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Essay on pamela; or virtue rewarded, by samuel richardson

Essays on pamela samuel richardson

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Samuel Richardson Pamela Essays - Viviendosolo

body writing Toward an Understanding of essays on pamela samuel, l'Écriture féminine. Ann Rosalind Jones. France is today the essayer, scene of feminisms. The Mouvement de libération des femmes (MLF) grows every year, but so do the samuel richardson, factions within it: feminist journals carry on bitter debates, a group of women writers boycotts a feminist publishing house, French women at conferences in short essay, the United States contradict each other's positions at essays on pamela top volume (Monique Wittig to Hélène Cixous: Ceci est un scandale!). But in 451 thesis, the realm of theory, the French share a deep critique of the modes through which the West has claimed to discern evidence--or reality--and a suspicion concerning efforts to change the position of women that fail to address the forces in the body, in the unconscious, in the basic structures of culture that are invisible to the empirical eye. On Pamela Richardson. Briefly, French feminists in general believe that Western thought has been based on a systematic repression of women's experience. Thus their assertion of a bedrock female nature makes sense as a point from people's mentality which to deconstruct language, philosophy, psychoanalysis, the social practices, and essays richardson, the direction of patriarchal culture as we live in and democracy, and resist it.

This position, the turn to féminité as a challenge to male--centered thinking, has stirred up curiosity and set off resonances among American feminists, who are increasingly open to theory, to philosophical, psychoanalytic, and samuel, Marxist critiques of masculinist ways of seeing the world. (Speakers at recent U.S. feminist conferences have, indeed, been accused of being too theoretical.) And it seems to futur, me that it is essays samuel richardson, precisely through theory that some of the positions of the French feminists need to be questioned--as they have been in France since the beginnings of the MLF. My intention, then, is to short essay on save save life, pose some questions about the essays on pamela richardson, theoretical consistency and (yes, they can't be repressed!) the practical and political implications of French discussions and celebrations of the feminine. For if one posits that female subjectivity is derived from women's physiology and bodily instincts as they affect sexual experience and the unconscious, both theoretical and practical problems can and do arise. The four French women I will discuss here--Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, Hélène Cixous, and Monique Wittig--share a common opponent, masculinist thinking; but they envision different modes of resisting and moving beyond it. Their common ground is an analysis of Western culture as fundamentally oppressive, as phallogocentric. I am the fahrenheit 451 thesis, unified, self-controlled center of the universe, man (white, European, and ruling-class) has claimed. The rest of the on pamela samuel richardson, world, which I define as the Other, has meaning only in relation to me, as man/father, possessor of the and democracy, phallus. l This claim to centrality has been supported not only by religion and philosophy but also by language. To speak and especially to write from essays samuel richardson such a position is to people's, appropriate the world, to essays on pamela samuel, dominate it through verbal mastery. Symbolic discourse (language, in various contexts) is another means through which man objectifies the world, reduces it to his terms, speaks in place of everything and conjugation futur, everyone else--including women. How, then, are the Institutions and signifying practices (speech, writing, images, myths, and rituals) of such a culture to be resisted?

These French women agree that resistance does take place in the form of jouissance , that is, in the direct reexperience of the physical pleasures of infancy and of later sexuality, repressed but not obliterated by the Law of the Father. 2 Kristeva stops here; but Irigaray and Cixous go on to emphasize that women, historically limited to essays on pamela, being sexual objects for men (virgins or prostitutes, wives or mothers), have been prevented from expressing their sexuality in itself or for themselves. If they can do this, and if they can speak about my college essay it in the new languages it calls for, they will establish a point of view (a site of différence ) from which phallogocentric concepts and controls can be seen through and taken apart, not only in theory but also in practice. Essays Richardson. Like Cixous, Wittig has produced a number of textes féminins , but she insists that the theory and practice of my college is too, féminité must be focused on women among themselves, rather than on their divergence from men or from men's views of them. From a joint attack on phallogocentrism, then, these four writers move to various strategies against it. Julia Kristeva, a founding member of the essays on pamela richardson, semiotic-Marxist journal Tel Quel , and the author of several books on avant-garde writers, language, and philosophy, finds in psychoanalysis the essay, concept of the bodily drives that survive cultural pressures toward sublimation and surface in what she calls semiotic discourse: the essays on pamela samuel, gestural, rhythmic, prereferential language of such writers as Joyce, Mallarmé, and Artaud. 3 These men, rather than giving up their blissful infantile fusion with their mothers, their orality and anality, reexperience such jouissances subconsciously and set them into play by constructing texts against the rules and regularities of conventional language. How do women fit into this scheme of semiotic liberation? Indirectly, as mothers, because they are the first love objects from which the child is typically separated and turned away in bell black women feminist, the course of essays samuel richardson, his initiation into society. In fact, Kristeva sees semiotic discourse as an incestuous challenge to the symbolic order, asserting as it does the writer's return to the pleasures of his preverbal identification with his mother and his refusal to identify with his father and people's, the logic of paternal discourse.

Women, for Kristeva, also speak and write as hysterics, as outsiders to samuel, male-dominated discourse, for two reasons: the essayer conjugation, predominance in them of drives related to anality and childbirth, and their marginal position vis-a-vis masculine culture. Their semiotic style is likely to involve repetitive, spasmodic separations from the dominating discourse, which, more often, they are forced to imitate. 4. Kristeva doubts, however, whether women should aim to work out alternative discourses. She sees certain liberatory potentials in their marginal position, which is (admirably) unlikely to produce a fixed, authority-claiming subject/ speaker or language: In social, sexual and symbolic experiences, being a woman has always provided a means to another end, to becoming something else: a subject-in-the-making, a subject on trial. Rather than formulating a new discourse, women should persist in challenging the discourses that stand: If women have a role to play . it is only in assuming a negative function: reject everything finite, definite, structured, loaded with meaning, in the existing state of on pamela, society.

Such an attitude places women on the side of the explosion of social codes: with revolutionary movements. Hooks Black Women Shaping Essay. 5 In fact, woman to Kristeva represents not so much a sex as an attitude, any resistance to conventional culture and language; men, too, have access to the jouissance that opposes phallogocentrism: A feminist practice can only be . at samuel richardson odds with what already exists so that we may say that's not it and that's still not it. By woman I mean that which cannot be represented, what is not said, what remains above and beyond nomenclatures and on absolutism, ideologies. On Pamela Samuel Richardson. There are certain men who are familiar with this phenomenon. For Luce Irigaray, on the contrary, women have a specificity that distinguishes them sharply from men. A psychoanalyst and former member of l'École freudienne at the University of essay, Paris (Vincennes), she was fired from essays on pamela richardson her teaching position in the fall of 1974, three weeks after the publication of her study of the phallocentric bias in Freud. Speculum de l'autre femme is this study, a profound and wittily sarcastic demonstration of the ways in which Plato and Freud define woman: as irrational and invisible, as imperfect (castrated) man. In later essays she continues her argument that women, because they have been caught in a world structured by man-centered concepts, have had no way of knowing or representing themselves. But she offers as the starting point for a female self-consciousness the facts of women's bodies and women's sexual pleasure, precisely because they have been so absent or so misrepresented in male discourse. Women, she says, experience a diffuse sexuality arising, for example, from the two lips of the vulva, and a multiplicity of is too short, libidinal energies that cannot be expressed or understood within the identity-claiming assumptions of phallocentric discourse (I am a unified, coherent being, and what is significant in on pamela, the world reflects my male image). 7 Irigaray argues further that female sexuality explains women's problematic relationship to (masculine) logic and language: Woman has sex organs just about everywhere.

She experiences pleasure almost everywhere. The geography of conjugation futur, her pleasure is much more diversified, more multiple in its differences, more complex, more subtle, than is imagined-in an imaginary [system] centered a bit too much on essays on pamela samuel richardson, one and bell feminist theory essay, the same. She is infinitely other in herself. That is on pamela samuel, undoubtedly the hooks women shaping feminist theory essay, reason she is called temperamental, incomprehensible, perturbed, capricious-not to richardson, mention her language in which she goes off in all directions and in which he is unable to essay on save save life, discern the coherence of any meaning. Contradictory words seem a little crazy to on pamela, the logic of reason, and inaudible for him who listens with ready-made grids, a code prepared in advance. In her statements-at least when she dares to speak out-woman retouches herself constantly. 8. Irigaray concedes that women's discovery of their autoeroticism will not, by itself, arrive automatically or enable them to transform the essay people's mentality, existing order: For a woman to arrive at the point where she can enjoy her pleasure as a woman, a long detour by on pamela richardson the analysis of the essay, various systems that oppress her is certainly necessary. 9 Irigaray herself writes essays using Marxist categories to analyze men's use and exchange of essays on pamela samuel richardson, women, and in others she uses female physiology as a source of critical metaphors and counterconcepts (against physics, pornography, Nietzsche's misogyny, myth), 10 rather than literally.

Yet her focus on essayer conjugation, the physical bases for the difference between male and physical sexuality remains the same: women must recognize and assert their jouissance if they are to on pamela samuel, subvert phallocentric oppression at its deepest levels. Since 1975, when she founded women's studies at Vincennes, Hé1ène Cixous has been a spokeswoman for the group Psychanalyse et politique and a prolific writer of texts for their publishing house, Des Femmes. She admires, like Kristeva, male writers such as Joyce and Genet who have produced antiphallocentric texts. 11 But she is convinced that women's unconscious is totally different from conjugation futur men's, and that it is their psychosexual specificity that will empower women to essays on pamela samuel richardson, overthrow masculinist ideologies and to create new female discourses. Of her own writing she says, Je suis là où ça parle (A am there where it/id/the female unconscious speaks). 12 She has produced a series of analyses of women's suffering under the laws of male sexuality (the first-person narrative Angst , the play Portrait de Dora , the libretto for the opera Le Nom d'Oedipe ) and a growing collection of demonstrations of short environment save, what id-liberated female discourses might be: La , Ananké , and Illa . In her recent Vivre l'orange (1979), she celebrates the Brazilian writer Clarice Lispector for what she sees as a peculiarly female attentiveness to objects, the ability to perceive and represent them in essays on pamela samuel richardson, a nurturing rather than dominating way. She believes that this empathetic attentiveness, and the literary modes to which it gives rise, arise from libidinal rather than sociocultural sources; the typically feminine gesture, not culturally but libidinally, [is] to produce in order to essay people's, bring about life, pleasure, not in order to samuel richardson, accumulate. 13.

Cixous criticizes psychoanalysis for its thesis of a 'natural' anatomical determination of sexual difference-opposition, focusing on physical drives rather than body parts for her definition of essay mentality, male-female contrasts: It is at the level of sexual pleasure in essays, my opinion that the difference makes itself most clearly apparent in as far as woman's libidinal economy is neither identifiable by a man nor referrable to the masculine economy. Essay On Absolutism And Democracy. 14 In her manifesto for l'écriture féminine , The Laugh of the Medusa (1975), her comparisons and lyricism suggest that she admires in women a sexuality that is remarkably constant and almost mystically superior to the phallic single-mindedness it transcends: Though masculine sexuality gravitates around the penis, engendering that centralized body (in political anatomy) under the dictatorship of its parts, woman does not bring about the same regionalization which serves the couple head/genitals and which is essays samuel, inscribed only within boundaries. Her libido is cosmic, just as her unconscious is worldwide. She goes on immediately, in terms close to Irigaray's, to link women's diffuse sexuality to women's language-written language, in this case: Her writing can only keep going, without ever inscribing or discerning contours. She lets the other language speak-the language of 1,000 tongues which knows neither enclosure nor death. Her language does not contain, it carries; it does not hold back, it makes possible. The passage ends with her invocation of other bodily drives (pulsions in the French) in a continuum with women's self-expression. Oral drive, anal drive, vocal drive-all these drives are our strengths, and essay, among them is the gestation drive-just like the essays on pamela richardson, desire to write: a desire to live self from within, a desire for 451 thesis the swollen belly, for language, for on pamela samuel richardson blood. 15. In her theoretical and imaginative writing alike ( La Jeune Née , 1975, typically combines the two) Cixous insists on the primacy of multiple, specifically female libidinal impulses in women's unconscious and in the writing of the liberatory female discourses of the future.

What Kristeva, Irigaray, and Cixous do in common, then, is to oppose women's bodily experience (or, in Kristeva's case, women's bodily effect as mothers) to the phallic-symbolic patterns embedded in bell black women feminist, Western thought. Essays Samuel. Although Kristeva does not privilege women as the essay mentality, only possessors of samuel richardson, prephallocentric discourse, Irigaray and Cixous go further: if women are to discover and express who they are, to bring to the surface what masculine history has repressed in them, they must begin with their sexuality. And their sexuality begins with their bodies, with their genital and libidinal difference from men. For various reasons, this is a powerful argument. We have seen versions of it in the radical feminism of the United States, too. In the fahrenheit, French context, it offers an island of hope in the void left by the deconstruction of essays on pamela, humanism, which has been revealed as an ideologically suspect invention by men. If men are responsible for the reigning binary system of meaning-identity/other, man/nature, reason/chaos, man/woman-women, relegated to essay on absolutism and democracy, the negative and passive pole of this hierarchy, are not implicated in essays on pamela samuel richardson, the creation of its myths. (Certainly, they are no longer impressed by them!) And the immediacy with which the body, the id, jouissance , are supposedly experienced promises a clarity of perception and a vitality that can bring down mountains of essay, phallocentric delusion. Finally, to the extent that the female body is essays on pamela, seen as a direct source of female writing, a powerful alternative discourse seems possible: to write from the body is to re-create the world. But feminité and on save environment, écriture féminine are problematic as well as powerful concepts.

They have been criticized as idealist and essentialist, bound up in the very system they claim to undermine; they have been attacked as theoretically fuzzy and as fatal to constructive political action. 16 I think all these objections are worth making. What's more, they must be made if American women are to sift out and use the on pamela, positive elements in French thinking about and democracy féminité . First off, the basic theoretical question: Can the body be a source of self-knowledge? Does female sexuality exist prior to or in on pamela samuel richardson, spite of social experience? Do women in fact experience their bodies purely or essentially, outside the damaging acculturation so sharply analyzed by women in France and elsewhere? The answer is no, even in terms of the psychoanalytic theory on which many elements in the concept of féminité depend.

Feminists rereading Freud and Jaques Lacan and feminists doing new research on the construction of sexuality all agree that sexuality is not an innate quality in black shaping feminist essay, women or in essays samuel richardson, men; it is developed through the essay mentality, individual's encounters with the essays, nuclear family and with the symbolic systems set into motion by the mother-father pair as the parents themselves carry out socially imposed roles toward the child. Freud, Juliet Mitchell has shown, describes the process through which girls in our society shift their first love for essay on save environment save life their mothers to on pamela samuel, a compensatory love for their fathers and people's mentality, develop a sense of their own anatomy as less valued socially than that of boys. 17 Nancy Chodorow has documented and theorized the difficulty of essays on pamela samuel, this shift and used it to account for essay the complex affective needs of essays, girls and women. 18 To the analysis of the process through which sexual identity is formed Lacan adds the role of the father as bearer of language and culture; he identifies the essay, symbolic value attributed to the phallus as the as the on pamela samuel richardson, basis for contrasts and contrasting values that the essay on absolutism, child incorporates as she attempts to make sense of it and fit herself into the phallocentric world. So if early gender identity comes into being in response to patriarchal structures-as, for example, Chodorow, Lacan, and Dorothy Dinnerstein argue 19 -and if even the on pamela samuel, unconscious is sexed in accordance with the nuclear family, then there seems to be no essential stratum of sexuality unsaturated with social arrangements and symbolic systems. New readings of Freud and of object-relations theory both confirm that sexuality is not a natural given, but rather is the consequence of social interactions, among people and among signs. Theoretical work and practical evidence strongly suggest that sexual identity (I am a woman, I experience my body as sexual in short essay environment life, this way) never takes shape in isolation or in a simply physical context. The child becomes male or female in response to the females and essays on pamela samuel, males she encounters in my college essay, her family and to the male and female images she constructs according to essays on pamela samuel, her experience especially her loss of direct access to shaping essay, either parent. Essays On Pamela. 20 The desires of the child and of the adult who grows out fahrenheit, of the child finally result not from the isolated erotic sensitivities of the on pamela samuel, child's body; these sensitivities are interpreted through the meanings the child attaches to her body through early experience in a sexed world. To take from psychoanalysis the concepts of drive and libido without talking about hooks essay what happens later to essays, the child's systems of self-perception is to drop out the deepest level at which phallocentric society asserts its power: the sexed family as it imprints itself on essay and democracy, the child's sense of herself as a sexed being.

Psychoanalytic theory is not feminist dogma, and feminists have also analyzed the sexist ideologies that confront women past the age of childhood in the family. Not surprisingly, these ideologies make their way into many women's day-to-day experience of their bodies, even in situations that we have designed to on pamela samuel richardson, be free of male domination. For instance, liberatory practices such as masturbation, lesbianism, and environment save, woman-centered medicine coexist with thoroughly phallocentric habits of thought and feeling; they are not liberatory simply because they aspire to essays on pamela richardson, be. Some women discover, for example, that their masturbation is accompanied by puzzlingly unenlightened fantasies; contrary to essayer conjugation, the claims of féminité , women's autoeroticism, at least in these decades, is essays on pamela richardson, shot through with images from a phallicly dominated world. Similarly, many lesbians recognize their need to conjugation futur, resist roles of domination and submission that bear a grim, even parodic resemblance to heterosexual relationships. Women giving birth may wonder whether the essays samuel richardson, optimistic, even heroic terminology of natural childbirth is not related to the suspect ideal of taking it like a man. Even in the self-help clinics set up to essay, spare women the sexist bias of the male gynecological establishment, a phallocentric magasin des images may prevail. A counselor at such clinic, showing a friend of mine her cervix for the first time in essays on pamela samuel, a mirror, made a remark (unintentionally, that's the point) that struck us both as far less liberating than it was intended to be: Big, isn't it? Doesn't it look powerful?

As good as a penis any day. Fahrenheit 451 Thesis. All in all, at this point in history, most of us perceive our bodies through a jumpy, contradictory mesh of hoary sexual symbolization and political conterresponse. It is possible to argue that the French feminists make of the female body too unproblematically pleasurable and totalized an entity. Certainly, women's physiology has important meanings for women in various cultures, and it is essential for essays on pamela samuel us to express those meanings rather than to submit to male definitions-that is, appropriations-of our sexuality. But the female body hardly seems the hooks women theory essay, best site to samuel, launch an attack on the forces that have alienated us from what our sexuality might become. For if we argue for an innate, precultural femininity, where does that position (though in content it obviously diverges from masculinist dogma) leave us in relation to earlier theories about short on save save women's nature? I myself feel highly flattered by Cixous's praise for the nurturant perceptions of women, but when she speaks of a drive toward gestation, I begin to hear echoes of the essays samuel, coercive glorification of motherhood that has plagued women for bell hooks black women shaping feminist essay centuries. If we define female subjectivity through universal biological/libidinal givens, what happens to the project of changing the on pamela richardson, world in feminist directions?

Further, is women's sexuality so monolithic that a notion of a shared, typical femininity does justice to it? What about variations in class , in race, and in culture among women? What about changes over time in one woman's sexuality (with men, with women, by herself)? How can one libidinal voice--or the two vulval lips so startlingly presented by Irigaray--speak for all women? The psychoanalytic critique of féminité as a concept that overlooks important psychosocial realities is not the only critique that can be brought against positions like Irigaray's and Cixous's.

Other French women have made a strong, materialist attack on what they call néo-féminité , objecting to it as an ideal bound up through symmetrical opposition in the very ideological system feminists want to destroy. ( Questions féministes , the journal founded in 1977 with Simone de Beauvoir as titular editor, is a central source for this kind of thinking in France.) Materialist feminists such as Christine Delphy and Colette Guillaurnin are suspicious of the logic through which féminité defines men as phallic-solipsistic, aggressive, excessively rational-and then praises women, who, by nature of their contrasting sexuality, are other-oriented, empathetic, multi-imaginative. Rather than questioning the terms of such a definition (woman is man's opposite), féminité as a celebration of women's difference from men maintains them. It reverses the values assigned to fahrenheit 451 thesis, each side of the polarity, but it still leaves man as the determining referent, not departing from the male-female opposition, but participating in it. This is, I think, a convincing position, on both philosophical and richardson, pragmatic levels. What we need to do is to move outside that male-centered, binary logic altogether. We need to ask not how Woman is different from Man (though the question of how women differ from what men think they are is important). We need to know how women have come to be who they are through history, which is the history of their oppression by fahrenheit 451 thesis men and male-designed institutions. Only through an analysis of the on pamela samuel richardson, power relationships between men and essayer futur, women, and practices based on that analysis, will we put an end to our oppression-and only samuel richardson, then will we discover what women are or can be. My College Is Too Short. More strategically, we need to know whether the assertion of a shared female nature made by essays on pamela samuel féminité can help us in feminist action toward a variety of goals: the possibility of working, or working in marginal or newly defined ways, or of my college essay, not working in the public world at essays samuel all; the freedom for a diversity of sexual practices; the right to motherhood, childlessness, or some as yet untheorized participation in reproduction; the affirmation of essay, historically conditioned female values (nurturance, communal rather than individualistic ambitions, insistence on on pamela richardson, improving the quality of private life), and the exploration of new ones. If we concentrate our energies on opposing a counterview of my college is too, Woman to on pamela samuel richardson, the view held by bell women shaping men in the past and the present, what happens to our ability to support the samuel richardson, multiplicity of women and the various life possibilities they are fighting for in the future?

In a critique of essay is too, féminité as praise of women's difference from men, the name of Monique Wittig must be mentioned. Active in the early seventies in the Féministés révolutionnaires and a contributor from the beginning to Questions féministés , Wittig has written four quite different books, which are nonetheless related through her focus on women among themselves: the schoolgirls of L'Opoponax , the samuel, tribal sisterhood of Les Guérillères , the passionate couple of Le Corps lesbien , the my college, users of the postphallocentric vocabulary laid out in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire des amantes . Wittig writes her novels, her monologues, and her histories to explore what social relationships among women-identified women are or might be. 21 She rewrites traditional culture in mocking takeovers: one entry in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire is Ainsi parlait Frederika, conte pour enfants (Thus Spake Frederika, children's story), surely one of the least reverent allusions to Friedrich Nietzsche to come out of French critiques of culture. She also invents new settings, such as the ceremonies and essays richardson, festivals of Les Guérillères and Le Corps lesbien , and new modes, such as the feminized epic of on absolutism, Les Guérillères and the lyric dialogue of Le Corps lesbien , to represent what a female/female life--separatist but not isolationist--might be. As Wittig's talks at recent conferences in the United States show, she is suspicious both of the essays on pamela samuel richardson, oppositional thinking that defines woman in bell hooks black women theory essay, terms of man and of the mythical-idealist strain in certain formulations of féminité . 22 In her argument for a more politically centered understanding of women at the Second Sex Conference in New York (September 1979), she used a Marxist vocabulary which may be more familiar to U.S. feminists than the philosophical and psychoanalytic frameworks in which Irigaray and Cixous work: It remains . for essays samuel us to define our oppression in materialist terms, to say that women are a class, which is to say that the category woman, as well as man, is a political and essay, economic category, not an eternal one. . . . Our first task . . . is thoroughly to dissociate women (the class within which we fight) and woman, the on pamela samuel richardson, myth. For woman does not exist for us; it is only an imaginary formation, while women is the essay people's, product of a social relationship. 21. Colette Guillaumin, arguing along similar lines in Questions féministés , points out that the psychic characteristics praised by advocates of féminité have in essays richardson, fact been determined by the familial and essay, economic roles imposed on women by richardson men. There is nothing liberatory, she insists, in women's claiming as virtues qualities that men have always found convenient. Essay Mentality. How does maternal tenderness or undemanding empathy threaten a Master?

24 The liberating stance is, rather, the determination to analyze and put an end to the patriarchal structures that have produced those qualities without reference to the needs of women. I have another political objection to the concept of richardson, féminité as a bundle of hooks shaping feminist essay, Everywoman's psychosexual characteristics: it flattens out the lived differences among women. To the extent that each of us responds to a particular tribal, national, racial, or class situation vis-à-vis men, we are in fact separated from one another. As the painful and essays samuel richardson, counterproductive splits along class and racial lines in the American women's movement have shown, we need to understand and respect the diversity in our concrete social situations. Essay. A monolithic vision of shared female sexuality, rather than defeating phallocentrism as doctrine and practice, is more likely to blind us to our varied and essays on pamela, immediate needs and to the specific struggles we must coordinate in order to meet them.

What is the meaning of two lips to heterosexual women who want men to fahrenheit, recognize their clitoral pleasure--or to African or Middle Eastern women who, as a result of pharaonic clitoridectomies, have neither lips nor clitoris through which to jouir ? Does a celebration of the Maternal versus the Patriarchal make the essays on pamela samuel richardson, same kind of sense, or any sense, to white, middle-class women who are fighting to women feminist theory, maintain the right to abortion, to black and Third World women resisting enforced sterilization, to essays richardson, women in subsistence-farming economies where the livelihood of the family depends on the work of every child who is born and survives? And surely any one woman gives different meanings to essay, her sexuality throughout her individual history. Freedom from sexual expectations and activity may well be what girls in the Western world most need because they are typically sexualized all to soon by media, advertising, peer pressures, and child pornography; women of essays on pamela samuel richardson, various ages undergo radical changes in black feminist essay, sexual identity and essays, response as they enter relationships with men, with women, or choose celibacy and friendship as alternatives. And it is hard to see how the situations of old women, consigned to sexual inactivity because of their age or, if they are widowed, to unpaid work in others' families or to isolated poverty, can be understood or changed through a concept of jouissance . I wonder again whether one libidinal voice, however nonphallocentrically defined, can speak to the economic and cultural problems of all women. Hence, I would argue that we need the theoretical depth and polemical energy of fahrenheit, féminité as an alternative idea. But a historically responsive and richardson, powerful unity among women will come from our ongoing, shared practice, our experience in and against the material world. As a lens and a partial strategy, féminité and l'écriture féminine are vital. On Absolutism And Democracy. Certainly, women need to shake off the mistaken and contemptuous attitudes toward their sexuality that permeate Western (and other) cultures and languages at their deepest levels, and working out on pamela samuel, self-representations that challenge phallocentric discourses is an important part of that ideological struggle.

Women have already begun to short environment save life, transform not only the subject matter but also the ways of producing meaning in poetry, fiction, film, and the visual arts. Essays On Pamela Richardson. (Indeed, feminist research suggests that the French may have been too hasty in their claim that women are only now beginning to challenge the symbolic order.) But even if we take l'écriture féminine as a utopian ideal, an 451 thesis energizing myth rather than a model for how all women write or should write, theoretical and essays on pamela samuel richardson, practical problems arise (again!) from an ideal defined in this way. Can the short on save environment, body be the source of a new discourse? Is it possible, assuming an unmediated and on pamela richardson, jouissant (or, more likely, a positively reconstructed) sense of one's body, to move from that state of unconscious excitation directly to a written female text? Madeleine Cagnon says yes, in La Venue à1'écriture , written with Cixous in 1977. Her view is that women, free from the self-limiting economy of male libido (I will come once and once only, through one organ alone; once it's up and over, that's it, so I must beware, save up, avoid premature overflow), have a greater spontaneity and abundance in body and essay people's mentality, language both: We have never been the masters of others or of ourselves. Essays. We don't have to confront ourselves in order to free ourselves. We don't have to keep watch on ourselves, or to set up some other erected self in order to understand ourselves.

All we have to do is let the body flow, from the inside; all we have to do is erase . whatever may hinder or harm the essay people's, new forms of writing; we retain whatever fits, whatever suits us. Whereas man confronts himself constantly. He pits himself against and stumbles over his erected self. 21. But psychoanalytic theory and social experience both suggest that the leap from body to language is especially difficult for women. 26 Lacanian theory holds that a girl's introduction into language (the symbolic order represented by the father and built on phallic/nonphallic oppositions) is complex, because she cannot identify directly with the positive poles of samuel, that order.

And in many preliterate and postliterate cultures, taboos against female speech are enforced: injunctions to silence, mockery of women's chatter or women's books abound. The turn-taking in early consciousness-raising groups in the United States was meant precisely to overcome the verbal hesitancy induced in women by essay mentality a society in which men have had the first and the last word. Moreover, for women with jobs, husbands or lovers, children, activist political commitments, finding the time and justification to on pamela samuel richardson, write at all presents an enormous practical and short on save save, ideological problem. On Pamela Richardson. 27 We are more likely to write, and to read each other's writing, if we begin by working against the concrete difficulties and the prejudices surrounding women's writing than if we simplify and idealize the women shaping feminist theory, process by locating writing as a spontaneous outpouring from the body. Calls for a verbal return to nature seem especially surprising coming from women who are otherwise (and rightly!) suspicious of on pamela, language as penetrated by phallocentric dogma.

True, conventional narrative techniques, as well as grammar and syntax, imply the unified viewpoint and mastery of outer reality that men have claimed for essay mentality themselves. But literary modes and language itself cannot be the only targets for transformation; the samuel, context for women's discourses needs to essay and democracy, be thought through and essays on pamela samuel richardson, broadened out. Essayer Conjugation Futur. A woman may experience jouissance in a private relationship to essays samuel richardson, her own body, but she writes for others. Who writes? Who reads?

Who makes women's texts available to women? What do women want to read about essay on absolutism other women's experience? To take a stance as a woman poet or novelist is to enter into a role crisscrossed with questions of authority, of essays, audience, of the modes of essay people's mentality, publication and distribution. I believe that we are more indebted to the body of earlier women writers and to feminist publishers and booksellers than to essays on pamela samuel richardson, any woman writer's libidinal body flow. Essay Mentality. The novelist Christiane Rochefort sums up with amusing directness the conflicting public forces and voices that create the dilemma of the French woman who wants to write: Well. So here you are now, sitting at your writing table, alone, not allowing anybody anymore to interfere. Are you free? First, after this long quest, you are swimming in a terrible soup of values-for, to be safe, you had to refuse the samuel richardson, so-called female values, which are not female but a social scheme, and to identify with male values, which are not male but an appropriation by men-or an attribution to essay on save save life, men-of all human values, mixed up with the anti-values of domination-violence-oppression and essays on pamela richardson, the like. In this mixture, where is your real identity?

Second, you are supposed to write in certain forms, preferably: I mean you feel that in certain forms you are not too much seen as a usurper. Fahrenheit. Novels. Minor poetry, in which case you will be stigmatized in French by the name of poetesse: not everybody can afford it. You are supposed, too, to write about certain things: house, children, love. Until recently there was in France a so-called littérature féminine . Maybe you don't want to write about , but to essays on pamela, write, period. And of fahrenheit, course, you don't want to obey this social order .So, you tend to react against it. It is not easy to be genuine. 28. Whatever the difficulties, women are inventing new kinds of writing.

But as Irigaray's erudition and plays with the speaking voice show (as do Cixous's mischievous puns and samuel, citations of languages from Greek through German to Portuguese, and Wittig's fantastic neologisms and revision of mentality, conventional genres), they are doing so deliberately, on a level of feminist theory and literary self-consciousness that goes far beyond the body and the unconscious. That is also how they need to samuel, be read. It takes a thoroughgoing familiarity with male figureheads of Western culture to recognize the intertextual games played by all these writers; their work shows that a resistance to culture is always built, at first, of bits and pieces of that culture, however they are disassembled, criticized, and transcended. Responding to l'écriture féminine is no more instinctive than producing it. Women's writing will be more accessible to writers and readers alike if we recognize it as a conscious response to socioliterary realities, rather than accept it as an overflow of one woman's unmediated communication with her body. Eventually, certainly, the practice of women writers will transform what we can see and understand in people's mentality, a literary text; but even a woman setting out to write about her body will do so against and through her socioliterary mothers, midwives, and sisters.

We need to recognize, too, that there is nothing universal about French version of écriture féminine . The speaking, singing, story-telling, and writing of women in cultures besides that of the on pamela samuel richardson, Ile de France need to be looked at and understood in fahrenheit 451 thesis, their social context if we are to fill in an adequate and genuinely empowering picture of women's creativity. But I risk, after all this, overstating the case against essays féminité and l'écriture féminine , and that would mean a real loss. Essay On Absolutism And Democracy. American feminists can appropriate two important elements, at least, from the French position: the critique of phallocentrism in all the essays on pamela samuel richardson, material and ideological forms it has taken, and the call for new representations of my college, women's consciousness. On Pamela. It is not enough to uncover old heroines or to imagine new ones. Like the French, we need to examine the and democracy, words, the syntax, the genres, the archaic and elitist attitudes toward language and representation that have limited women's self-knowledge and on pamela, expression during the long centuries of patriarchy.

We need not, however, replace phallocentrism with a shakily theorized concentrism that denies women their historical specificities to recognize how deep a refusal of masculinist values must go. 29 If we remember that what women really share is an short on save life oppression on all levels, although it affects us each in different ways-if we can translate féminité into a concerted attack not only on richardson, language, but also directly upon the sociosexual arrangements that keep us from bell black women feminist theory essay our own potentials and from each other-then we are on our way to becoming les jeunes nées envisioned by on pamela samuel richardson French feminisms at their best. 1For a summary of the intellectual background of French feminism, see Elaine Marks, Women and Literature in France, Signs 3 (Summer 1978): 832-42. Phallogocentrism at work is powerfully analyzed by Shoshana Felman in her study of the characters and essay people's mentality, critics of a short story by Balzac, Women and Madness: The Critical Phallacy, Diacritics 5 (Winter 1975): 2-10. 2 Jouissance is a word rich in connotations. Pleasure is the simplest translation.

The noun comes from the verb jouir, meaning to enjoy, to revel in essays samuel, without fear of the cost; also, to essayer, have an orgasm. Richardson. See Stephen Heath's Translator's Note in fahrenheit, Roland Barthes's Image-Music-Text (New York: Hill Wang, 1978), p. 9. A note to samuel richardson, Introduction 3 in New French Feminisms: An Anthology, ed. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980), explains feminist connotations of jouissance as follows: This pleasure, when attributed to a woman, is 451 thesis, considered to essays on pamela richardson, be of a different order from the pleasure that is represented within the male libidinal economy often described in terms of the capitalist gain and profit motive. Women's jouissance carries with it the notion of fluidity, diffusion, duration. It is a kind of potlatch in the world of essay people's, orgasms, a giving, expending, dispensing of pleasure without concern about ends or closure. (P. 36, The Law of the Father is Lacan's formulation for on pamela samuel richardson language as the medium through which human beings are placed in essay on absolutism, culture, a medium represented and enforced by the figure of the on pamela samuel, father in the family. See Anika Lemaire, lacques Lacan, trans. David Macey (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1977), esp. pt. 7, lain The Role of the Oedipus in Accession to the Symbolic. 'Julia Kristeva's books include Semiotike: Recherches pour une semanalyse (Paris: Tel Quel, 1969); Le Texte du roman g1033 (The Hague: Mouton, 1970)? Des Chinoises (Paris: Des Fernmes, 1974); La Rolution du langage poique (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974);Polylogue (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 197% and on absolutism and democracy, Pouvoirs de Aorreur.? essai sur I'ahiection (Paris: Editions du Seuil,1980). She also contributes frequently to essays richardson, the journal Tel Quel, including the Fall 1977 issue (no.

74) on short save life, women and women's writing. For her criticism of certain notions of féminité , see her interview with Frangoise van Rossum?Guyon, '76minit6 et 6criture:en r6ponse A deux questions sur Polylogue, Revue des sciences humaines 168 4Kristeva, Le Sulet en procs, in Polylogue, p. 77. Essays On Pamela Samuel Richardson. See, in the same volume, her discussion of maternity as an experiencethat breaks down the categories of essay and democracy, masculinist thought, in Maternit6 selon Giovanni Bellini, pp. Samuel Richardson. 409?38. She expands her argument about the meanings of maternity for women's creativity in Un Nouveau Type d'intellectuel: le dissident and H6thique de I'amour, Tel Quel, no. 74 (Fall 1977), pp. 3?8, 30?49. For an conjugation futur explanation of her theory of the semiotic and of Irigaray's concepts of 1'ecriture f. minine, see Josette F6ral, Antigone, or the Irony of the Tribe, Diacritics 8 (Fall 1978): 2?14. 5110SCillation du 'pouvoir'au 'refus,' interview by on pamela richardson Xavi6re Gauthier in Tel Quel, no.

58 (Summer 1974), trans. in Marks and Courtivron, New French Feminisms, pp. 166?67. This collection of translated excerpts from French feminist writers is likely to be very useful to English?language readers. 6Kristeva, La Femme, ce n'est jamais ga, interview in Tel Quel, no. 59 (Fall 1974), trans. in New French Feminisms, pp. Bell Feminist Theory. 33 134?38.

Kristeva has written mainly about samuel male writers, but see her comments on and democracy, some typically feminine themes in samuel, a dozen recent French women writers in Oscillation, Tel Quel, no. 58 (Summer 1974), pp. People's Mentality. 100?2. She comments on certain elements of women's style in her interview with van Rossum?Cuyon (see note 3 above), although she derives them from social rather than libidinal sources. 7Luce frigaray, an interview, Women's Exile, in Ideology and Consciousness, no. 1 (1977), pp. 62?67, trans. and intro. Diana Adlam and essays richardson, Couze Venn.

81rigaray, Ce Sexe qui n'en est pas un, Ce Sexe qui n`en est pas un (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1977), trans. in New French Feminisms, p. lain 103. Irigaray's books since Ce Sexe are Et l'une ne houge sans Pautre (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1979) and Amante marine. f0 (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1980). Her first book was a clinical study, Le Langage des d. ments (The Hague: Mouton, 1973). Short On Save. 9New French Feminisms, p. 105. 101rigaray discusses the historical position of women in essays richardson, Marxist terms in Me March6 aux fernmes, in Ce Sexe. Her responses to Nietzsche are in Amante marine. 11H616ne Cixous's studies of male writers include her doctoral thesis, LExil de Joyce ou Part du remplacement (Paris: Crasset, 1968); Pr6noms de personne (sur Hoffman, Kleist, Poe, Joyce) (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974)? and introductions to James Joyce and Lewis Carroll for Aubler.

Since 1975, all her books have been published by Des Fernmes. 12CiXoUS, Entretien avec Franqoise van Rossum?Guyon, Revue des sciences humaines 168 (December 1977): 488. Qa parle is conjugation, a Lacanian formula, but elsewhere (in her fiction/essay Partie [Paris: Des Femmes, 1976], for essays on pamela richardson example) she mocks what she sees as the essay, Father/phallus obsession of recent psychoanalysis. 13CiXoUS, Entretien, p. 487? and Vivre l'orange [includes an English version by 2. Cixous with Ann Liddle and Sarah Cornell] (Paris: Des Femmes, 1980), pp. 9, 105?7. 14CiXoUS, Sorties, La Jeune N6e (Paris: Union G6n6raled'Editions, 1975), trans. in New French Feminisms, p. 98.

15New French Feminisms, pp. 259?60. 16The opening manifesto of Questions f. ministes is a long and persuasive critique of njo?fjminit. , translated in New French Feminisms as Variations on richardson, Common Themes, pp. 212?30. See also the short, appraisal by Beverly Brown and Parveen Adama, The Feminine Body and Feminist Politics, m1f g1033 3 (1979): 33?37. 17JUliet Mitchell, Psychoanalysis and Feminism: Freud, Laing, Reich and Women (New York: Vintage Books, 1975). Essays. See especially The Holy Family, 4: The Different Self, the Phallus and the Father, pp. 382?98.

18Nancy Chodorow, The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978). 19Dorothy Dinnerstein, ne Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise (New York: Harper Row, 1977). 20jacqueline Rose, in an article on Freud's analysis of the hysteric Dora, emphasizes that the male/female roles internalized by the child enter the unconscious at such a deep level that they govern the production of dreams. Dora, who desires a woman, represents herself as a man?a striking example of the socialized image of essayer conjugation futur, desire. 'Dora'?Fragment of an Analysis, m/f (1979): 5?21. 21Wittig's books have all been translated into English: L'Opoponax by Helen Weaver (Plainfield, Vt.: Daughter's Press Reprint, 1976); Les Gu(irill. fs23 by David Le Vay (New York: Avon Books, 1973)? The Lesbian Body by essays on pamela richardson David Le Vay (New York:P Avon Books, 1976); Lesbian Peoples: Material for a Dictionary (with substantial revisions) by Wittig and Sande Zeig (New York: Avon Books, 1979). 22Monique Wittig, The Straight Mind, speech given at the Feminist as Scholar Conference in May 1979 at Barnard College, New York. 23Monique Wittig, One Is Not Born a Woman, text of the essayer, speech given at the City University of New York Graduate Center, September 1979. 24Colette Cuillaumin, Question de diff 6rence, Questions f6ministes 6 (September 1979): 3?21. Cuillaumin points out that the claim to difference comes from other oppressed groups as well (Third World and U.S. Essays Samuel Richardson. blacks, for example) who have not yet succeeded in putting their desire for political self?determination into effect.

To assert their difference against the ruling class strengthens their group solidarity, but at the expense of an analysis of the political sources of that difference. 25Madeleine Gagnon, Corps I, New French Feminisms, p. 180. See Chantal Cbawaf for a similar statement, in La Chair linguistique, New French Feminisms, pp. 177?78. Essay Mentality. 26Cora Kaplan combines psychoanalytic and samuel richardson, anthropological accounts of women's hesitations to essay on absolutism, speak, in Language and Gender, Papers on Patriarchy (Brighton, England: Women's Publishing Collective, 1976). Similarly, Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Cubar demonstrate bow socially derived ambivalence toward the essays on pamela, role of writer has acted upon women's writing in English, in The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth? Century Literary Imagination (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1979). 27See Tillie Olsen's Silences (New York: Delacorte Press, 1979) for a discussion of the practical demands and self?doubts that have hindered women's writing, esp. The Writer?Woman: One out of Twelve, pp. 177?258.

2Christiane Rochefort, Are Women Writers Still Monsters? a speech given at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, February 1975; translated in New French Feminisms, pp. g1033 185?86. 29Concentrism is essay and democracy, Elaine Showalter's term, used in a speech, Feminist Literary Theory and Other Impossibilities, given at on pamela richardson the Smith College Conference on Feminist Literary Criticism, Northampton, Mass., October 25, 1980.

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Endorsement of DRSB application. Centre for Personalised and Precision Health. For a list of available services at CIRC, please go to CIRC Facilities. Determine if Ethics Review is required. How do I know if my study is considered research and requires ethics approval? Any study, which is a systematic investigation, including research development, testing, and evaluation, designed to black, develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge is regarded “research”. All research projects involving human subjects, their biological samples and/or data, and conducted by/or under the direction of any employee of NUH; and all research conducted using property or facility of NUH will require ethics review and approval. Determine if a Clinical Trial Certificate (CTC) is essays on pamela richardson required.

Before any clinical trials on medicinal products can be conducted, the doctor conducting the essay mentality trial must obtain regulatory approvals before initiating the study. The Health Sciences Authority (HSA) issues the essays on pamela regulatory approval, in the form of a Clinical Trial Certificate (CTC) to the clinical investigator. The CTC is issued in the name of the principal investigator. It is specific for fahrenheit each study protocol, and for each institution or site involved in the study. Should an essays on pamela samuel investigator-initiated clinical trial utilize significant NUH resources, such as manpower (investigators, study coordinators, etc) and facilities within NUH, NUHS Research Office can assist the principal investigator to apply for the CTC. A CTC is required for any clinical study, involving medicinal products, which falls under the “Clinical Trial” definition provided in the Medicines Act.

This includes unregistered medicinal products and my college is too, locally registered medicinal products. The definition of clinical trial under Medicines Act (Chapter 176): CLINICAL TRIAL means an investigation or series of investigations consisting of the administration of one or more medicinal products of a particular description by, or under the direction of a doctor or dentist to one or more of his patients; or two or more doctors or dentists, each product being administered by or under the direction of one or other of those doctors or dentists to one or more of his patients, where (in any such case) there is evidence that medicinal products of that description have effects which may be beneficial to the patient or patients in question and the administration of the product or products is for richardson the purpose of essay, ascertaining whether, or to richardson, what extent the product has, or the products have, those or any other effects, whether beneficial or harmful. Under the bell hooks feminist theory essay current Medicines (Clinical Trials) Regulations, a CTC application is richardson NOT required for save life studies assessing the safety, performance or effectiveness of a medical device. It is the samuel sponsor's / principal investigator's responsibility to seek ethics approval to conduct the trial before commencement of the trial. Determine if a contract or agreement needs to be developed. Agreements are required when there are interactions with an fahrenheit 451 thesis external party (ie. Essays Samuel. a party other than NUH) Please refer to the table below to understand the different agreements involved. The table provided is only for information purposes, please email (partnership@nuhs.edu.sg) to evaluate if your project requires an agreement. To understand the review process for is too contracts and agreements, please click HERE . U--. Essays On Pamela Richardson. nderstand the Ethics Review Process.

Ethics review at NUH is carried out by the NHG Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB). The DSRB is an bell hooks shaping theory independent committee constituted of medical, scientific and samuel richardson, non-scientific members, whose responsibility is to essay, ensure the protection of the essays samuel richardson rights, safety and well-being of human subjects involved in essay mentality, a research study by reviewing, approving and providing continuing review of research studies and amendments, and of the essays samuel richardson methods and materials to be used in obtaining and documenting informed consent of the research subjects. All research studies that intend to involve human subjects, use their biological samples and/or data, must meet certain criteria before study procedures can be initiated. The criteria are based on the principles of autonomy, beneficence and on absolutism and democracy, justice as discussed in the Belmont Report. In general, a research study must fulfill the following criteria: Risks are minimized, and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. Selection of subjects is equitable. Informed consent will be sought, and essays on pamela samuel richardson, appropriately documented. Adequate provision for monitoring of data to ensure safety, protection of privacy of research participants and confidentiality of data collected. Additional protection for vulnerable populations. For more information on fahrenheit criteria of approval, please click HERE ( Investigator’s Manual 2nd Edition, Chapter 4.1, Page 43 ).

When a principal investigator submits an essays richardson application via the Research Online Administration and my college essay is too, Management system (ROAM), it is automatically routed to the Department Representative (DR) for on pamela samuel endorsement, and subsequently the Institution Representative (IR) for endorsement, before it is futur delivered to samuel, the DSRB secretariat. Research studies received by on absolutism and democracy the DSRB secretariat are triaged into essays samuel one of the six specialties domains for ethics review. For more details of the bell hooks black women shaping feminist specialties under each DSRB domain, please click HERE . Assess risk and determine level of ethics review. In addition, all research studies submitted will be classified under one of the on pamela following review categories, based on the level of risk in which research participants are exposed to: Exempt Review Research studies that involve anonymous surveys and questionnaires, collection or study of anonymous existing data or tissue specimens, where data/tissue are either publicly available or subjects cannot be identified, or public benefit programmes. Short Essay. Exempt review studies are technically exempt from the need for IRB review. However, they require submission of an application to essays samuel, obtain confirmation of the essayer futur exempt status. Expedited Review Research studies that involve collection of data or biological samples via non-invasive procedures, medical case-notes review, surveys or interviews with identifiers. Full Board Review Research studies that do not qualify for exempt or expedited review will be reviewed under full board review.

Such studies often evaluate the safety and efficacy of medicinal products, medical devices or surgery procedures. For more details on the types of research studies that fall under each review category, please click HERE (Investigator’s Manual 2nd Edition, Chapter 4.1, Page 43). Allow Sufficient Time for Review and Obtaining Approval. The length of time for review depends on the level of review required for the study. The investigator should allow sufficient time for the protocol to be reviewed. It is also advisable to cater for extra time during holiday and vacation periods, such as in essays richardson, the month of bell hooks women theory, December. Following the review of a research protocol, the DSRB will reach one of the essays on pamela following decisions:

Approved Conditionally Approved Tabled for 451 thesis next convened meeting Not Approved. For more details regarding outcomes of review, please click HERE (Investigator’s Manual 2nd Edition, Chapter 3.3, Page 34). A--. llow sufficient lead time for endorsement of DSRB applications. Any research involving human subjects require ethics approval. For full board studies submitted to DSRB, the deadline for receipt by DSRB is the 1st working day of richardson, each calendar month*.

The application has to be endorsed by the Department Representative (DR) and conjugation futur, Institution Representative (IR) before it is routed to on pamela samuel, DSRB for review. PIs should provide sufficient lead time for essayer both Department Representative (DR) and Institutional Representative (IR) to samuel richardson, endorse the application. Please submit the applications via the ROAM website to the NUH or NUS YLLSoM Institutional Representative for endorsement by 25 th of every month, 5pm . Submissions received after this deadline will be tabled for the subsequent full board meeting. Department Representatives , please ensure that applications are endorsed by 25 th of every month before 5pm. Should you foresee that you will be out-of-office and unable to essay, do so, please switch on the “out-of-office” function available in ROAM so that applications can be channeled to the alternative DR for endorsement immediately. The “out-of-office” function can be found under ROAM Profile Account Info. * Except in December, as there are no full board meetings in December . M--. inimum Training Requirement for Investigator. The investigator is required to complete the essays samuel Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) Program. Although applications from investigators who have not completed their CITI Program are accepted during submission, ethics approval for these applications will NOT be granted until receipt of the my college short Investigator's CITI Certificate.

For Principal Investigators Who Are Conducting Clinical Trials. Principal Investigators and essays samuel richardson, Site Principal Investigators who are conducting clinical trials will have to complete Singapore Guideline for Good Clinical Practice (SGGCP) course in conjugation futur, addition to the CITI Program. For more information about the minimum training requirement of investigators, click HERE . P--. lanning resources for your study. All principal investigators intending to initiate a clinical trial should ensure that resources are available and sufficient prior to the start of the study. Essays On Pamela. Resources include infrastructure, manpower and sufficient budget to fahrenheit, support the given clinical trial study. It is on pamela richardson also important for PIs to obtain all necessary information from the NUHS Research office to short essay environment, assist with the planning process. For a start, you may wish to use the following checklist for reference.

Kindly approach NUHS Research Office for more assistance. Understand Clinical Trial Insurance Coverage. All clinical trials/studies/surveys done by NUH are covered by the National Clinical Trial Insurance Policy, except industry-sponsored clinical trials/studies. Industry sponsors shall provide insurance to cover any arising claims from the clinical trial/study. Standard Operating Procedures, Templates other tools. Agreements, Budgets and Regulatory. Types of Different Agreements. A Material transfer agreement (MTA) is a contract that governs the transfer of essays richardson, tangible research materials between two organizations, when the recipient intends to use it for research purposes. The MTA defines the rights and obligations of the provider and the recipient with respect to the materials and any derivatives. A Research Collaboration Agreement (RCA) sets out the responsibilities, roles and rights of collaborating parties working on a specific research project or set of projects.

All parties will be bound by the same terms and essay and democracy, conditions, and the agreement will usually set out how the essays on pamela samuel richardson overall project will be managed between the parties. Essay On Absolutism. The agreement is often drawn up following a joint grant award or funding agreement. It may also contain a schedule which defines the scientific goals, deliverables, and how funds are used and essays on pamela, various contributions by each collaborating party. A Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA) is to agree upon the ways by which confidential information, including Intellectual Property, may be disclosed by one party to another. The agreement sets out the terms of disclosure and whether information is returned to the provider or destroyed upon request. Confidential information includes any information, results or know-how that is owned by someone, and which the owner wishes to be kept secret. Is Too Short. The disclosure of confidential information requires that a confidentiality agreement is essays samuel richardson signed before any discussions take place. Process of clinical trial agreement review. Process of research collaboration agreement negotiation. Documents related to Clinical Trial Agreement Review Process. For review of agreement, please attach the short essay environment following documents if/when available:

Insurance certificate from the Sponsor of the study HSA certification from richardson Health Sciences Authority. DSRB approval from Domain Specific Review Board Draft Agreement. Principal investigators are also to provide the completed “ Request for Legal Review Form ” to essay, NUHS Research Office upon request for richardson review. For more information about review of agreements, please write to the following email partnership@nuhs.edu.sg. Common Questions From Sponsors. Clinical Trial Insurance Coverage. In all clinical trials, the Sponsor shall provide insurance to cover claims arising in the clinical trial. Clinical Trial Registration. What is a Clinical Trial Registry ? ClinicalTrials.gov offers information for locating clinical trials around the world for a wide range of diseases and conditions to either Participate or maybe Collaborate. Why should I register ? Required for journal publication.

The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requires trial registration as a condition for hooks black feminist theory publication of research results generated by a clinical trial (N Engl J Med 2004;351:12501). How do I register my clinical trial ? Just type in https://register.clinicaltrials.gov in your browser and enter in the:- What Information do I need to register ? You will need to put in broad details about the trial like inclusion/exclusion criteria, study scope etc. Policies Related to Human Research Protection. All research studies in the institution are to essays, be carried out in compliance with the short following National University Hospital Administrative Policy: Welcome to NUHS Clinical Research website for people who are interested to essays samuel richardson, learn more about clinical research! NUHS conducts a wide range of human subject research across all disease disciplines including Cancer, Cardiology, Metabolic Diseases, Neuroscience, Infectious Diseases and others.

These research studies span from interventional clinical trials involving drug or device to non-interventional studies involving completion of questionnaires. For further queries, please refer to the information on this website. It is essay also important for you to be aware of your rights as a participant and best seek advice from your own doctor about participating in a clinical study. List of Clinical Studies available. A*STAR Open Access Repository Electronic Collection of data in Clinical Trials Publisher copyright policies - SHERPA/RoMEO (University of Nottingham) Pharmacogenomics Portal Singapore Researcher ID (External-Thomson Reuters) NUS Medicine Researchers' Search Engine Profile Update Request Template ( Restricted ) (Click to download: For NUH Network User • For NUS Network User ) Publication Affiliations Slides (Click to on pamela richardson, read: NUHS Intranet) Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine Research Data Management Policy (Click to essay on absolutism, read: NUHS Intranet )

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Essay on Samuel Richardson s Novel Pamela -- Samuel Richardson

Top 10 Details to essays on pamela, Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of nursing resumes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of mentality, them were missing multiple details that were important to the Nurse Managers and Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for essays richardson making the conjugation futur, hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to a lower ranking within the on pamela, Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in today’s hiring process. We hope the information provided here will help you create an fahrenheit 451 thesis, amazing resume!

First, it’s important to have an essays samuel richardson, idea of how the hiring process typically works in order to thoroughly understand the importance of these critical details. When a job opens up to the general public, the short essay life, healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of samuel, resumes. In some cases, the resumes are electronically ranked by Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for resumes that include the critical skills and experiences sought for the job. In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the rankings and resumes and essayer pass along the “best” candidates to the hiring managers. It’s important to note that being the “best” often means having a resume with all the critical details. Essays Samuel! If the information isn’t there, then the resume stands a far greater chance of being removed from the process. It’s important to note that missing these details is not the nurse’s fault. Essay Short! Unfortunately, the vast majority of on pamela, informational resources pertaining to resumes is very general in nature.

General resources are useful only for people with very general careers like “Sales”. Essay Is Too! These resources are mostly useless for nurses. Meanwhile, many resources specifically related to essays on pamela samuel richardson, nurse resumes offer insufficient detail. Bell Hooks Women Shaping Theory! Moreover, healthcare employers do a terrible job at conveying what they’re looking for in their job descriptions, so candidates have no clue what to include in their resumes. Skimming the list below may leave the impression that everything on it is obvious. However, reading the details provided for each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from your nursing resume . What to Include on Your Nursing Resume. There are literally thousands of on pamela, potential professional affiliations for nurses. In most cases, employers want to know if you belong to any.

For example, if you belong to essay and democracy, the American Association of Critical Care Nurses or the Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to know this. Include the essays samuel, following information: Affiliation name Your date of admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over others. 9. Honors/Awards/Special Assignments: As with every other resume, a nurse’s resume should include any honors and awards they’ve received. Examples include honors and awards from on absolutism school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and even social clubs. On Pamela Richardson! Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at life, work.

Did you ever take charge duty? Did you do any scheduling or mentoring? You may choose to place these items under their own heading. However, this isn’t necessary. You can also add them where applicable throughout the essays on pamela samuel, rest of your resume. 8. Mentality! Specific Nursing Education Details: Including the essays on pamela, degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is a must. Not including it increases the chances that your resume will be removed from consideration. This is on save life, because the information is richardson, often required for the resume to move through the process and it isn’t easily attainable by the staffing office. So, they’ll often pass on a resume that doesn’t include the information in favor one that does. Provide at least the following information about essayer futur, your education:

Name of school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and activities, or your GPA if it was really high. Essays On Pamela Samuel Richardson! Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the earlier you are in your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the education section of my college essay is too short, your resume. Finally, you may also wish to include details on any continuing education units you’ve taken within the last 2 years. Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to essays on pamela samuel, include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the second most commonly required skill listed on essay is too, nursing job advertisements. 7. Essays On Pamela! Nursing License and Certification Details:

It is highly recommended that you include the following for your licenses: License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on license if different from name on resume License expiration date License number If the license is part of the Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly. Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of privacy. However, nursing license numbers are a matter of public record. They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of Nursing using the standard information included on your resume. Essay And Democracy! Providing the license number simply makes the recruiter’s job easier. And in on pamela richardson a competitive job market, that could make all the difference in the world. When it comes to certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the following for every certification you hold: Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date.

Unlike most professions, nursing is conducted round-the-clock. Therefore, it’s best to convey the shifts you’re willing to work on your nursing resume. Are you open to essay, working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs? You should include this information even if you’re applying for a specific job with a specific shift.

You never know if the employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to specific job advertisements. In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. Including your availability is very helpful for general job inquiries. In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable. These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to simply add them to your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is going electronic.

Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. It’s imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. According to a recent study by essays, Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the most commonly required skill for nurses listed in nursing job advertisements. “Epic Software” and “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of 451 thesis, EMRs. And both ICD10 and ICD 9 are among the most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. Samuel Richardson! So if your scope of on absolutism and democracy, practice deals with this in any way, then be sure to add these to your resume. You may also want to include any other computer experience you have just in essays on pamela samuel richardson case it may be of value to the employer, or to at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and essay on absolutism EMRs. Signifying the type of facility you worked in tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. Essays On Pamela Samuel! You should know the exact designation of all the facilities you worked with and if you don’t, now is the time to find out. Short term acute care? Long Term Care?

Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility? In addition, if you worked at a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on your resume along with the trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc). If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in your resume’s Work History section, or in your resume’s Summary. For example, if the job listing you’re applying for short essay environment save life lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to make it stand out. Include the samuel, number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of conjugation, beds in the specific units on essays samuel richardson, which you worked. Just like the short save, facility type, providing the number of beds tells the potential employer a ton about richardson, your experience with very few words. We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the unit.

Unfortunately, only people who work at that facility know what that means. Instead, include the type of unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in order to convey the message. Essay And Democracy! We can’t stress enough how important this is. Also include your caseload. What was the nurse to patient ratio in this unit, and how much support was there in the form of LPNs, CNAs, or MAs? Include any other unit specific details as well. Did the unit take trauma patients? Did the unit routinely deal with overflow from other units? If so, what types of essays on pamela, patients were seen from my college is too overflow?

1. Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to this point, the focus has been on incidental, although very important, details. Samuel! But what about the essay on absolutism, meat of on pamela richardson, your resume, the job descriptions and experiences that make up the bulk of your resume? When it comes to this, nurses are in the precarious position of essay environment life, balancing duties with accomplishments. You see, the current standard recommendation for resumes is to make them accomplishment driven. The idea is on pamela richardson, that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to duties, that illustrate how your work translated into quantifiable and tangible results for your current and previous employers.

Advocates of this approach advise against listing duties on your resume. However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the essay people's mentality, highly technical duties that are integral to the job you’re applying for. At the same time, they too want to know about your accomplishments. Therefore, it’s important to include details about the specific day-to-day duties you performed. Richardson! However, at the same time, you don’t want to fall into the trap of creating a “duties-driven resume”. Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and general resumes.

Before we continue, it’s best to address the 800 pound gorilla in this conversation. Nurses sometimes have hundreds of short environment save life, duties and responsibilities. How do you choose which ones to list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is a complete waste of space. Essays On Pamela Samuel! It’s simply too general.

Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in short essay on save life nursing resumes. In reality, the differences are stark between various facilities. For example, the Step-Down Unit at one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the SDU in another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to samuel richardson, consider when determining the essay on absolutism, types of duties to include on your resume. This list is not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the on pamela samuel richardson, level of specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications?

Which medications? What type of patients did you care for? Renal? Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho? Rehab? What was the age range of the patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips?

Work with vents? Trachs? Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System? Which industry-wide protocols, processes and essay mentality procedures are you experienced with? For example, AIDET is among the most commonly listed requirements in nursing job advertisements.

There are many similar protocols, processes and procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to make note of those that were used by essays on pamela, your previous employers. Now, we’re still in my college short the tough spot of determining exactly which skills and duties to include on the resume. First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with. Essays On Pamela Richardson! Next, do some research on the employer in question to find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to list. Black Women Feminist Theory! Use the company website, news, and any professional connections you have in an effort to determine the types of patients, processes and procedures common to essays richardson, the specific employer in question. Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of essayer futur, ways to convey them on your nursing resume. First, you can incorporate the on pamela, duties into my college essay is too short, your “accomplishment statements”. Essays! We discuss this approach below. Second, you can simply list out the duties. While this is less preferred, it is short environment save, sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way.

Your summary is a good place for this. For example, you might include the samuel richardson, following in your resume summary if you’re applying for a position in the CVICU: Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the large number of skills and 451 thesis duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search. On Pamela Samuel! Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents. People's! You can view a sample here. They’re a great way to on pamela richardson, convey your skills to potential employers. You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for jobs or you can bring them to essay, your job interviews.

Considerations for Accomplishments. Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at accomplishments. Richardson! First, you can try to frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in order to fahrenheit 451 thesis, knock them both out at samuel, the same time. In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties. Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer? Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards?

How did performing your duties contribute to that? When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization. For example, patient satisfaction is people's mentality, typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey. Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators? How did performing your duties influence that?

Next, it’s important to essays on pamela samuel, understand how your current and former employers measured your individual performance as this is hooks shaping feminist, very helpful when framing accomplishments. Essays Samuel Richardson! Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements. Again, you may choose to essayer futur, list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments. Or, you may choose to frame the duties within your accomplishment statements. Or you may choose a combination of the two approaches. In any case, it’s important to provide both job-specific duties and accomplishments on samuel, your nursing resume. Bonus: Healthcare is very diverse. Many hiring managers would also like to essayer, know what other skill sets you have outside of your primary area of expertise. Essays! Did you float to the ER or LD units when needed?

If so, then you may want to provide some reference to the skills and accomplishments you achieved in these areas. General perspective on nursing resumes. This may seem like a ton of information to incorporate into a standard resume. Essayer! However, nursing is on pamela richardson, not a standard profession and concerns over essayer conjugation futur resume length are becoming antiquated with the samuel, advent of Applicant Tracking Systems. Moreover, the push to force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to my college essay is too short, the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is on pamela samuel richardson, a disservice to essay people's, both healthcare professionals and employers. Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after. As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on samuel richardson, perfect candidates. This push toward generalized conformity is on absolutism, even prevalent on the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and professional networking services like LinkedIn. Samuel! Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of recording healthcare specific career details as well as the and democracy, ability to print the essays richardson, profile to PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So it’s like a cloud based resume service.

It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and efficiently. As always, your feedback is essay on save environment life, greatly appreciated. Please let us know what you think by posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who. How to essays, Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an objective or. I am wondering how to on save, list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years. I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from mom baby, to essays samuel richardson, peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu. How do i go about addressing those different areas and bell black women feminist theory essay responsibilities and skills, when they all fell under 1 position?

Thank you for the information, its very helpful. This site is of so much help to me. thank you, and samuel richardson it is also free. Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU. The locations and on absolutism facility i am looking at on pamela samuel richardson, have nothing for experience nurses, but have a lot of short essay, positions for essays richardson new nurses that want to fahrenheit 451 thesis, work in ICU. I just want to essays on pamela richardson, apply to the new nurse position and essay on absolutism i really don’t mind the pay. Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the position is for new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC on essays richardson, my resume. Can I include it on fahrenheit, my credentials area on top of my resume – following my name and degree?

I ask because the ANCC instructs to do so on essays on pamela richardson, their website. Essayer Futur! I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at least to essays on pamela samuel, me. I plan to include my Medsurg certification in certification section of essay on absolutism, my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to stand out and essays on pamela samuel pop so to speak – as to not have to read on to notice it. On ANCC site, on a “How to Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to on absolutism and democracy, include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site … thanks. Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for the delay! Your Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC is considered a “National Certification” and should be listed after your name at on pamela, the top of your resume and in the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume.

The order for listing credential after your name is: Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and Awards. I hope this helps! I have been working out of the acute care setting in public health nursing for essay people's 7 years. I have heard over and over that because I have been out essays on pamela of the bell hooks women shaping theory essay, acute care setting for so long that I don’t qualify for a lot of the positions that I have applied for.

Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and occasionally drawing blood. I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to find another job, and I am really not happy with my current job. I am unsure of how to on pamela, make my resume “pop” and have prospective employers want to give me a chance. I am not looking to get back into areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care. Any ideas. Kurt, I am an on absolutism and democracy, RN at essays samuel richardson, a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. One of the biggest hurdles to applying at any VA facility is the on absolutism, fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal. Essays Samuel! Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for your desired role in your application can be the difference between getting an interview and conjugation being passed over. Essays On Pamela Samuel! Hope this helps! In your article you talked about whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards. I’m working on applying for a position that is open for an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job.

The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for their total joint replacement program. I was wondering if this would be something that is good to include as part of my resume, considering I was a part of the unit during that time for the hospital’s certification/recognition. If so, how would you go about including that in essay is too without making it seem just a random fact listed and make it more as an accomplishment for myself also since I was a part of samuel, that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica. Yes, this is definitely something you can include on your resume. If you feel that you’re not able to on absolutism and democracy, expand in a way that adequately describes your role in the achievement, then you may want to samuel richardson, expand in your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to essay and democracy, couple this team achievement with one of your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor. For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score.

You may also want to include this in on pamela samuel richardson your summary as opposed to the job description to make it stand out a little more. Fahrenheit 451 Thesis! I hope this helps! I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in just about every surgery setting from Open heart to Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at a busy hospital and on pamela samuel also ran a surgery center. I have been fortunate to have been able to take off time to stay home and be with my children. That being said, I am worried about the years off and blank space on my resume. How would you go about essay, filling in the gap?

I have volunteered in on pamela multiple areas at their schools, from organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and essayer conjugation teaching Compression Only CPR. Essays Samuel Richardson! My license and essay continuing CEU’s have always rained current. Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have. Thanks for the inquiry. There is no steadfast rule on how to handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to consider. First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of experiences. Samuel! In your case, you would focus on all of your OR experience. You might have a small section to list your previous employers. or you may even choose to leave it out entirely. There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on the internet. Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume.

In this case, you would list your experience raising the my college essay short, kids as one of the entries in your chronological work history. You could include details on the experiences mentioned in your comment on this blog post. Again, there is samuel, no right or wrong way. Each has its advantages and bell black shaping feminist essay disadvantages. To answer your question, yes, this situation is always a bit of challenge. However, experienced nurses are in high demand at samuel richardson, the moment, so you should be fine.

Also, I’m personally inclined to recommend the chronological format. The main advantage of bell hooks feminist essay, Functional Resumes in this particular case is to draw attention to your skills and away from the gap in recent experience. However, employers are going to find the gap no matter what. So, I think it’s best to embrace it. With the chronological resume, you can still include all the applicable skills.

I hope this helps! I have worked in home health and corrections for samuel about 5 years now. Fahrenheit! I have done a lot of essays on pamela samuel, basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal. IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes. I have responded to chest pain calls, shortness of fahrenheit 451 thesis, breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients. I have worked in a corrections hospital with acute and on pamela richardson long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from essay short talking to other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in a hospital ER.. Trying to essays on pamela samuel, format my resume to essayer conjugation futur, make my experience fit into what the Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to be retiring Military Nurse and will be transitioning to the civilian workforce. How important are listing awards?

I have numerous military awards based on my work ethics and performance on the job, but I am afraid that the general public is not going to have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on turning military missions into civilian language? Thanks for your service!! I think it’s a great idea to add the awards to essays samuel richardson, your resume. You could do one of two things. Simply list them out by essay is too, their official name.

There’s a good chance that the on pamela samuel richardson, reviewer will search for essay on save the award on the internet and find it. Essays Richardson! Or, you could add a very brief description of the essay short, award in parentheses. For example: X Award (earned for valor in action). Either way, if you have a lot of awards, then you may want to include only the highest ranking awards. If you choose to list many of them, then put them in columns or in a continuous stream separated by commas to save space. Conveying your military experience in civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital. My apologies, but I lack the essays on pamela richardson, technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations. That said, I’d recommend reviewing the job descriptions for the jobs you’re applying for use them to guide your efforts whenever possible. I hope this helps and thanks again! I have a position working in save life a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit).

The unit is split into on pamela, two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and black babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for each unit and descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to play into each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to cover all of this detail without leaving a lot out samuel or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. My husband just got a job out of state, so we have to fahrenheit, relocate, as much as I love my current employer. This is a great question; thanks for posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to essays samuel, be able to essay people's, convey the broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for your nursing resume. So, you’ll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details.

When it comes to on pamela richardson, specifics, it’s best to tailor your resume to the specific job you’re applying for. Find out what they’re looking for and be sure to convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about your experience. I believe this is the most important consideration for your resume. When it comes to generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one you’ve provided here. For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the my college is too, time and ICU patients 50% of the time. The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT. The ICU patients included ER, NICU and essays on pamela general ICU. Unit sizes varied from 5 beds up to 25 beds.

You might also try utilizing skills checklists to futur, convey your experience, especially if you make it to the interview stage. Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to upload documents, so you might be able to essays samuel, upload skills checklists there. You can complete and save skills checklists on BluePipes and utilize them at your convenience. I hope this information helps! My husband was an essay on absolutism, ICU nurse for 5 years (18 months of that he was an ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to work in samuel richardson another field. He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to move.

Should he address the clinical gap in essay save his resume? With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then. How should he handle this? Yes, you should address the gap in the resume. It’s fairly common for hospitals to essays, require the last 7 years of work history to be included on their job applications. A large percentage of the essayer, hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for resumes. Unfortunately, the default assumptions when it comes to employment gaps are all negative. Do your best to on pamela richardson, tie the experience into nursing. Fahrenheit 451 Thesis! I believe most career advisers would recommend the same.

I hope this information helps! I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to take my boards (will take them within the next 1-2 months). How should I address this on my resume? You may want to richardson, add an essay and democracy, excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to take the exam. For example: RN: Scheduled for NCLEX on July 9, 2015. I hope this helps! Thank you! I think that’s what i’ll do. For a new graduate of a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on a resume? Thanks for the question, Emily!

Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to your nursing resume. We discuss this in our blog post on new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on essays, job search tips nurses should avoid. Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter. They say that all that matters is that you’re licensed. If that were the case, then no details about you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either. Short On Save Environment Save! And we know that’s not true. It is essays on pamela, HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is 451 thesis, passed over because you included your high GPA. Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to see it, and assign value to it. On Pamela Richardson! So yes, by all means, add it. I hope this helps! Great work, by the way!

I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for futur my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the general number, the unit, or HR? Also, some of my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the correct information from when I worked there. How should I list this information? Is there a good way to find current identifying information for a hospital? Thanks in advance for essays on pamela your response. Thanks for posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on almost every resume recommendation. That said, the general rule is that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for your previous employers on your resume. In fact, you don’t need to include the complete address either.

The city and state will suffice for your resume. On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for most jobs on the company’s website through an applicant tracking system. These online applications may allow you to essayer conjugation, enter the telephone numbers and addresses for essays on pamela your former employers. In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of information you can to your online applications. Again though, that’s separate from your resume. On a another side note: If you are applying for bell hooks black travel nursing jobs, then you should include the telephone numbers and essays the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to find current information for your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool.

I recommend using the “advanced search” for bell black women feminist essay best results. On Pamela Samuel Richardson! Please note that the links to these pages are underlined in blue. Here you will find the current contact information, number of beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc. If you are unable to locate the information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for them or try the Medicare.gov site. If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current information…assuming they want to get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. Essay Short! Many resume experts recommend including only the last 10 years of work history on your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to essays on pamela samuel, your current job search. Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of work history because you don’t want to date yourself. They’re concerned about “ageism” in fahrenheit the hiring process. These same people recommend not to include the dates you attended college.

Ultimately, it’s up to you to include this information, I just wanted to essays samuel richardson, provide some considerations. I hope this information helps. Please let me know if there are further questions! Help! I have over 22 years of clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and essay on absolutism outpatient surgery ctr (pre and essays on pamela samuel richardson pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of essay, care (I’m told this is utilization review by a friend but we never called it that in work). Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff). I’m trying to essays on pamela richardson, get into QA, UR, pre cert or case managment.

I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in 3 months, I blew the first interview and the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to do to get into these fields? Any suggestions? We’re sorry to on absolutism and democracy, hear about your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into an entirely new field. However, it sounds as though you have some experience to essays on pamela samuel richardson, build on. Typically, Case Management and Utilization Review require InterQual experience.

If you have experience with that system, then be sure to include it on your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in it. Check with local and state agencies to see if there are any offerings for people in your situation. Essay! Also, review the specific details of each job opening and essays on pamela samuel tailor your resume to include the key requirements where applicable. Check to short essay save life, see if there is a local association that you can network with like the on pamela, Case Management Society of America for example. Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people you’ve interviewed with previously to see what they say. If so, look into certification. We hope this information helps!

I have been reading through some of bell black shaping theory essay, this thread and was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions? I can tell you put a lot of useful/productive feedback into your responses and essays on pamela richardson would value your opinion if you were to review a copy of mine! P.S. On Absolutism! When you mention Computer Experience in essays on pamela samuel richardson the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. experience applies to or under a separate section such as the one you have listed as Comp. Experience? Thank you for all your time and hooks black shaping effort! Thanks for on pamela samuel richardson reaching out! My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions. Thanks so much for your interest though. As for essayer the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. The important thing is that it’s there.

The resume builder on BluePipes.com lists computer experience under a separate heading. We do this as way to ensure that members recognize and record it and perspective employers and recruiters are able to easily locate the details on the members’ profiles and resumes. Given that EMR experience is becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on your resume. However, it’s also good to add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume. It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the on pamela richardson, information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an RN with 4 years solid experience in a 16 bed transitional care unit. Short On Save Environment Life! Now I’m trying to move to a more challenging position. Prior to immigrating to America I was a medical doctor for 9 years in ER.

Would it be wise to mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and medical college? I work in essays on pamela samuel a program that enrolls military medic and my college is too short corpsman and on pamela samuel gives credit for their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program. My question is what should the graduates highlight on theory, their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience. Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern. I just finished my 2nd year of nursing and on a med Surg unit. I have been asked to apply to richardson, an ICU position and fahrenheit I need to update my resume.

I don’t know what to include. Prior to nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and active duty for 10 years. I really enjoyed your blog and will refer to it when updating my resume! We’re glad to hear the information was useful. Essays On Pamela Samuel Richardson! Congratulations on is too short, being asked to apply for an ICU position. That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of great experience to include on essays richardson, your resume. We recommend focusing most attention on your recent experience in MedSurg as it is the most applicable to the ICU role you’ll be applying for. However, you can also include brief descriptions of conjugation, your surgical tech and active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences.

Relate all your work history descriptions to on pamela, the ICU position. To do so, find out as much as possible about the job and essay the unit. We hope this helps!! Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to essays richardson, have found your blog page! I was about to do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned. Indeed, the fahrenheit 451 thesis, day of the one page crammer is passe’. Especially with the value of the keyword in on pamela samuel electronic filing. Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from conjugation becoming fodder for the shredder. [[shudder]]

We’re glad to on pamela richardson, hear the information is useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for job fairs or any other instance where the resume will be given directly to an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, it’s still good to black women theory essay, be brief and choose your words wisely. Don’t be overly verbose and essays samuel richardson don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it. Be sure to tailor the resume’s wording to the job posting where applicable based on your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for conjugation this article! I realized that my resume was not up to par by reading this. I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on what I really did on the day to day.

I recently worked at a hospital for 4 months and resigned due to it not being a good fit. It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in my 5 years as a nurse. Essays Samuel Richardson! Should I include it on my resume? You’re welcome! We’re glad to hear you found the essay mentality, information useful. This is a tough question. I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in the minds of on pamela samuel, potential employers. That’s a valid concern. Essayer Conjugation! On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to your nursing resume.

There is another issue to consider. Essays! Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Omitting a previous job on your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on essay on save environment save, how they have their clauses worded. Of course, this depends on their ability to verify the omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the richardson, candidate review process when your resume is typically the document they’re working off of. Hooks Women Shaping Theory! However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an application to samuel richardson, completed. Environment Save Life! If you choose to add the omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to do. Utltimatly, the decision is yours.

If you choose to add the employment to essays samuel, your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of why you left in your cover letter. It’s all about the story you tell. We hope this helps. This is all great information but I do have a question. I am a recent BSN grad and licensed RN trying to land my first job. Mentality! Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in examples online.

Thanks, Kristin. We’re glad to hear this information on was useful. Essays Samuel! You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and work experience. To further confuse the issue, some people believe that clinical experience and work experience are one and the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. We view the preceptorship as something akin to a highly advanced internship. For all intents and purposes, it is on absolutism and democracy, work experience. However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship. Therefore, feel free to essays on pamela, include it under either category on your resume, but be sure to clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship.

On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of professional networking when landing your first job. 70%-80% of bell shaping feminist theory essay, all jobs are obtained through networking. While your resume is important, networking is the key…especially for new grads. We hope this information helps. Best of on pamela richardson, luck!! Great info – I could have used that for essay people's my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to essays samuel richardson, prepare for job interviews? I am finding these horribly stressful and hard to get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at the job I’m applying for.

Thanks, Heidi! We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. Thanks for the suggestion. Essay! We’ll explore the essays richardson, topic soon. Thank you! This is fahrenheit, very informative. Do you have any sample resume and application letter? We’re glad to on pamela richardson, hear the information is 451 thesis, useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for samuel richardson free as a member of essay, BluePipes.

You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. We hope this helps! I LOVE this information! Thank you. Here’s my question. Essays Samuel! I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to the mid 1980’s. How far back should I go?

None relate to 451 thesis, my current field (new nursing graduate). It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and essays samuel richardson things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers…. Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to be a reference? Are references included now-a-days? Many, many thanks! We’re glad to hear the information is helpful!! Congratulations on hooks black women shaping theory, your recent graduation from nursing school!

Yes, it’s a great idea to ask an instructor to be a reference. Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to include on your resume aren’t so cut and on pamela dry. I think it’s fair to say that the vast majority of career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on a resume. However, if you could get a redeeming quote from a strong reference, like an instructor, to put in your resume summary, then it could be an bell black shaping feminist, eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed! We recommend reviewing our article on optimizing your resume for applicant tracking systems. However, one thing is as true today as it ever has been…networking is the on pamela, single best approach to landing a job. We discuss the importance in our article with recommendations for New Grad RNs. It’s tough to environment life, recommend that you leave off your past education. I’d say it would be good to add any College level education as well as healthcare related education.

We hope this helps!! Best of samuel richardson, luck! Excellent information! Nursing is a second career for me and trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. On Save Save Life! You are right on the money….the resume I had for my corporate career doesn’t translate well into the healthcare field.

I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasn’t going to samuel richardson, work. I was destined to be one of people's, those that got lost in essays on pamela samuel the system. Essay! The tips you provided have been so helpful. I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. Essays On Pamela Richardson! Thank you again for providing such valuable information. Congratulations on your new career path! We’re so glad you found this information useful. We wish you the best of luck in your job search.

We hope you’ll consider joining BluePipes.com where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for free, and essay build your healthcare professional network. Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578; Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest. Due to essays richardson, a job opportunity for my husband, we moved from KS to bell black theory, PA in essays on pamela 2012.

Even securing an interview has been daunting! I have gotten some feedback from ‘ recruiters’ in a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to be sure to apply to the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long. How is that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. It seems the practice of the conjugation futur, three major ‘players’ in this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in favor of hiring new grads and those with ‘ at least a year experience’. I did secure an essays samuel, interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. The next step at essay and democracy, this particular hospital required by the nurse recruiter, was to list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in nursing since 1974! LPN in 1977 and BSN in 1989.

When she responded to my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for all the years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the last I heard from on pamela samuel them. I contend she realized I would have to start at the upper end of compensation for my experience. Do you know of anyone who may be advocating for the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to describe myself… I am so much more than my age. I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in my assessments, professional role model and delightful as a team member. Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns. I am ready to consult with the department of my college short, labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to essays samuel richardson, decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame! really good information here!

I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and collegues. Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice. I’ve yet to figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in mind. I have almost 2 years experience in In-Patient Psychiatry and SNF just because those were the two jobs I landed.

However, I always wanted to do LD or NICU. Fahrenheit 451 Thesis! I did my preceptorship in essays on pamela samuel richardson 2011 in futur LD. How can I use my experience and make it appealing for LD again? We’re glad to hear that you found the information useful! You can view the BluePipes sample resume to get an idea for formatting yours.

Please bear in mind that our site generates a PDF document and you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word. Also, you might be interested in essays reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to translate your Psych and SNF experience to NICU and L#038;D. However, you most likely won’t be able to address the unique technical skills required for these units. You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and newborns in conjugation futur your community. While it’s always tough to find time to volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for your community and getting some relevant experience to on pamela samuel richardson, add to essay mentality, your resume. Thank you for this very interesting article. I have been an RN for 9 years; 4 years at the bedside and 5 years in a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and some inpatient care.

I would like to transition back to the bedside but feel that my lack of direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. How can I turn this perceived negative into a positive and at least get through the front door of the interview process? You’re welcome, we hope you found the article useful. On Pamela! Yours is a legitimate challenge that many nurses share. With respect to your resume, you should focus on demonstrating how your recent experience translates to bedside nursing. While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of your experience with outpatient, telehealth and inpatient care that translate to bedside nursing. Hooks! Carefully review the essays on pamela samuel richardson, job duties and qualifications of bedside nurses, and not just those found in the job descriptions of online job postings, to on absolutism and democracy, get ideas for essays on pamela framing your recent experience in a way that applies to bedside nursing. Next, focus on writing an excellent nursing cover letter in which you present yourself as a solution to the problems facing the employer in question. Conjugation! Of course, you’re still going to have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of recent bedside experience. Therefore, networking is a must. Essays! Nearly 40% of hooks black women feminist theory essay, all new-hires are the result of employee referral.

With 9 years of experience, you’re bound to essays on pamela samuel richardson, have some connections and now is the time to leverage them. We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is too good to neglect it. Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and LinkedIn to conjugation futur, enhance your networking efforts. Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the benefits of refresher courses for bedside nursing. While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the fact that many nurses recommend them is an indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge. We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to essays on pamela samuel, nursing positions. I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for over a month. Last week I became certified in ACLS and on absolutism and democracy was wondering how to go about essays on pamela richardson, informing the hospitals that I am waiting to essay mentality, hear back from that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is not on my resume that they have on file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is a great question.

You may be able to log in to the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to apply) and update your resume and/or profile. Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and essays richardson pose this question to the representative you speak with. We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. We hope these recommendations help, and we’d love to fahrenheit, hear back about what actions you take and how they work out. Good luck! I completely disagree that availability should be included on the resume.

When a nurse applies for a position it is essays on pamela richardson, usually clear what hours that he/she is applying to work. I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume. The additional touch of a thoughtful and on save environment save appropriate cover-letter can help give you an on pamela richardson, edge over other applicants who omit this step. I found some good details on cover letters for nurses here: http://bit.ly/1dDy8If . Thanks for fahrenheit the feedback, Brittney. Including availability on a nursing resume is important for richardson many reasons. Essay On Absolutism And Democracy! First, the job applied for isn’t the only job available, and most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the available jobs with a particular employer. Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail. With respect to availability, this can mean that a job advertised for day shifts might in-fact be for mid shifts, or pm shifts. This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employer’s ability to richardson, accurately display the shifts. Third, job specs often change on the back-end and are never updated on the front-end.

So a job that’s advertised for days may have changed to nights without being updated on the job board. Fourth, due to the proliferation of 451 thesis, applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to essays on pamela richardson, a searchable database these days. So resumes are searchable for future job openings. Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the candidate with the most attributes in common with any given job description. So in on absolutism and democracy all of the scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the richardson, candidate with matching availability assuming all else is essay people's, equal. Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for on pamela samuel a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for. Black Feminist Theory Essay! However, a plurality of richardson, jobs are filled via networking and referrals. In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is essay, being applied for. Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to on pamela, a contact who has connections with the employer in question. People's! The resume is reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and the candidate is contacted.

Again, availability is one detail that recruiters and essays hiring managers are looking for. Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and related to this topic. However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on addressing this in environment a future blog post. This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in the healthcare field what would you recommend? I have over 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of on pamela samuel, a difference for recruiters.

Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is great! Although I’m still an undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for tips to on absolutism and democracy, keep in mind when applying for a job! I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the essays on pamela samuel richardson, Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of hooks black women shaping theory essay, minoring in something in essays addition to Nursing that I can apply to the work field. On Absolutism And Democracy! I know that computer knowledge is a great booster for a resume, but I wanted to know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for essays on pamela samuel in their RNs? Thank you again for the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele! We’re glad you found the is too short, information useful!

Yes, computer knowledge is a great booster for the resume. You can look into Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework. You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish. In fact, Spanish is a huge selling point these days. Essays Samuel! As a side note: make the absolute most of your preceptorship. Fahrenheit 451 Thesis! Be at your best and use the opportunity to essays samuel richardson, network with everyone you can. We hope this information helps!!

Please let us know if you have any other questions. This is great information! Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of experience in the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and environment save a hospital pharmacy tech of essays on pamela richardson, 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school. Because it is essay, not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to add some experience.

Thanks! We’re happy to hear you found the information helpful, Dashia! You pose an on pamela samuel, excellent question regarding the inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on on save environment life, your resume. There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and you’re going to essays, find that some people will say yes and some people will say no. I fall in the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on your resume for is too several reasons. First, it demonstrates progression within the general field of healthcare. Essays! Second, it conveys additional experience within the field that other candidates may not have. Third, in many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is essay people's mentality, related to the jobs you’re applying for. Fourth, it may help you stand out from other candidates with otherwise similar experience.

Fifth, unbeknownst to many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to 10 years of work history regardless of on pamela richardson, whether or not it was healthcare related. Short Essay On Save Environment Save! While this requirement doesn’t factor into essays samuel richardson, their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the information at some point during the bell black women feminist theory essay, hiring process. Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps! This information is very helpfull. Hi. On Pamela Samuel Richardson! I obtained an MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN.

I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in my resume. What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is well. I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the initial resume screening process. However, it could have influence later in the process.

You may not want to people's mentality, make it a significant part of your resume, but I think including it is better than not. It certainly enhances your personal story. Do you have an example resume? Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay. We’ve been busy transferring our blog to this new domain. We do not have an example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to the blog at this time. However, we will work on getting one up soon. Richardson! Also, I recommend becoming a member on BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the top 10 details recommended for nursing resumes in this article. You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!!

This clarifies a lot for me. I am a new LPN attempting to start my career in a new state and have read a lot of short essay environment save, advice on Nurses.com that is wrong. I’ll take the advice of a recruiter over general opinions anytime. Most on the other sites were saying NEVER to include your license # details until you actually get a job offer. Then I just applied to one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in order to be considered. Samuel Richardson! I was hesitant since all the threads warn of protecting it at all cost due to bell women shaping feminist, identity theft? I’m glad you clarified this and some other points. I do have one question that is not addressed in your article. If you are continuing your education to receive your BSN or MSN for example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off?

Hey Aimee, I’m glad to hear that you’ve found the information useful. Essays Samuel! Great question!! I think it’s a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume. I recommend including an estimated completion date and perhaps even the number of units completed to and democracy, date. There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial. First, it could result in on pamela richardson a higher ranking by on absolutism and democracy, the Applicant Tracking System. Essays On Pamela! Second, it shows that you’re interested in essay on absolutism and democracy advancing your knowledge and essays samuel richardson your career. Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation.

As for the identity theft claims: Your license number is a matter of public record already. Anybody can go to people's mentality, your state board of nursing and samuel search by name to verify your state license, which includes the license number. Essay! So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and on pamela samuel richardson the state you’re licensed in my college essay short provides the means to easily obtain your license number. Providing it on essays samuel, your resume simply allows the human resources rep to skip this step. Bell Hooks Black Women Feminist Theory Essay! Which increases the essays on pamela samuel richardson, chance that your resume will be passed up the chain. And remember, you’re attaching your resume in 451 thesis secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for your Social Security Number and on pamela Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from asking for SSN on essay and democracy, job applications).

I recently completed my ADN, passed the essays on pamela samuel, NCLEX, and now I am working on my resume. I already have a BA and MSW, which I will include on my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to essayer conjugation futur, pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and don’t have credits towards the degree. Samuel Richardson! Thanks for your advice. Congratulations on your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for fahrenheit 451 thesis which there is no steadfast answer. On Pamela Samuel! My belief is that it wouldn’t be appropriate to include the information in the Education section of your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to fahrenheit 451 thesis, a BSN program. However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to a program.

Until then, you could make brief mention of this information in samuel richardson your nursing resume summary. We hope you find this response useful. Please feel free to post any follow-up or additional questions you may have. Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by anyone.

I’m an older new grad. I recently had someone look at short essay environment, one of my resumes and give me her input. She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). On the other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for essays on pamela richardson undergrad and grad studies, not to mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in hooks women the sciences. It seems like the essays on pamela, RN to BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and that is the majority of my BA. OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the last 10 years of employment history. Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to education? Should I leave it to discuss in an interview (as recommended by the person who revised my resume)? I’m feeling very conflicted about this. The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of essay people's mentality, nursing, and essays on pamela samuel richardson when you fill in the online application portion they ask for and democracy all education (although you usually have to on pamela samuel, add on short environment save life, education).

I would greatly appreciate your insight and recommendation. My sincerest apologies for essays on pamela samuel the delay. Congratulations on your recent graduation! This is essayer conjugation, a tough situation. Both sides of the argument have merit. Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about resumes…only staunch opinions. To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about essays, telling your story in a way that convinces the reader you’re the on absolutism, right person for the job while providing them with the details they need. Personally, I’d keep the education details on the resume, and use a brief portion of the essays on pamela samuel richardson, cover letter to fahrenheit, tie that education into essays on pamela richardson, the story about you being the black women essay, best candidate for the job in essays samuel question. Given the information you’ve provided about your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that.

Again, there is no right or wrong answer here. Black Women Theory Essay! You may even try it both ways. Some readers will appreciate it one way and on pamela samuel other will appreciate it another. However, I’m of the futur, belief that all education is valuable. I hope this information helps.

We’d love to hear back about how it all works out!!

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2 ways to resume print from last layer. Due to new filament extruder, my filament is far from perfect and gets jammed in the nozzle from time to time preventing me to complete my print 100%. On Pamela. So, to avoid having to conjugation futur, reprint the model from on pamela, a scratch and replacing the tape and wait time to heat the bed and cry over wasted filament i decided to essayer futur, just resume the print from its last layer. CURA and CRAFTWARE making it really eazy so why not post a tutorial. My model was centered both times so i didnt have to know if new generated code will match models position on the bed. I recomend re-opening Gcode you used to print your model and making a copy of it.This will make sure that your model will resume in its original orientation and essays on pamela samuel richardson, location. Yes you can turn off your printer and come back doing it tomorrow. #1 Look at your model and find easiest spot from which to people's mentality, count layers. #2 Count layers from the eazy spot (as described in step #1) using a toothpick or a needle for essays accuracy. #3 Open Gcode used to print this model (if you 100% sure orientation and location are the same, you can generate new one, just make sure all parameters are the same) #4 Go into layer preview mode and find your easy to spot layer (as described in step #1) #5 Add what ever number of layers you counted (as in step #2) to currently viewing layer. Short Environment Save. #6 Due to the nature of CURA starting layers from 0 (Brim and essays on pamela samuel richardson, Raft have negative values and need to be concidered as well when editing Gcode) drop 1 number.

For example: Your print failed at layer 44. On Save Environment Save Life. Drop 1 number and on pamela samuel, your target layer is 43. #7 Open Gcode in text editor (or what ever) and search for ;LAYER:X (X is the layer number you determined) #8 Delete everything before this layer leaving parameter values such as temperature/home for XYZ etc all the way down to M117 Printing. 451 Thesis. Your code should now look something like this: pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html M109 T0 S240.000000. G28 X0 Y0 ;move X/Y to samuel richardson, min endstops. My College Is Too. G28 Z0 ;move Z to min endstops. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. G92 E0 ;zero the samuel richardson extruded length. G1 F200 E3 ;extrude 3mm of essay on absolutism and democracy, feed stock. G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length again. ;Put printing message on essays samuel, LCD screen.

G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. G1 F2700 X91.17 Y136.16 E4987.93047. G1 X84.75 Y136.16 E4988.28186. G1 X84.75 Y134.41 E4988.37760. My College Essay Is Too. G1 X101.42 Y134.51 E4989.29061. Essays On Pamela Samuel. G1 X123.58 Y134.51 E4990.50320.

G1 X140.25 Y134.41 E4991.41615. #9 Make sure that line with (below) pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. Bell Black Women Feminist. has Z value higher then Z value for the layer you resuming from (below) pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. This is to prevent nozzle bumping into the model when it reaches its start point. #10 Save the Gcode and print using newlyu saved/modified Gcode. #1 Move nozzle away from the model allowing it to essays, touch the build platform. #3 Using CURA or LCD controls, move and lift the nozzle right on top of the model. Write down the distance you had to lift the nozzle. Conjugation. (for example 43.5mm) #4 Open Gcode used to print the richardson model and search for (Z43) do not specify the 5 because it may be 3,4 or 6 or 7 depending on your print layer height. Found result shoud look like this. G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z43.6/pre #5 If you print at 0.1mm layer height, then you need to conjugation futur, match exact height, if not, then you need to on pamela, pick the closest one. I print at on absolutism and democracy 0.3mm so closes to my estimated 43.5 height is 43.6 and previous layer would be 43.3 (obviously -0.3) #6 You want to find the lilne where next layer start.

This is becayse you dont want to start printing from this layer but from the next. So scroll down untill you find ;Layer:44 (in this example its 44) #7 Delete all layers before layer 44 leaving general print parameters (see example below) M109 T0 S240.000000. G28 X0 Y0 ;move X/Y to min endstops. G28 Z0 ;move Z to min endstops. Essays Richardson. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the my college platform down 15mm. G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length. G1 F200 E3 ;extrude 3mm of feed stock.

G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length again. ;Put printing message on essays samuel richardson, LCD screen. #8 Make sure that your Platform or Extruder initial lift or drop is greater then where you resume your print. In this example, print resumes at 43.6 mm so i want to make sure that my extruder gets above that height before it resumes the print. I do this by short essay environment editing this line and changing Z15.0 to Z45. Nearly 2mm's higher. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. #9 Save your file, reupload to SD card or print from CURA, how ever you want. #10 Watch your print. If its too low, stop and UNDO 1 layer to make it start higher, otherwise delete another layer. Posts: 10133 Location: Boston, United States Printers: Ultimaker 2, Ultimaker Original, Ultimaker 2 Extended, Ultimaker 2 Go, Ultimaker 3. One problem with this: ;Put printing message on LCD screen. G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. G1 F2700 X91.17 Y136.16 E4987.93047.

The red part above will have the on pamela samuel extruder try to rotate 4.9 Meters of filament! So you should add a. just before this to tell the essayer conjugation futur extruder that you are already at this position. I like your method #1. I have only on pamela samuel, tried method #2. I never tried counting layers from and democracy, a known layer! smart! Yes you can turn off your printer and samuel, come back doing it tomorrow. Well on the Ultimaker2 if your bed is not at room temperature then you must leave the printer on and keep the bed at the same temperature. But yes, I've done this. Gone to bed and continued the print the next day. So if your bed is at 60C you MUST KEEP THE BED AT 60C UNTIL THE PRINT IS DONE. If not it will very likely pop off the bed when it gets cold.

Here's my version of the same thing: read all gr5 posts here: post #9 here has specific code change example for um2 (ultigcode): The red part above will have the women feminist essay extruder try to on pamela richardson, rotate 4.9 Meters of my college short, filament! So you should add a. just before this to richardson, tell the extruder that you are already at this position. Most likely the prevent lengthy extrusion protection is kicking in, preventing problems in this case. Bell Shaping Theory Essay. But I wouldn't relay on that and it would be better to on pamela samuel richardson, add the essay mentality G92. I update my program to allow users to select starting and ending layers (as range) to be removed from the code and saved as new file (preserving original code unchanged in case of need make changes) It also has height search function to on pamela, find what layer has given height. Bell Theory. Newest version is here.

Hope you guys find it usefull. I'd also suggest slowing the essays on pamela richardson printer down when it resumes, to essay on absolutism, make it more likely that the first new layer will adhere to the existing part. After the first few layers are down, it should be okay to turn the speed back up. And is there any way to compensate if the essays on pamela samuel richardson new layers are shifted out of position when the print resumes? I was having a nice and my college is too short, successful 40 hour print: . up until this thing (I think it's a piece of fur from the essays on pamela samuel richardson cat) managed to make it all the way to the nozzle and then decide that it wasn't going to go any further: I managed to track down the right layer to resume from and edit the mentality Gcode, but the essays richardson new layers are all shifted back a few mm from where they should be: Is there some way to correct that sort of thing when editing the Gcode? Slowing down print ? I print large objects with cooling fan on. By the time 1/4 of the layer is printed, rest is already cold. My College Is Too Short. Dont think it matters. Layers shift because end stops were not triggered same as when print started. I had it happen to me few times.

I forced the on pamela samuel richardson bed/extruder to move to where i need. I was off by very little. Essayer Conjugation. Just push the essays on pamela bed/extruder one belt tooth over essay mentality, one way or another, thats your best bet. Otherwise you need to essays on pamela samuel, tweak your endstops. If you were printing angels, print would not get ruined. Try printing something less satanic :mrgreen: I've already got success in restarting a printing job using method #2, however, I was just wondering why Cura does not log in a file the layers that were successfully completed. It would make our lives much easier when restarting a jog. Essay On Save Environment Save Life. Just open the log, check the last layer was printed, cut the portion of the original g-code file, reload and start the printing job again.

What no log is created by essays samuel Cura while printing? (or if it's created. where it is?) Posts: 1332 Location: Montreal, Canada Printers: Ultimaker 2. Short. It doesnt know the layer was properly printed. The human eye tell that its good or not but not the machine. In addition, cura is not even in the equation when printing from the sd card. In the coming version(s) extra info will be displayed on the UM2 print progress so you will be able to see what layer you are printing. What might be nice to have is instead of Print Finished a menu that says Troubleshoot Print or something that has some options like.. resume from layer, move to layer, set extent (set extent being setting the position of the head by finding the furthers point in on pamela richardson one of two directions and essayer futur, using the on pamela samuel wheel to position X and Y over that point, to avoid layer shifts when starting over) It's great we'll be able to see the layer as it prints, but for me and essayer conjugation futur, other posts I've seen these problem occur when we walk away on essays samuel, very long running prints. Posts: 139 Location: Haren, Netherlands Printers: Ultimaker 2. Thanks, all my printing isues with warping were solved, and then the on absolutism f. filaments tangles on essays on pamela richardson, the wheel. This thread solved the problem.

Great job. People's. Posts: 1 Location: United States. If you were printing angels, print would not get ruined. Try printing something less satanic :mrgreen: A human skull is essays on pamela samuel richardson satan? You must be Catholic. Trying to resume a print in fahrenheit such a way just saved me hours. Has anyone tried to build this functionality into a cura 2 postprocessing plugin, yet? Posts: 1 Location: United Kingdom. Has anyone done this with Cura 2? I have a large print which ran out of filament overnight.

I've worked out I want to restart on layer 510. Essays Samuel Richardson. Here's the start of the 451 thesis original file. I tried editing that like so ( changing the starting Z to be 20 mm above the print ) but it looked as though it was about to crash before I switched off the richardson power! Posts: 1 Location: United States. I have a problem that I believe is caused by my college my Z offset. I have it set very high to compensate for an auto bed leveling sensor. (2.25 mm) and when I factor it into the equation and start at a layer plus the distance of my offset it is much too high but if I don't factor it in, it crashed into the print.

I used a layer height of .2mm and when I don't factor in the offset I start at layer 26, and when I do, I start at layer 36.

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Essay on pamela; or virtue rewarded, by samuel richardson

Day 1: Learning the Basics of PL/SQL. PL/SQL is a procedural language that Oracle developed as an extension to standard SQL to essays on pamela samuel richardson provide a way to execute procedural logic on the database. Here's how to get started using it. Congratulations on your decision to read this book, Sams Teach Yourself PL/SQL in 21 Days, Second Edition ! If you are new to the Oracle environment, this book will help you learn and master Oracle's built-in procedural language quickly. People's Mentality. Knowledge of PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is essays samuel becoming a fundamental necessity no matter which of Oracle's many products you use. Today, on your first day of bell black women theory essay, this PL/SQL tutorial, you will accomplish these tasks:

Learn what PL/SQL is and why you should master it. Learn how PL/SQL relates to other Oracle products. Learn what resources you need to finish this book. Write your first PL/SQL function. Over the remaining 20 days, you'll delve deeper into the power and capabilities of this language and richardson, learn how to leverage its power in your applications regardless of whether you are doing client/server programming with Oracle's tools (such as Developer/2000), using other front-end tools (such as PowerBuilder), or simply writing some batch jobs that run on the server. PL/SQL is a procedural language that Oracle developed as an extension to standard SQL to provide a way to execute procedural logic on the database. New Term - If you have worked with relational databases in the past, you are no doubt familiar with SQL, which stands for black women shaping theory Structured Query Language . SQL itself is a powerful declarative language. It is essays samuel richardson declarative in the sense that you describe the results that you want but not how they are obtained. This is good because you can insulate an application from the fahrenheit 451 thesis, specifics of how the data is physically stored. Samuel Richardson. A competent SQL programmer can also push a great deal of processing work back to the server level through the creative use of SQL.

There are limits, though, to what you can accomplish with a single declarative query. Hooks Black Women Feminist Theory. The real world is seldom as neat and on pamela samuel richardson, clean as we would like it to be. Bell Hooks Shaping Essay. Developers often find themselves needing to execute several queries in essays on pamela richardson succession and process the essay on absolutism and democracy, specific results of samuel, one query before going on on save environment, to the next. This leads to essays on pamela samuel richardson two problems in a client/server environment: The procedural logic, that is, the definition of the process, resides on client machines. The need to look at the data from one query and on absolutism, use it as the basis for the next query results in an increased amount of network traffic. Why are these problems? The procedural logic on client machines can quickly become out of sync if the software is upgraded. It can also be implemented incorrectly, resulting in a loss of database integrity. The need to pull down large amounts of essays on pamela samuel, intermediate data to my college is too short a client results in a long wait for richardson the end users who must sit there staring at the hourglass while the data is transferred to their machines. The cumulative effects of a number of clients pulling large amounts of data across the network further decrease performance.

PL/SQL provides a mechanism for futur developers to add a procedural component at the server level. It has been enhanced to the point where developers now have access to all the features of a full-featured procedural language at the server level. It also forms the basis for programming in Oracle's continually evolving set of client/server development tools, most notably Developer/2000. If you are developing with Oracle products, Developer/2000 for example, the answer to this question is simple. You need to know PL/SQL because those products use PL/SQL for essays samuel richardson any procedural code. But what if you don't develop with Oracle's products? What if all you use is essay is too short Oracle's database engine? Is PL/SQL of any use to on pamela you? Yes! Absolutely it is.

Regardless of the front-end tool that you are using, you can use PL/SQL to perform processing on the server rather than the client. You can use PL/SQL to encapsulate business rules and other complicated logic. It provides for modularity and abstraction. You can use it in database triggers to code complex constraints, which enforce database integrity; to log changes; and to replicate data. PL/SQL can also be used with stored procedures and functions to people's provide enhanced database security. Finally, it provides you with a level of platform independence.

Oracle is implemented on many hardware platforms, but PL/SQL is the same on all of essays richardson, them. It makes no difference whether you are running Personal Oracle on a laptop or Oracle8i Enterprise on short essay on save environment save, UNIX. Regardless of what development tools you use, if you are developing in on pamela samuel an Oracle environment, your knowledge of PL/SQL and 451 thesis, your ability to apply it will give you a competitive advantage against those who do not have that knowledge. With PL/SQL you have the power to make your applications more robust, more efficient, and more secure. SQL, SQL*Plus, PL/SQL: What's the essays samuel richardson, Difference? This question has bedeviled many people new to Oracle. There are several products with the letters SQL in the title, and these three, SQL*Plus, SQL, and PL/SQL, are often used together. Because of this, it's easy to become confused as to which product is doing the work and where the work is being done. Mentality. This section briefly describes each of these three products. SQL stands for Structured Query Language. This has become the lingua franca of essays on pamela, database access languages.

It has been adopted by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and has also been adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Short Environment Save Life. When you code statements such as SELECT , INSERT , UPDATE , and DELETE , SQL is the language you are using. Essays Samuel. It is a declarative language and is always executed on the database server. People's Mentality. Often you will find yourself coding SQL statements in essays samuel a development tool, such as PowerBuilder or Visual Basic, but at runtime those statements are sent to the server for bell hooks essay execution. PL/SQL is Oracle's Procedural Language extension to SQL. It, too, usually runs on the database server, but some Oracle products such as Developer/2000 also contain a PL/SQL engine that resides on the client. Thus, you can run your PL/SQL code on essays, either the client or the server depending on which is more appropriate for the task at hand. Unlike SQL, PL/SQL is procedural , not declarative. This means that your code specifies exactly how things get done. As in essay SQL, however, you need some way to send your PL/SQL code up to the server for execution.

PL/SQL also enables you to embed SQL statements within its procedural code. Essays On Pamela Richardson. This tight-knit relationship between PL/SQL, SQL, and SQL*Plus is the cause for some of the confusion between the products. SQL*Plus is an essay on absolutism and democracy, interactive program that allows you to type in and execute SQL statements. It also enables you to essays samuel type in PL/SQL code and send it to the server to be executed. SQL*Plus is one of the most common front ends used to develop and create stored PL/SQL procedures and functions. What happens when you run SQL*Plus and type in a SQL statement?

Where does the processing take place? What exactly does SQL*Plus do, and is too short, what does the database do? If you are in a Windows environment and you have a database server somewhere on the network, the following things happen: SQL*Plus transmits your SQL query over essays on pamela, the network to bell hooks shaping the database server. SQL*Plus waits for on pamela samuel a reply from the database server. The database server executes the query and fahrenheit, transmits the results back to SQL*Plus. SQL*Plus displays the query results on your computer screen. Even if you're not running in a networked Windows environment, the same things happen. The only difference might be that the database server and SQL*Plus are running on the same physical machine. This would be true, for on pamela samuel example, if you were running Personal Oracle on a single PC. PL/SQL is executed in much the same manner.

Type a PL/SQL block into SQL*Plus, and it is transmitted to the database server for execution. If there are any SQL statements in the PL/SQL code, they are sent to fahrenheit 451 thesis the server's SQL engine for execution, and the results are returned back to the PL/SQL program. The important thing is samuel that SQL*Plus does not execute your SQL queries. SQL*Plus also does not execute your PL/SQL code. SQL*Plus simply serves as your window into the Oracle database, which is where the real action takes place. Figure 1.1 illustrates this relationship. Relationship of SQL*Plus, PL/SQL, and Oracle. Several other tools besides SQL*Plus can serve as your window to the database. Server Manager, which has an interface similar to SQL*Plus, is one such tool, although Oracle plans to fahrenheit 451 thesis stop supporting it sometime in the future. If you have Oracle Enterprise Manager installed, you should take a look at SQLPlus Worksheet.

SQLPlus Worksheet is a GUI tool that is fully compatible with SQL*Plus but is much easier to use. If you are a Developer 2000 programmer, you'll have access to essays samuel Oracle's Procedure Buildera tool designed for developing and debugging PL/SQL code. You'll read more about bell black women shaping feminist theory essay, SQLPlus Worksheet and Procedure Builder later in this chapter. SQL*Plus is used for most of the examples in this book because of its universal availability to developers. Essays. It is perhaps still the most widely used tool to develop, test, and create PL/SQL stored subprograms and essayer futur, SQL queries.

Note - In addition to Oracle's tools, several third-party vendors also have tools that can be used to on pamela richardson develop PL/SQL code. Some of the major products in this space are. SQL-Programmer by Sylvain Faust Inc. Web address: http://www.bmc.com/ SQL-Station by Platinum Technology Inc.

Web address: http://www.cai.com/ SQL-Navigator by Quest Software. Web address: http://www.quest.com/ Tool for Oracle Application Developers (TOAD) by Quest Software. Web address: http://www.quest.com/

What You Need to Finish This Book. In order to try the my college essay short, examples and complete the exercises in this book, you will need access to. An Oracle8i database (the Personal Edition will work) SQL*Plus or SQLPlus worksheet. Note - Where possible, the exercises and examples in this book have been designed to run equally well under both Oracle8 and Oracle8i. Many, especially those in essays on pamela the first nine days, will even run under Oracle7. However, Oracle8i contains many new features that are not available in previous releases. Days 10, 11, 12, 20, and my college essay short, 21, in particular, are heavily focused on on pamela samuel richardson, the new 8i features.

If you do not currently have access to an Oracle database, there are at least two ways to get your hands on one. For a nominal cost, you can visit Oracle's online store and purchase a 30-day evaluation version of almost any Oracle product, including the database. You can get to environment save life the online Oracle Store from Oracle's home page, http://www.oracle.com. Another option is to join the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). Samuel. OTN members can download developer-licensed copies of Oracle's database software at essay on absolutism no charge.

OTN members also have the option of subscribing to various technology tracks in order to get regular shipments of Oracle software CDs. You can register as an OTN member at no cost. The URL to visit is essays on pamela http://technet.oracle.com. You will need these database privileges roles: The following Oracle-supplied packages should be available: Your database administrator can help you verify that these packages are available to fahrenheit 451 thesis you. If you are using Oracle8i Personal Edition, you can verify the existence of these packages by logging on as the essays richardson, user SYSTEM and issuing the following query: The resulting list will show you all packages in the database owned by the user SYS. The packages named in this chapter should be in that list.

Of those, the fahrenheit, DBMS_OUTPUT is the most essential and is used throughout most of the exercises and on pamela samuel richardson, examples to display results. Short. The other packages are discussed only in specific chapters. Caution - I recommend that you do not use a production database and that you create the sample tables in a schema that is essays on pamela richardson not shared with other users. If you are using Personal Oracle on your own PC, you won't have a problem with this. Essayer Conjugation Futur. If you are using an essays on pamela, employer's facilities, you might want to discuss use of the database with your employer's database administrator, or DBA, as they are often called.

There is nothing inherently dangerous in any of the exercises or examples, but there is always the risk that a coding mistake, such as an infinite loop, might tie up CPU or I/O resources. Fahrenheit 451 Thesis. It's always good etiquette to minimize the potential impact of your mistakes on on pamela, other developers and end users. By now you should have a basic understanding of what PL/SQL is and and democracy, how it relates to samuel richardson other Oracle products. You should have access to an Oracle database environment either at work or at on save environment life home. Essays Samuel Richardson. During the rest of this chapter, you will learn some of the basics of PL/SQL, and essay people's, you will write your first Oracle stored function.

New Term - PL/SQL is referred to as a block structured language A PL/SQL block is a syntactical unit that might contain program code, variable declarations, error handlers, procedures, functions, and essays samuel, even other PL/SQL blocks. In this syntax, variable_declarations are any variables that you might want to define. My College Essay Is Too Short. Cursor definitions and nested PL/SQL procedures and functions are also defined here. program_code refers to the PL/SQL statements that make up the block. exception_handlers refers to essays on pamela samuel richardson program code that gets triggered in people's mentality the event of essays samuel, a runtime error or exception. The declaration section of people's mentality, a PL/SQL block is optional, although in practice it is unusual not to have any declarations at all. The exception handler portion of a PL/SQL block is also optional, and you won't see much of it until Day 7, Procedures, Packages, Errors, and Exceptions. Note - When you're defining PL/SQL functions, procedures, and triggers, the samuel, keyword DECLARE is not used. When defining a function, the function specification, or function header as it is sometimes called, begins the block. Similarly, procedure and trigger specifications begin procedure and trigger blocks. Function, procedure, and trigger blocks are covered in more detail on Day 2, Writing Declarations and Blocks.

New Term - Any variable declarations must immediately follow DECLARE and come before BEGIN . Essay On Absolutism. The BEGIN and essays on pamela, END keywords delimit the procedural portion of the block. This is where the code goes. The EXCEPTION keyword signifies the end of the main body of code, and begins the my college is too, section containing exception handling code. The semicolon at samuel richardson the end of the block, and at the end of each statement, is the PL/SQL statement terminator , and conjugation futur, signifies the end of the richardson, block. Tip - Omitting the semicolon at the end of a block is essayer futur a common oversight. On Pamela Samuel Richardson. Leave it off, and you'll get a syntax error. Remember to people's include it and you will save yourself lots of aggravation.

Blocks such as the one shown in The Syntax for a PL/SQL Block form the basis for all PL/SQL programming. An Oracle stored procedure consists of on pamela, one PL/SQL block. An Oracle stored function consists of one PL/SQL block. An Oracle database trigger consists of one PL/SQL block. People's. It is not possible to execute PL/SQL code except as part of a block.

PL/SQL blocks can be nested . One block can contain another block as in the following example: Nesting of essays on pamela samuel, blocks is often done for error-handling purposes. You will read more about essay on absolutism and democracy, error handling on Day 7. Compiling and on pamela, Executing a Simple Block. Are you ready to try writing your first PL/SQL code? Good. Remember that for this and fahrenheit 451 thesis, all other examples in this book, you will be using SQL*Plus to send the PL/SQL code to the Oracle database for execution.

Begin by running SQL*Plus and samuel, connecting to your Oracle database. Your initial SQL*Plus screen should look like the one shown in Figure 1.2. Next, type in the following lines of code from Listing 1.1 exactly as shown. 451 Thesis. Notice the slash at the end. Essays On Pamela Richardson. It must be typed in as well, exactly as shown. Relationship of fahrenheit 451 thesis, SQL*Plus, PL/SQL, and Oracle.

Initial SQL*Plus screen. Listing 1.1 Your First PL/SQL Block. Tip - The slash at the end tells SQL*Plus that you are done typing PL/SQL code. SQL*Plus will then transmit that code to the Oracle database for execution. The slash has meaning to SQL*Plus only, not to on pamela samuel PL/SQL. Tip - The slash character must be typed on my college essay, a line by itself, and it must be the first character on that line; otherwise, it will get sent to the database and on pamela richardson, generate an error message. After you type the slash, SQL*Plus transmits your code to Oracle for execution. After your code executes, your output should look like the following: The code you just executed was probably not very exciting, possibly because there was no output.

PL/SQL does have some limited output facilities, and essay on save environment life, next you will learn how to richardson produce some simple screen output. When it was originally designed, PL/SQL had no output facilities at all. Remember that PL/SQL is essay environment not a standalone language. It is almost always used in conjunction with some other program or tool that handles the input, output, and other user interaction. Oracle now includes the DBMS_OUTPUT package with PL/SQL, which provides you with some limited output capabilities. Essays On Pamela Richardson. You will learn more about essay on save save, packages during Day 8, Using SQL, but for now it's enough to know that you can use the on pamela, dbms_output.put_line procedure as shown in Listing 1.2.

Listing 1.2 PL/SQL Block Showing the essayer futur, Use of the dbms_output.put_line Procedure. The dbms_output.put_line() procedure takes exactly one argument and essays on pamela samuel, generates a line of text as output from the database server. Short On Save Environment Save Life. In order for you to see that line of text, you must tell SQL*Plus to display it. This is done with the SQL*Plus command: Type the preceding command now. It needs to be executed only once per session, so you won't need to reissue it unless you exit SQL*Plus and get back in again. Next, type in the PL/SQL code from Listing 1.2. The resulting output from SQL*Plus should look like that shown below. Note - It is SQL*Plus that prints the essays on pamela samuel, server output on women feminist theory, the screen for you to see. You must remember to execute the SET SERVEROUTPUT ON command, or you won't see any output.

You also can use the SET SERVEROUTPUT OFF command to turn off output when you don't want to see it. Until now, you have been retyping each PL/SQL block as you tried it. If you made a mistake, you had to type the code all over again. Essays Richardson. There are some alternatives to typing PL/SQL straight into SQL*Plus. Depending on your personal preferences, and on what you are trying to do, there are three basic ways to go about this: Cut and paste from Notepad. Execute a text file using the SQL*Plus @ command.

Use the SQL*Plus EDIT command. The first method involves running Windows Notepad, typing your PL/SQL code (or SQL queries) into it, and then copying and pasting from Notepad into SQL*Plus to essay execute the desired code. This method is ideal for experimenting with short snippets of PL/SQL code and SQL queries. You can keep several related items in on pamela the same text file where you can easily call them up when you want to shaping theory work on them. The second method makes use of a SQL*Plus command to execute a file. Essays On Pamela Richardson. For example, if you have a text file named test.sql with the code from Listing 1.2, you could execute that file by hooks shaping feminist essay typing this command: The resulting output would look like: Note - When you're executing a file, the default file extension is .SQL . SQL*Plus looks for the file first in samuel the default directory and then follows a search path that you can define. How you define this path is operating systemspecific and outside the scope of this book.

For details, you should consult the SQL*Plus User's Guide and also your operating system documentation. Executing commands from a file like this is most useful in cases where you are re-creating a stored procedure, function, or database trigger and you have the definition already stored in its own text file. The third option involves using the SQL*Plus EDIT command to invoke your system's text editor. Under Windows, this will be Notepad unless you have specifically defined a different editor. When you issue the EDIT command, SQL*Plus will launch Notepad and automatically place in and democracy it the text of the essays on pamela richardson, most recently executed PL/SQL block or SQL statement. See Figure 1.3 for an example of this. Using the mentality, SQL*Plus EDIT command. After you've brought up Notepad, you can edit the PL/SQL block to your satisfaction and then exit from Notepad, being sure to save the file.

When you save your file, SQL*Plus will not immediately reexecute it. It is merely placed in an internal buffer. Essays On Pamela Richardson. You must use the / command, by essayer typing / on a line by itself, in order to execute the essays on pamela samuel richardson, code you just edited. Using the EDIT command works well as long as you keep in mind one important thing. SQL*Plus remembers only the most recent SQL statement or PL/SQL block. If you have been working on a PL/SQL block, and you execute just one SQL statement, that statement will replace the PL/SQL block you have been editing. Caution - Do not allow the SQL*Plus buffer to contain your only copy of a long procedure.

It's too easy to enter a SQL command without thinking and wipe out the much longer PL/SQL procedure you have been developing. Which of these three methods you choose is up to you, and depends in part on your personal preferences. You are likely to find the first method, copying and pasting between Notepad and SQL*Plus, most useful during the first few chapters of this book. As you write larger PL/SQL functions and procedures, you will find yourself gravitating toward keeping each in its own file. Perhaps one of the most useful things you can do with your knowledge of fahrenheit, PL/SQL is to use it to write stored functions and stored procedures. Encapsulating the code you wrote earlier into a stored function enables you to compile it once and samuel, store it in the database for essay on absolutism and democracy future use. The next time you want to run that PL/SQL block, all you need to do is invoke the function.

Using SQL*Plus, type in the input code shown in Listing 1.3, which will create a PL/SQL function to return the value that was output by Listing 1.2. Listing 1.3 The SS_THRESH Function. Compare the code in essays on pamela samuel richardson Listing 1.3 to that in Listing 1.2. Notice that the keyword DECLARE has been replaced in lines 1 and 2 by the words CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh RETURN NUMBER AS . This will be explained further in Day 3. Futur. Also notice that the calls to dbms_output.put_line() have been replaced by the RETURN command (line 6), which returns the value of the variable X to the caller. The only output from Listing 1.3 is a confirmation that the function has been successfully created, which is shown in essays on pamela line 9. Notice that Oracle has created the function. SQL*Plus indicates this by displaying the is too, words Function created . You probably were able to essays samuel type in the code from Listing 1.3 and create the SS_THRESH function with no errors. However, that might not have been the case.

To show you how to deal with an 451 thesis, error, Listing 1.4 contains the same code as Listing 1.3, but with one small error. Listing 1.4 The SS_THRESH Function with an essays samuel richardson, Error. Unlike most compilers, which will display a listing of errors found in source code, Oracle stores any errors it finds in a database table named USER_ERRORS . If you want to see the specific details, and you may well, you need to retrieve the error listing yourself. Use the SQL*Plus command SHOW ERRORS , as shown in Listing 1.5, to do this. Listing 1.5 The SHOW ERRORS Command. As you can see, the error listing has two columns of output. The first column contains the line number where the error occurred and futur, also the character position within that line. On Pamela Samuel. The second column contains the specific error message. In this example, the error occurred in line 5 at the fifth character position. The error message tells you that Oracle encountered an equal sign when it was really expecting something else.

That something else, in this case, is the assignment operator, represented by := . Figure 1.4 shows the SQL*Plus screen as it would look after executing Listings 1.4 and 1.5. Error listing for SS_THRESH . Tip - Typing = instead of essay on save environment life, := is a common mistake to make, especially if you also program in other languages that do use = for assignment. Displaying the Function's Return Value. Now that you have written and samuel richardson, compiled the essay environment save, function, it's time to essays samuel execute it and see the results. The easiest way to do this using SQL*Plus is to issue the following SQL command: The SS_THRESH function does not have any parameters, so be sure not to add any parentheses when you call it. In other words, don't use SS_THRESH() because Oracle will return an error. The table DUAL is fahrenheit 451 thesis a special Oracle table that always exists, always has exactly one row, and always has exactly one column. On Pamela Samuel Richardson. It's the perfect table to use when experimenting with functions.

Selecting the function from the DUAL table causes the function result to be displayed. Can Even This Simple Function Be Useful? The SS_THRESH function is a very simple function, and essayer conjugation, you might rightly wonder if something so absurdly simple can be useful. On Pamela Samuel Richardson. The value this function returns is the essay short, Social Security Contribution and essays richardson, Benefit Base, a value that changes from year to year. If you were a programmer working on a payroll system and hooks theory essay, needed to write several queries using this value, you could use a function like this to encapsulate this information. To encapsulate information means to embed it within a function so that values like this don't need to be replicated all through your code, and so that any changes can be made in one central place. Essays Richardson. There's another benefit to this approach. Your queries become more self-documenting. Bell Hooks Women Feminist Theory Essay. It's a bit easier to remember six months later what you meant when you see. than if you had simply hard-coded the essays on pamela samuel richardson, value.

Executing PL/SQL Using Developer 2000's Procedure Builder. Procedure Builder is part of Oracle's Developer 2000 development environment. It allows you to develop and debug PL/SQL program units for use in essay environment Developer 2000 applications. With Developer 2000, PL/SQL is used on the client to essays samuel program the behavior behind the on absolutism, forms, reports, and menus that you develop. You end up with a PL/SQL engine on the client as well as on the server. Essays On Pamela Richardson. A nice benefit of this is on absolutism and democracy that Procedure Builder can be used to richardson execute PL/SQL code without having to women shaping feminist theory be connected to a database. Note - Many of the advanced features discussed later in this book are available only when executing PL/SQL code in the database. If you have Developer 2000 installed, you start Procedure Builder by richardson selecting Start, Programs, Developer 2000 R2.0, Procedure Builder. The opening screen is essay on absolutism shown in Figure 1.5 and essays on pamela samuel richardson, is divided into three sections. Procedure Builder's opening screen. As you can see, the essay save life, Procedure Builder window is divided into three major parts.

The Object Navigator window allows you to navigate through the richardson, various program units, PL/SQL libraries, and database objects to essay environment life which you have access. The other two parts of the display combine to make up the PL/SQL Interpreter window. The top pane is used when debugging PL/SQL code and shows the code being debugged. The bottom pane is on pamela samuel where you can type in is too and execute ad-hoc PL/SQL blocks. New Term - PL/SQL may be used to write procedures, functions, package bodies, package types, and triggers. These constructs are referred to on pamela richardson as program units. The PL/SQL interpreter allows you to enter a PL/SQL anonymous block and have it executed. The small block in Listing 1.2, that you typed in earlier, is one such anonymous block. You can type that block into Procedure Builder and execute it, but first you need to make one small change.

The code shown in Listing 1.2 contains the following two calls to DBMS_OUTPUT : DBMS_OUTPUT is a package that only exists within the database server. Procedure Builder will return errors if you try to essay people's execute the code as it stands now. Fortunately, Oracle has a package similar to DBMS_OUTPUT that can be used in its place when you are executing code on a client. The name of that package is TEXT_IO , and it also contains an entry point named PUT_LINE . Take the code shown in Listing 1.2, replace the calls to DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE with TEXT_IO.PUT_LINE , and you have the code shown in Listing 1.6. This code will run from Procedure Builder. Listing 1.6 A PL/SQL Block Using TEXT_IO That Will Run from Procedure Builder. Now, you can take this code and type it into essays on pamela samuel richardson Procedure Builder's PL/SQL Interpreter.

The interpreter will automatically execute the block when you finish entering the last line. The results will look like the following: Procedure Builder has been written specifically to essay work with PL/SQL. Unlike SQL*Plus, you do not need to enter a forward-slash to tell Procedure Builder that you are done entering a block of PL/SQL. Creating a function (or any other program unit such as a procedure or package) using Procedure Builder requires a bit more than just typing the CREATE FUNCTION statement into the interpreter. To create a function, you need to tell Procedure Builder that you want to create a new program unit. Do this by selecting the File, New, Program Unit menu option. On Pamela. You will see the dialog box shown in Figure 1.6.

Creating a New Program Unit. This dialog contains radio buttons allowing you to fahrenheit 451 thesis choose the type of essays on pamela, program unit that you are creating and also contains a textbox for the program unit's name. Choose Function, type the name SS_THRESH into the textbox, and click OK. You will see a screen similar to people's that shown in Figure 1.7. Entering the code for SS_THRESH . Figure 1.7 shows the function with the code already written. Of course, Procedure Builder does not write the code for you. When Procedure Builder opens this window, it places a skeleton function in on pamela the textbox. You have to fill in the details. When you get the code entered the way that you want it, click the Compile button to compile it, and then click the Close button to close the window. To execute the function that you just created, type the following statement into the PL/SQL interpreter:

When you execute this statement, Procedure Builder will execute the fahrenheit 451 thesis, function and samuel, display the following results: In addition to creating PL/SQL program units on short environment, the client, Procedure Builder can also be used to create and execute program units in a database. To do this, you first need to connect to samuel a database. Use the File, Connect menu option to connect to a database. Once you've logged in, you will be able to browse database program units using the Object Navigator. Figure 1.8 shows the program units owned by short on save save the user named JEFF . Program units in the JEFF schema. To create a stored function or other program unit in the database, follow these steps: Click to highlight the Stored Program Units entry under the user's name. Click the Create Toolbar button. Proceed as you would when creating a local program unit.

Except for having to choose the schema, the process for creating a PL/SQL function in the database is the same as for creating one locally. If you have Enterprise Manager available, consider using SQLPlus Worksheet for the examples in this book. SQLPlus Worksheet is on pamela samuel richardson completely compatible with SQL*Plus, and can be used for essay all the examples in this book. The advantage that SQL*Plus worksheet has over on pamela, SQL*Plus is in people's the interface. Rather than type in large blocks of code one line at a time, you can use a text editor-like interface.

After you get the code entered the way that you want it, you can click a toolbar button to execute it. Executing a PL/SQL Block Using SQLPlus Worksheet. Figure 1.9 shows the SQLPlus Worksheet. The SQLPlus Worksheet. In this chapter you learned a little about PL/SQL, what it is, and why it is used. You know that PL/SQL is Oracle's procedural language extension to SQL, and that you can use it to write procedures and functions that execute on the server. This chapter also explains the relationship between PL/SQL, SQL, and on pamela samuel, SQL*Plus.

This should give you a good grasp of how PL/SQL fits into the larger Oracle picture. You wrote your first PL/SQL stored function, which should give you a good feel for the mechanics of my college short, programming with PL/SQL. SQL*Plus is the tool used throughout this book for PL/SQL code examples. SQLPlus Worksheet and Procedure Builder are two other tools that may also be used to write and execute PL/SQL code. QA As you can see, the SQLPlus Worksheet screen is essays divided into two halves. The upper half is used for essayer futur the entry and editing of SQL statements and PL/SQL blocks. The lower half is essays on pamela used to display output. The execute toolbar button, the one with the lightning bolt, is used to execute the statements that you have entered in the upper pane. There are two ways to people's mentality use SQLPlus Worksheet to execute commands from a file. One way is to use the File, Open menu option to load the contents of a file into essays samuel the upper pane, and then click the lightning bolt button.

The other way is to use the Worksheet, Run Local Script menu option. Where does PL/SQL code execution take place? Usually, execution takes place at the server level. For the examples in essay people's mentality this book, that will always be the case. Some Oracle products, such as Developer/2000, also have the capability to execute PL/SQL blocks locally on the client machine. Can I write a complete application with PL/SQL?

Generally speaking you cannot, at least not as most people envision an application. For an end-user application, you would still need a tool, such as PowerBuilder or Developer/2000, in order to design screens and generate reports. I executed some PL/SQL code which used dbms_output.put_line() to print some data, but I didn't see anything. How come? You probably forgot to on pamela samuel richardson enable the server output option. Use this SQL*Plus command:

If you forget that, your PL/SQL output goes to oblivion. I am using Procedure Builder, and I get errors when I try to execute code that contains calls to dbms_output.put_line() . Why? When you use Procedure Builder to execute code locally, you must use text_io.put_line rather than dbms_output.put_line() . If you are using Procedure Builder, and bell hooks black women shaping theory, you have connected to a database, you will be able to execute calls to on pamela richardson dbms_output.put_line() , but you won't see the results. Use the following workshop to test your comprehension of this chapter and put what you've learned into practice. You'll find the essayer, answers to the quiz and on pamela richardson, exercises in Appendix A, Answers. What tells SQL*Plus to send your PL/SQL code to the Oracle database for execution? What is the 451 thesis, fundamental basis of all PL/SQL code? List an advantage of essays, pushing program logic up to the server level.

Name three Oracle products that use PL/SQL. What command tells SQL*Plus to display PL/SQL output? Name at environment save life least two options for managing your PL/SQL source code. If you didn't encounter any errors when compiling your first function, try putting some in on purpose. Then try out the essays samuel, SHOW ERRORS command. Try each of the three ways mentioned in the chapter for managing your source code. Become familiar with the SQL*Plus EDIT command. Try using the @ command or the START command to bell hooks black essay execute your PL/SQL code from a text file.

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Samuel Richardson Pamela Essays - Viviendosolo

Germinal by Emile Zola Industrialization Costs. When looking at it on a smaller scale, to keep up with all these changes many people had to suffer for them to work, someone had to on pamela samuel richardson do the “dirty” work. On Absolutism And Democracy! In Emile Zola’s book “Germinal” he brings us to the everyday lives of these hard working people , the samuel coal miners in Montsou. They are the lower working class of people that endure many social costs, risking and struggleing their own lives to keep capitalism moving. With fate and hereditary being the main factor in pre determining who works the pits and essay who collects revenue from the pits, Zola opens us to the “struggle between capital and labor” (Pearson, pg. x) . The reader experiences first hand , the coal miners lives through starvation, oppression, and darkness. Suffering each day to survive we follow Zola’s hero, Etienne Lantier through his journey face to face with cruelty and despair, never giving up on his dream for samuel, a better world. The fate and life of the Miners is foreshadowed by the first person Etienne meets, Bonnemort whose name means good death. Essay! Bonnemort explains that he got his name because of the multiple times he almost died down in the mine due to the dangerous working conditions in the mine. We will write a custom essay sample.

on Germinal by Emile Zola Industrialization Costs or any similar. topic specifically for you. He is essays richardson consistantly coughing and spitting out black phlegm that was collected by his body from people's mentality all the black coal hes ingested throughout his fifty years down the essays samuel richardson mine. Even though he should stop working, money is so scarce that he refuses to stop working just so he can increase his retirement money by thirty extra francs yearly . But being so sick that he can no longer be in the coal face, hes instead works outside the my college is too short pit in essays the freezing weather, further contributing to his illness , as a carter. Just by my college is too, this one characters life we can already see how bad the conditions are for the everyday lives of the miners. Germinal also starts by introducing Le Voreux, the coal mine that mostly every man woman and samuel child in Montsuo are forced to go down, in. Page 2 Germinal by futur, Emile Zola Industrialization Costs Essay. order to make money.

Its represented “like some monstrous and voracious beast crouching there ready to gobble everyone up. ”(Zola, pg 7) it is never satisfied, hungry for human flesh , dark , evil , and mysterious. The working conditions are so bad that Le Voreux is represented as being the hell on earth , and this remains constant throughout the book. As the workers enter the essays richardson coal mine barefoot every morning , Zola gives the readers a feeling of disaster and death. The pit being so dark ,the miners only source of light are these little davy lamps, which are subject to firedamp, and will lead to explosions killing miners. The surface of the pit is essay and democracy filled with holes letting cold air and water leak throughout the samuel richardson walls on the half naked workers, threatening the my college mine to flood or crumble in on samuel richardson itself and crush everyone inside of it. As the workers are lowered five hundred and fifty four meters down the shaft ,the conditions become even worse. The air is humid being less circulated, with nothing but coal and firedamp entering the miners lungs, leading to disease and sickness. To get to the coal face assigned to fahrenheit each group of workers, they have to squeeze through small passageways , looking out for uneven walls and ceilings, so as to not break their skull or any other bones. When at their coal faces , each person has to twist their bodies into an uncomfortable position so the coal falls beneath them, meanwhile sweating so much they are drenched and covered with black coal as it sticks to their wet bodies. Then for the workers who have to push the full coal tubs along the haulage roads, they have to bend down to their knees and use all their strength to move the tubs along the uneven road, which leaves many of the people described in the book with deformed looking bodies.

Montsou is the town in which the miners of the story live in, specifically Village two hundred and forty. Richardson! The coal miner families live here together , being exposed to no one but there own. The miners wages are so low they can barely afford basic living essentials, like soap and essay mentality bread . This giving them no opportunity of ever saving money, to even attempt to change their standard of living since every sous is used up to pay for food. The Company pays for their cheaply built housing, provides them with coal so they have heating inside these houses, and pays for the minimum amount of medical supplies in order for them to survive. Meanwhile these homes don’t have enough space for children, so everybody sleeps neck to neck and bathes in essays richardson front of my college is too short, each other . So these basic benefits provided by the company leave the miners with as much comfort as a farm animal. Then the Bourgeoisie like Mrs. Hennebeau put these animals on display, to entertain their guests from essays samuel Paris she shows them the poverty stricken houses and deformed children from generations in essay on save life the mine. Working class families value kids as a means of an economic resource.

They often depend on on pamela samuel their wages to fahrenheit help put food on the table. Even though we see glimpses of La Maheude’s love of her kids, she often shows anger towards the younger ones for eating and not earning. Essays On Pamela Samuel! It becomes a huge compromise when a family has to essayer conjugation futur give up a child for marriage and loose their salary. For example, La Maheude wasn’t allowing Zacharie to surrender his contribution to the house in order to get married to Philomne. Later in essays samuel the book when Catherine leaves to live with Chaval , The Maheu’s see their daughter as a traitor to their family for giving her salary to a man who doesn’t need it as much as they do. This need to reproduce for revenue by the workers creates a paradox in their living standard because the more children they have the shaping harder it is to feed them , leading to essays samuel more poverty.

The fate of essay on absolutism and democracy, these workers is shown to be pre determined. Since the miners live to survive they have no money to save or to on pamela samuel richardson invest , and their children will have the same fate. Leaving families like the essayer Maheu’s forever in a trap of village two hundred and forty. Zola shows us this by the differences in the lives of other characters in the book . On Pamela Samuel! For example the Gregoires, who inherited shares in the mining company that owns Le Voreux. All their revenue comes from an investment their ancestors made a hundred years earlier. They live in a cozy home, with a maid and a daughter Cecile, and never have to worry about mentality working a day in on pamela richardson their lives. Capital is the God he worships, a sacred treasure left buried in the ground to be dug up little by little by the fine fellows who have been digging it up for him and his ancestors for over a hundred years. ”(Pearson, pg xxii) They dont care for black women feminist, the problems the coal miners have to deal with, as long as their shares are growing.

Throughout this time Etienne being a new miner in town, sees the essays richardson unhappy, oppressive, extremely poor lives of the people in Montsou. As he makes friends, and becomes a respected miner amongst his fellows, Etienne shares his ideas of fighting against Capitalism. He convinces the people of Montsou to create a provident fund in which he collected money in case of a strike, to 451 thesis support the town. He introduced dreams of “ A new society …, as in essays a dream, in which each citizen would be paid the rate for the job and have his share of the common joy. ” (Zola, pg 171) He filled the people's minds and on pamela richardson hearts of all the miners with his hope to one day take away the power from the Bourgeoisie. The coal miners salary depended on the amount of coal they produced and amount of tubs they filled up. They were badgered by the managers of the mine to make sure to take time out to essay life construct stable timbering, which held up the walls of the haulage road. If the timbering broke that could mean a rock fall leading to on pamela someone dying or getting badly injured. Risking this, Maheu constantly ignored the managers demands for timbering, desperately trying to fill up his tubs to make enough money to hooks shaping feminist essay feed his family. Essays On Pamela Richardson! Later the mining company introduces a new mode of payment where timbering would be paid for separately and each tub of coal would earn the miners less pay. This was all the miners could handle, so they decide its time to stand up to the company with a strike. Under the inspiration of Etienne Lantier, The miners have no choice at this point but to proceed with collectivism.

They took their comradeship from the mine and manifest it by collectively getting together and putting their demands in front of the company. Maheu representing the head of the conjugation futur miners, being one of the most respected and reasonable workers ,protests “We’ve had enough of starving to death , and it seems to us high time that we come to some arrangement, so that at least we can have enough bread to live on on pamela richardson each day. (Zola, pg 219) He continued to protest the fahrenheit 451 thesis new mode of payment which was not possible to survive off of, but M. Hennebeau doesn’t help their cause . They were barely surviving on the wages before. La Maheude couldn’t feed the family with the previous wages , she was already sixty francs in debt to Maigret, the local grocer. Essays On Pamela Samuel Richardson! Which left her with no choice but to go begging from the Gregoires with her two children at her side, in fahrenheit 451 thesis order to try to gain some sympathy from them. That didn’t work since the essays samuel upper class capitalists only viewed the workers as lazy , drunks, with a lack of hygiene, who are just trying to steal their wealth. La Maheude as well as the other women in town were so desperate for 451 thesis, bread, they had to make agreements with the grocer Maigret, and he would only agree if they let him have their daughters.

The miners lived in absolute poverty everyday when they went to essays on pamela work, then as they striked their lives became even worse. The miners refused to go to work unless they got their old wages back. Short On Save Environment Save Life! Etienne’s provident fund was being used, but resources were getting low, people started running out of ways to feed their kids. Then as they wouldnt work for the company, it stopped providing coal for the miners homes. This being mid winter, it was freezing and cold and hunger was growing in the eyes of the miners. “Despite everything they had absolute confidence in the outcome… They had been promised the new dawn of justice, and so they were ready to suffer in the pursuit of universal happiness. ” (Zola, pg 228) Dreams of essays on pamela samuel, a better life kept their hearts and bellies warm. They no longer believed in my college essay being treated like animals, they were willing to do anything so as not to accept this new mode of payment that would barely let them live.

To survive the families of the village started selling their belongings in order to get food. Trading clothes, furtinure, even the stuffings of their beds , and the workers were only getting more and more anxious for change to happen. For change to happen, they knew the only way was if everyone striked together , collectively they had to on pamela samuel richardson make sure the company felt it in their pockets, so the people of fahrenheit 451 thesis, surrounding mines stopped showing up to work for the greater cause. With months of children crying out hunger pains and women shivering to their bones, revolutionary action was the essays on pamela only choice left against on absolutism and democracy, the company. The miners met together and started to protest from one pit to on pamela samuel richardson another, forcing unobliged workers out of the pit and breaking machinery, as they were determined to make the pits stop working completely. Since the company wouldnt agree to even provide some bread they all started shouting “We want Bread! We want bread! ”(Zola, pg 330) as they head toward the bell hooks women shaping feminist theory essay mining company headquarters in Montsuo. From each pit they left their numbers and energy grew , and so did their certainty that they will succeed. At this point they were looking forward to on pamela samuel richardson winning against the company, they were determined to having their cries heard , and they weren’t taking no for an answer, they weren’t stopping until they got revenge.

This is essay where the on pamela samuel richardson inner desire of the slave to put an end to the ones who they believe caused them slavery manifests. The generations of repressed workers, dealing with pain, hunger, death just so the bourgeoise can have fresh briole, caused hatred to burn like coal inside of their hearts. First example, as they arrived to M. Hennebeau’s home protesting for black shaping feminist theory essay, bread the crowd grabbed the Gregoires daughter Cecile as she was getting into on pamela samuel the house and they screamed “Long live socialism! Death to the bourgeois! ” (Zola, pg 363) Bonnemort, barely able to move, got the strength to essay on save environment life get his hands around her neck, reveling in essays samuel the thought of killing her, in 451 thesis the thought of essays on pamela samuel, putting an end to all his years of submissiveness and poverty. In his heart, she was the cause of futur, his and on pamela richardson all the miners pain but she was saved. Later in the book though, when hes even more diabled , Bonnemort ends up killing her with that same inner desire for her death. Second example when the crowd went after Maigrat, the grocer . He falls off his roof and dies, and the women jump at the chance to abuse and mutilate his corpse like savage beasts. Essay And Democracy! They were thirsting for revenge against this pig who would only give them credit for sexual favors. This relief of essays on pamela samuel richardson, anger showed the power of collectivism at its most , individually none of their miners would of performed these acts. After these series of short essay on save environment life, events the life of the miners only gets worse, as they continue to strike.

People in village two hundred forty have no coal to warm up their homes, they sold all their belongings for food, and now they are literally starving to death. Essays On Pamela Samuel Richardson! The army is brought to Montsuo to keep peace and Belgian workers sent to take the strikers jobs in Le Voreux. In a last attempt of anger and hope the miners of essay on absolutism and democracy, Montsuo revolt against the army for essays on pamela samuel richardson, the mine that belongs to people's their blood and sweat. The workers of village two hundred and on pamela forty “acting as one in their common need for vengeance” starting brutally stoning the soldiers (Zola, pg 434) with nothing to lose from their misery filled lives. The soldiers were ordered to fire and fourteen miners are killed, including Maheu. The strike finishes after the essay shooting and the miners return to their same horrible working conditions down Le Voreux, no change was made. The water is leaking but the managers don’t pay any attention to it. The mine suffers a collapse and samuel richardson the water floods the deep pit all throughout, capturing Etienne, Catherine, and Chaval side by side, while also killing several other miners. Another disaster occurs when Zacharie is breaking down the coal walls desperatley trying to get the standed miners out fahrenheit 451 thesis, of the pit, but fire damp causes an explosion leaving him in pieces. These chain of events are disasters that the miners of Montsuo risk everyday when they enter Le Voreux and in this chapter Zola really makes us understand the cost of being a miner.

While being stuck in the mine we finally see Etiennes inner desire to kill come out of him as it was being referred to essays on pamela quite often as something he struggled with, because it runs in his blood. At a final battle with his enemy , Etienne cracks Chavals skull open describing his feelings as “his heart racing with joy, the my college sheer animal joy of a sated appetite. On Pamela! ” (Zola, pg 510) With Chaval gone, Catherine and Etienne finally have the freedom to be together as lovers, but she dies of starvation before the managers got to them. Catherine dies as a victim of her social and environmental conditions. Fahrenheit! The little pleasure and freedom she takes from her relationship with Etienne killed her , just like the freedom sought out by the striking miners leads them to deaths and even worse living conditions. Le Voreux took the life out of her and many of the other miners.

In the end of the novel the miners have no stronger need than hunger and to survive. Killing most of her family La Maheude wasnt going to let the company kill the rest of them. So the workers of Montsuo return back to the mines. Just like the beginning of the story, they are stuck in the darkness of the monster, in the darkness of Capitalism. They want nothing more than to essays samuel get out of the darkness to essayer conjugation futur see the light. Samuel Richardson! They were willing to fight , starve, and freeze for the chance that one day, workers would get out essay on absolutism and democracy, of the on pamela samuel richardson darkness. This idea is mirrored through Battles animal revolt in the last chapter as hes galloping through Le Voreux “Where was he heading? Towards some yonder horizon perhaps, towards his vision of the younger days, the mill where he was born on hooks black shaping feminist the banks of the Scarpe, and a distant memory of the sun burning up above like a lamp. He wanted to live, and his animal memories were stirring; he longed to breathe the air of the essays on pamela samuel richardson plains once more, and it drove him on, on towards the hole in the ground that would lead out into the light beneath a warm sky. And all his old docility was swept away by a new spirit of rebellion against a pit that had first taken away his sight and now sought to kill him. Essay! ”(Zola, pg 502) Battle kills himself running through the mine, his mind full of visions of the light, he rebelled against the pit by essays on pamela richardson, not letting it kill him he was determined to essay and democracy kill himself before it can kill him.

The miners in that sense too, were going to samuel richardson kill themselves through starvation and cold , with a vision for bell women feminist theory, a brighter tomorrow. Essays On Pamela! It was better than dying for Capitalism. Industrialization gave way to essay is too short dangerous living and working conditions for the coal miners in France. Dealing with the essays samuel richardson constant risk of death, miners put their blood and sweat into every sous they made to put food on the table. On Save! Being lost in the never ending cycle of poverty , fate and tradition keeps these coal miners tied with their ancestors in the darkness of the pit.

Struggling to survive with the weather, lack of food, disease and dangers of going to essays on pamela samuel work, all contribute to social costs payed by the workers portrayed in Germinal. Zola illustrated the variety of on save save life, ways labour reacts to the inequalities of on pamela richardson, capital, from their inner desire for fahrenheit 451 thesis, revenge and willingness to survive, the richardson miners retaliated with radical behavior. Even though working and living conditions didn’t change for the people of Montsuo, in the end Zola leaves Montsuo with an ambience of positivity. Lantier leaves the town with a persisting hope for the miners that one day they will win their battle against the company. Montsuo lost a lot of lives, but Etienne Lantier changed the world of village two hundred forty, and he left the miners with a willingness to fight.