. Zac, the software musician, who has a habit of staying up late, managed to overcome his problem of oversleeping. At 6:30 a.m. on test day, he popped up from the short on a fair living room couch where he usually sleeps, and woke his mother, Charla. She made him breakfast. Writing Software. But an hour later, just as they should have been leaving for Topeka High, where the test was being given, he had a sneezing attack. When he couldn’t stop, he decided not to take the test, for fear of disturbing other students and hurting their scores.

“Right as we were about to how to resume leave, I started getting really bad allergies,” Zac said the next day. “Even after I took some allergy pills, I was still sneezing. I felt it wouldn’t be responsible for me to top essay software go sneezing like that. People would be distracted.” So ignoring his mother’s entreaties, he went back to sleep. Nathan’s problem was different. A few days before the a research paper test, he was closing some tabs on his computer screen when he realized that he had never pressed the final button to register for the ACT. Top Essay. He had filled out the form, but never submitted the payment in his case a waiver allowing him to eassay writting take the test free because of software, financial need.

“It was a freak accident,” he said later. It was too late even to pay the late fee. So he registered to take the steps a research paper test in December. “It kinda sucks,” Nathan said. Their classmate TaTy’Terria Gary woke up, got breakfast at McDonald’s and arrived at Topeka High in time to take the top essay writing test, a sign of her disciplined approach to thesis life.

She is the captain of the step team, holds down an after-school job and has a 3.7 grade point average. Her top college choice at the moment is Oklahoma Baptist University, because she wants to go somewhere with a spiritual component. TaTy, who hopes to become a doctor, said she believed spirituality was important for mental and physical health. “I can’t really make it to top essay writing software church on Sundays because I work,” she said. To Writting Paper. “I like to be around people who have faith. One of my pet peeves is that you have to believe in writing software, something, even if you believe that we were birthed from the stars and phd comics thesis the moon. I feel like believing in something helps you strive, helps you be a better person, because you are working toward a goal. Even if you believe in yourself, that’s O.K.” TaTy’s belief in herself has helped her stay organized throughout the college search. And what happened to the boys shows how indecision, passivity and self-doubt can make an extraordinarily complex process even more daunting. Students must meet all sorts of deadlines for tests and applications, as well as make decisions about a future that may be hard to imagine, not to mention pay application fees and begin to come to terms with the ultimate cost. Nathan has support from writing, his college-prep teacher, and short visit to a book Zac from a sympathetic counselor.

Still, with parents who are cheerleaders but do not have the experience, time and money to drag them through the process, it was easy for things to writing software go wrong. Such mistakes are fairly common, and the boys can still recover, said Paul Weeks, senior vice president of client relations at essays on locke ACT and a former admissions dean at Ripon College in Wisconsin. He added that Zac’s “really strong score” of 27 the software first time he took the test (without any commercial test prep) and other qualities, like his musical talent and his writing ability he had a 33 out of 36 on the English section of the test could propel him into to writting a research paper all but the most selective colleges. A little over half of top essay writing software, students who retake the test improve their scores, but by just one point on average, Mr. Weeks said. His advice to Nathan was to call the colleges he is eassay writting, most interested in and explain what happened. “My advice is always to contact the schools rather than speculate or make assumptions” about top essay writing how they would react to a delayed ACT score, Mr. Weeks said. Zac consoled himself that it was just as well that he did not take the test, because he hadn’t studied for it.

But he knows that raising his score would help his chances of essays on locke, receiving scholarship aid. Both boys have somewhat solidified their plans. Zac said he would aim to go to top essay writing Washburn University, a public institution in make format, Topeka, for the first year or so, where his family’s low income might qualify him for writing, a free ride. He would live at home and return to work at Mike’s IGA stocking, bagging groceries and running the cash register. Once he had enough money saved, he would transfer to the University of steps to writting paper, Denver or the University of Central Missouri to study sound engineering. But he would still want to stay fairly close to home, in top essay software, case his mother or older brother needed him. “I want to get out and explore,” Zac said. “But I don’t want to be too far, so I could come back in prometheus, an emergency.” In English class, Zac wrote a college essay about rebelling against his mother’s religious beliefs, and against his conservative upbringing. “The day I denounced my religion, the day I made my mother cry, was the day I decided to live,” he wrote.

His teacher called it “powerful” in a margin note. But Washburn does not require an essay. He has filled out the Common Application, but that also seems like an empty exercise. “They say that more than 700 colleges accept the Common App,” he said, quoting the website. “But it seems like not the top essay writing software ones I’m interested in.” None of the people he knows at Topeka High are applying to private universities. “There’s always the kids who get 4.0s and perfect ACT scores, and numerous letters and short essay on a visit to a fair accolades,” Zac said. Writing Software. “I’m not sure what their plans are, college-wise. I think some of how to make resume format, them might go straight for the Ivy League.” His teachers all say he has spark.

Did he ever think of trying to get into top essay writing a small, liberal arts college out of state? “I look at a lot of these schools that are out of reach right now, and my spark is intimidated,” he replied. Nathan is thinking of Allen Community College, a short drive from Topeka, as his “safety” application; Washburn University as his “best fit,” because his stepmother works there and could get him a tuition discount; and eassay writting Kansas State as his “stretch,” because, he said, it is known for its engineering and architecture programs. He does not have any brand-name colleges outside Kansas on his list, and neither do most of his classmates. Today, Phillip Wrigley and Jennifer Womack, who teach the college prep classes that TaTy and Nathan are in top essay writing, (Zac is in a gifted track), will be asking them for format, proof that they have filed some college applications by the priority deadline of Nov. Software. 1 perhaps a screenshot of a confirmation email.

Soon they will be buffing their essays, because even if they are not needed to apply to steps to writting a research paper most local colleges, they will be needed to apply for software, scholarships. The kids will also be learning the intricacies of financial aid. Mr. Wrigley said the students thought about college in how to make, a practical way. Top Essay Software. “I think they are thinking about cost,” he said. “They are thinking about feasibility, about what’s going to fit for me. Essays On Locke. They’re very much pragmatists when it comes to college.”

Yet the other day in class, Nathan was pondering an intangible benefit that college could offer. He asked his study group to help him understand the concept of social capital, which had come up in top essay software, government, his favorite class. “What’s a network?” the teacher, Mr. Wrigley, asked, as Nathan wrote the word on a whiteboard. “A community,” Nathan replied. “What defines a community?” “I have no clue of the definition,” Nathan said. “But I can tell when something is.” Eventually, the students arrived at essays on locke the concept of building social capital through dinner parties, mentors, knowledge and connections.

The teacher told them that was what they were doing in class. It’s also something they would do in college.

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Comparison: State Income Tax, Oregon vs. Florida. Income Tax, Oregon vs Florida, Comparison and Analysis Income tax, as defined by thefreedictionary. com, is “A charge imposed by government on the annual gains of a person, corporation, or other taxable unit derived through work, business pursuits, investments, property dealings, and other sources determined in accordance with the Internal Revenue Code or state law. ” In layman’s terms, Income tax is money taken out of writing someone’s pay and given to the government, state, federal, or in some cases both. Some special exceptions apply, but in the states being covered in this essay, being Florida and Oregon, those exceptions will not bother us as of right now, although we will look at them later as a point of comparison. Today we are asking ourselves why Florida has no income tax, but Oregon does. We will look over some things such as basic tax laws, other tax laws and regulations in the state regarding similar matters. Eassay Writting! We will also mozy on over to some population and citizen facts and trends, and relate them to why the government in each state has set up taxes the way they have. In the end we will come to a conclusion on top essay software why states do what they do, and frankenstein prometheus, whether that is a good thing or not. Let’s first delve into writing, the origins of income tax and the origination in a research paper, the United States.

One of the first income taxes was passed in late 18th century Britain. It was a very small tax at . 08% of income for those making ? 60 and up and it moved up to 10% for anyone lucky enough to make a living of over top essay writing software, ? 200. This was the inspiration for to writting paper, the tax proposal during the War of 1812 to provide the government with extra income. The war ended less than a year after the tax was proposed so it was never appointed. Working class as defined by thefreedictionary. com is “The socioeconomic class consisting of people who work for wages, especially low wages, including unskilled and semiskilled laborers and their families. ” This is writing, generally referred to if you were to turn into political debates or discussions, on how things will affect the working class, and how the candidates will want to a modern, please the working class, blue collar Americans. Top Essay Software! Generally working class Americans work at basic or low level jobs, i. e. ones you wouldn’t need to take college or any paid training to do. Some examples would be Cashier, Warehouse worker, Criminal Henchman… okay maybe not that last one. Anyways, if you happen to be one of these people and found your current residence in essay on a to a fair, the beautiful state of Oregon, you may find a not so beautiful state level income tax on top essay software each paycheck, coming out at 9. 0%, given you are making somewhere in-between 7,750 and 125,000 dollars per essays on locke, year. 9 Cents to software, the dollar of your earned wages goes to the state government, not to mention a federal rate of 10-28% depending where you fall on that same scale.

Although that is on a visit book fair, a large percentage, we are looking solely at state income tax. Corporations have also had an income tax since 1955. Top Essay Writing! Florida, comparably, has a slightly smaller number, being 0% state income tax, although federal is the same across the board. Although Florida does has corporate income tax, being 5%, instituted in 1971. How To Make Resume Format! Florida also had a ‘intangible property tax’ but that has been revoked since 2007. Immediately when you are presented with this information, you will think: “What is different about Oregon and Florida, and software, will affect decision making about resume format state income tax? First off, let me congratulate you on your ability to think the exact same way my essay coheres to. Secondly, what is an answer? Population! Income tax is only collected on officially recorded income, so what does that have to do with individuals? Whether they work or not.

Florida has a population with higher-than-average retirement rate. About 17. 3% of Florida’s 18+ million residents are retired, which is 65 years or older, which is top essay writing software, generally considered to be the age one quits ‘working’ or employment. This is steps a research paper, compared to Oregon with only 13. 9% of its 3. million citizens being retired. Along with that, the average age of a Floridian is around 2 and a half years older (38. Top Essay Software! 7) than that of an Oregonian (36. 3).

These states, presented in percentages, may seem insignificant in difference, but presented with raw numbers, they seem much more intimidating. Florida, at 17. 3% or 18 million is estimated at being filled with 3. 11 million retirees. Resume! That’s nearly the population of Oregon. Let’s be glad not everyone in oregon is 65 or older, although it’d be quite a good investment opportunity for retirement centers.

Anyways, with nearly 2 in software, 10 people being retired, and therefore not bringing in income, Florida is already sounding like one smart cookie of a state. Let’s further it buy bringing up some other facts. Florida has an unemployment rate of 11. Essays On Locke! 5%, or around 2. 1 million people. Between the unemployed and retirees, Florida has over 5. 2 million of its 18 million not bringing in any wages, and therefore not giving the writing, state any income tax. Although Florida has more retired people, the average wage of an Oregonian, being 35,500 dollars, is lower than Florida, at 39,000 dollars. Over 2. 5 million people in eassay writting, Florida are also on food stamps, which is a state funded program that allows unfortunate people and top essay writing, families to purchase food to prepare. This is another good sign Florida isn’t instating an income tax because the taxes collected would surely be directly sent back through programs such as these. This brings forward another point, Florida has a sales tax, or a tax which is imposed on purchasable and rentable goods and physical property, as well as special services.

Medications requiring a prescription are also not taxed. Tax is only made on retail sales, for example if you bought something at essays on locke a store, then sold it to top essay software, a neighbor, you would not collect sales tax and send it to the government. If you were however, to purchase an item, then sell it back to a retailer, they would sell it and charge sales tax for a second time. Pawn shops and Used car dealerships are great examples a multiple taxed item. The general rate is 6%. As with many states, Florida also has Sales Tax Holidays. What this means is steps a research, during certain times of the year, particular items are priced with discounted tax or no tax at all, although the latter is top essay writing software, more rare. Eassay Writting! Such holidays and items would include things similar to writing software, school supplies in the days before school starts. Short Visit To A Book Fair! With so many people on food stamps, it would be smart to have a sales tax when food stamps are used to purchase food, because usually basic foods such as milk, bread and other groceries aren’t taxed or are taxed less because they are considered ‘necessities’ compared to software, prepared food such as McDonalds or food repared at a restaurant. Format! If they had sales tax, not to mention they were being paid for by food stamps, the government would be ‘recycling’ money, or basically handing it to the person, which they would then spend and be taxed on, and that is ineffective compared to just taxing goods where people would spend their own income and top essay software, the government would collect on that rather. This is different than say Oregon, who has no sales tax, except in special cases, such as Ashland which charges 5% prepared food tax.

This works for Oregon because they have a instituted income tax, and no sales tax. This way, as long as you make wages, Oregon doesn’t care how you spend them, because they have already collected your money! Collective tax revenue forwards these arguments. All forms of taxes resulted in a gross revenue of steps paper 5. 76% of writing software a person’s income from Oregon. Florida had 5. 03%.

Although Florida is lower, given the fact that the eassay writting, population is much larger, much more money was made. Again referencing the income of a Floridian being around 3,500 more dollars, with the added fact of top essay software a larger population group, the money could be considered evened out. Steps To Writting! 5. 03% of a Floridians income would amount to writing software, about 1,960 dollars, where Oregon’s 5. 6% amounts to 2,072 Dollars. So while being different by . 7%, which is a big difference when you’re talking about the millions of people and even more money, the total difference only being around 100 dollars total tax revenue per capita is pretty significant considering the stats we’ve been shown. With this, we briefly observe labor laws.

Until 2004, Florida had no minimum wage law. This means it would have been very hard to implement an a modern prometheus essay income tax. Also could be considered unjust, given the top essay, fact that the government could decide how much you must pay of your earned wages whilst not making mandatory to earn a minimum wage of any sort. Once the law was established, however, it was also done so with a notice that it would be adjusted annually based on inflation. Potentially we could see an income tax initiated in eassay writting, the Sunshine State, but it is unlikely with the current working taxes as they are. Next we can look at a bit of history with the states and software, taxes. Oregon instituted its first tax in 1844, being a property tax. In 1929, Oregon implemented an income tax, for two main reasons, to spread taxes more equally over residents, and to give some relief to a research, those paying heavy property taxes. On average, Oregon receives over 70% of its tax revenue from software income tax. Property tax is still around, and makes about the same amount of money as income tax, but around half of phd comics it is given to top essay, school systems and public education.

Corporate income tax often makes small fractions of resume format what regular does, being in the low hundred millions, compared to a couple billion in income tax. Florida, on the other hand, does not have income tax, rather sales tax as we have talked about. In 1949, Florida implemented its first sales tax. It had a base rate of 3%. This lasted until 1968, when it was bumped up to 4%. This rate remained until 1982, when it was increased again to top essay software, 5%. And as of February first, 1988, the tax base rate has been 6% of resume total sale. Farm equipment, however, has held another rate, being 2% from writing software 1963-68, and essays on locke, then being put up to 3% from 1968 to 2001, when it was decreased to 2. 5%, but four years later in top essay writing, 2005 it was decreased to 0% and stands that way today.

Florida also has different tax rates based on counties surcharge tax, for steps to writting, things such as living costs, tourists development, and local administration costs. These differ in time ranges, rates, and longevity. Software! So, is it necessarily a good or bad thing for phd comics thesis, these different states to have separate tax systems and rates in place? Well the writing, answer is, there is no real answer. Different systems work for steps a research, different people and places, and surely there are always optimizations that could be made, but in top essay software, reality there is not and will likely never be a ‘perfect’ tax system. Money needs to frankenstein, come from somewhere and taxes are a way to do it, but like I said earlier most people don’t enjoy seeing a tax rise, even though it could rationally be deemed necessary. Oregon works with its income tax because it was implemented to counter high property taxes, and top essay software, sales tax was never made because these two tax systems were already in existence and eassay writting, serving the state well. Income tax again brings in over 70% or the top essay software, annual tax revenue for the state of Oregon. Frankenstein A Modern Prometheus Essay! Florida finds different success given a different population spread giving them more advantages earning taxes from everyone who spends money compared to everyone who earns money. Given the software, fact that Florida is essays on locke, often a hot spot for top essay software, tourists or even international travelers, sales tax proves effective because it earns money from people even just visiting from phd comics thesis other states, whereas the extra products sold would result in no additional income otherwise. This makes sense for Florida compared to Oregon, because Oregon would not really considered a tourism state that states like Florida or California may be seen as.

Also we take into top essay software, consideration professional sports teams. To Writting! Oregon has the Portland Trailblazers, NBA, the software, Portland Timbers, MLS, and that’s about it. Florida however have a multitude of teams, being the NFL trio of Miami Dolphins, Jacksonville Jaguars, and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, the NBA teams consisting of the Orlando Magic and Miami Heat, the MLB with Miami Marlins and Tampa Bay Rays, and lastly NHL Hockey teams being Florida Panthers and the Tampa Bay Lightning. Given the fact Florida has 9 major league sports teams, you can imagine the essays on locke, sales in software, tickets, hotels, restaurants, merchandise, and other sports related events. Steps To Writting! One game sporting 20,000+ attendees depending on the venue can generate millions overnight in top essay writing software, the economy in and around the sporting venue. Granted both Portland teams can do the same but even assuming each franchise can bring in essays on locke, that type of money, Florida is up 9-to-2 and has a sales tax that can apply to many, many things being purchased around game time. In conclusion, although you cannot say which state is necessarily ‘better’ in regard to taxes and writing software, tax systems, you can easily see that each state has the system it best sees fit to support the make resume, government and economy. “Department of Revenue: Newsroom History Statistics about Oregon Taxes. ” Department of Revenue: Newsroom History Statistics about Oregon Taxes. Web.

08 June 2012. http://www. oregon. gov/dor/NEWS/Pages/feature. aspx. “Florida Department of software Revenue. ” Welcome to essays on locke, the Web Site. Web. 08 June 2012. http://dor. myflorida. com/dor/. History of State and Local Taxes. ” Revenuelaw. state. fl. us. Top Essay Software! Fl. gov. Web. 7 June 2012. https://revenuelaw. state. fl. us/LawLibraryDocuments/2012/06/OTH-110528_History%20of%20sales%20tax,%206-01-12. pdf. “Florida Department of Revenue. ” FL Dept Rev. 02 Jan. 2007. Web. 05 June 2012. http://dor. myflorida. com/dor/tips/tip07c02-01. html Sapia, Jason, and Joseph Henchman. Essays On Locke! “Local Income Taxes: City- and County-Level Income and Wage Taxes Continue to Wane. ” Tax Foundation.

Taxfoundation. org, 31 Aug. 2011. Web. Writing Software! 05 June 2012. http://taxfoundation. rg/article/local-income-taxes-city-and-county-level-income-and-wage-taxes-continue-wane “Income Tax. ” TheFreeDictionary. com. Web. 07 June 2012. http://legal-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/Income Tax “State Individual Income Tax Rates, 2000-2012. ” Tax Foundation. Web. 07 June 2012. http://taxfoundation. org/article/state-individual-income-tax-rates-2000-2012. “2012 State Tax Rates Exemptions. ” Oregon Income Tax Rates and Tax Brackets, 2011-2012.

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