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Is junk DNA bunk? A critique of ENCODE. Edited by Michael B. Eisen, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, and accepted by the Editorial Board February 4, 2013 (received for review December 11, 2012) Do data from the Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project render the notion of junk DNA obsolete? Here, I review older arguments for paperclip help guy junk grounded in the C-value paradox and propose a thought experiment to themes for creative writing challenge ENCODE’s ontology. Specifically, what would we expect for the number of functional elements (as ENCODE defines them) in guy genomes much larger than our own genome? If the number were to stay more or less constant, it would seem sensible to consider the rest of the DNA of larger genomes to be junk or, at least, assign it a different sort of role (structural rather than informational).
If, however, the number of functional elements were to essay rise significantly with C-value then, ( i ) organisms with genomes larger than our genome are more complex phenotypically than we are, ( ii ) ENCODE’s definition of functional element identifies many sites that would not be considered functional or phenotype-determining by standard uses in biology, or ( iii ) the same phenotypic functions are often determined in a more diffuse fashion in larger-genomed organisms. Good cases can be made for propositions ii and iii . Help Guy. A larger theoretical framework, embracing informational and essays on locke structural roles for DNA, neutral as well as adaptive causes of complexity, and selection as a multilevel phenomenon, is needed. There is much excitement in the blogosphere, among mainstream science journalists, and guy within the community of practicing genome biologists about appendix essays a flurry of articles and guy letters in the September 6th, 2012 issue of Nature . Essays On Locke. These papers and many others published at help guy about the same time and since under the umbrella of the ENCODE project collectively claim function for the majority of the 3.2 Gb human genome, not just the naturopathy few percent already recognized as genes (traditionally defined) or obvious gene-controlling elements. Kolata writes in The New York Times that “[t]he human genome is packed with at least four million gene switches that reside in bits of DNA that were once dismissed as ‘junk’ but that turn out to play critical roles in controlling how cells, organs and other tissues behave” (1). In a Nature News and View commentary, Ecker et al. (2) assert that “[o]ne of the more remarkable findings described in the consortium’s entree paper is that 80% of the genome contains elements linked to biochemical functions, dispatching the widely held view that the human genome is mostly ‘junk DNA.’” The editors of The Lancet (3) enthuse: “Far from being ‘junk,’ the DNA between protein encoding genes consists of myriad elements that determine gene expression, whether by switching transcription on or off, or by regulating the degree of transcription and consequently the guy concentrations and themes for creative writing function of all proteins.” Succinctly, in Science , Pennisi (4) declares that the ENCODE publications write the paperclip help “eulogy for junk DNA.” The new data—coming from high-throughput analyses of appendix, transcriptional and chromatin landscapes, transcription factor footprints, and long-range chromosomal interactions—support many current population genetic studies linking human diseases to paperclip supposedly nongenic regions, and for creative they are truly impressive in scope and depth (5). They resonate with the current enthusiasm for assigning multiple subtle but vital regulatory roles to help guy the still enigmatic long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) now known to essay on impact be transcribed from much of the length of paperclip, our genome (6, 7). A Collection. Additionally, congruence at help many sites between the many methods used (RNA sequencing, binding by one or more of 100+ DNA binding proteins, DNase I hypersensitivity, histone modification, DNA methylation, and chromosome conformation capture) leaves no doubt that many of these 4 million gene switches do represent chromosomal loci that are special in some way, in at appendix in academic least one cell type. However, do ENCODE’s data truly require us to abandon the widespread notion that junk DNA—here specifically understood as DNA that does not encode information promoting the paperclip survival and appendix in academic essays reproduction of the organisms that bear it—is the major constituent of many eukaryotic genomes, our own genome included? I will argue by way of a thought experiment and an analysis of paperclip help guy, what biologists traditionally have understood as function that they do not.
At the very least, “junk” as it has been conceived is an apt descriptor of the bulk of many genomes larger than our own. Moreover, it almost certainly still is for much of our genome, unless we hold Homo sapiens to be unique among the animals in the efficiency of its chromosomal organization and not just its cultural attainments. Such genomic anthropocentrism, unacknowledged conflation of possible meanings of “function,” questionable null hypotheses, and on role unrecognized panadaptationism are behind this most recent attempt to junk “junk.” Several of these same points have been made in brief by help guy Eddy (8) and Niu and Jiang (9). My aim here is to remind readers of the structure of essay of media, some earlier arguments in defense of the junk concept (10) that remain compelling, despite the obvious success of ENCODE in mapping the help guy subtle and complex human genomic landscape. Also, I will suggest that we need as biologists to defend traditional understandings of function: the themes publicity surrounding ENCODE reveals the extent to which these understandings have been eroded. However, theoretical expansion in other directions, reconceptualizing junk, might be advisable.
The junk idea long predates genomics and since its early decades has been grounded in the “C-value paradox,” the guy observation that DNA amounts (C-value denotes haploid nuclear DNA content) and essays on locke complexities correlate very poorly with organismal complexity or evolutionary “advancement” (10 ? ? ? –14). Guy. Humans do have a thousand times as much DNA as simple bacteria, but lungfish have at least 30 times more than humans, as do many flowering plants and some unicellular protists (14). Moreover, as is essay companies, often noted, the disconnection between C-value and guy organismal complexity is also found within more restricted groups comprising organisms of seemingly similar lifestyle and comparable organismal or behavioral complexity. The most heavily burdened lungfish ( Protopterus aethiopicus ) lumbers around with 130,000 Mb, but the pufferfish Takifugu (formerly Fugu ) rubripes gets by on less than 400 Mb (15, 16). A less familiar but better (because monophyletic) animal example might be amphibians, showing a 120-fold range from frogs to salamanders (17). Among angiosperms, there is a thousandfold variation (14). Additionally, even within a single genus, there can be substantial differences. Salamander species belonging to Plethodon boast a fourfold range, to cite a comparative study popular from the 1970s (18). Sometimes, such within-genus genome size differences reflect large-scale or whole-genome duplications and in early childhood sometimes rampant selfish DNA or transposable element (TE) multiplication. Schnable et al. (19) figure that the maize genome has more than doubled in paperclip help guy size in the last 3 million y, overwhelmingly through the replication and accumulation of TEs for example. If we do not think of this additional or “excess” DNA, so manifest through comparisons between and essays on locke within biological groups, as junk (irrelevant if not frankly detrimental to the survival and guy reproduction of the organism bearing it), how then are we to think of it?
Of course, DNA inevitably does have a basic structural role to play, unlinked to themes writing specific biochemical activities or the encoding of information relevant to genes and their expression. Centromeres and paperclip help telomeres exemplify noncoding chromosomal components with specific functions. Essays On Locke. More generally, DNA as a macromolecule bulks up and gives shape to chromosomes and thus, as many studies show, determines important nuclear and cellular parameters such as division time and size, themselves coupled to organismal development (11 ? –13, 17). The “selfish DNA” scenarios of 1980 (20 ? –22), in which C-value represents only the outcome of conflicts between upward pressure from reproductively competing TEs and downward-directed energetic restraints, have thus, in subsequent decades, yielded to more nuanced understandings. Cavalier-Smith (13, 20) called DNA’s structural and paperclip help guy cell biological roles “nucleoskeletal,” considering C-value to be optimized by organism-level natural selection (13, 20). Essay Companies. Gregory, now the principal C-value theorist, embraces a more “pluralistic, hierarchical approach” to what he calls “nucleotypic” function (11, 12, 17). Paperclip Help. A balance between organism-level selection on in academic, nuclear structure and cell size, cell division times and developmental rate, selfish genome-level selection favoring replicative expansion, and (as discussed below) supraorganismal (clade-level) selective processes—as well as drift—must all be taken into account. These forces will play out differently in different taxa. Gonzalez and Petrov (23) point out, for instance, that Drosophila and humans are at help guy opposite extremes in essay of media terms of the balance of processes, with the minimalist genomes of the former containing few (but mostly young and quite active) TEs, whereas at least one-half of our own much larger genome comprises the moribund remains of older TEs, principally SINEs and LINEs (short and long interspersed nuclear elements). Such difference may in help guy part reflect population size.
As Lynch notes, small population size (characteristic of our species) will have limited the effectiveness of natural selection in preventing a deleterious accumulation of TEs (24, 25). Zuckerkandl (26) once mused that all genomic DNA must be to childhood some degree “polite,” in paperclip help that it must not lethally interfere with gene expression. Indeed, some might suggest, as I will below, that true junk might better be defined as DNA not currently held to childhood a collection account by guy selection for any sort of role operating at any level of the biological hierarchy (27). Models. However, junk advocates have to date generally considered that even DNA fulfilling bulk structural roles remains, in terms of encoded information, just junk. Guy. Cell biology may require a certain C-value, but most of the essay stretches of noncoding DNA that go to satisfying that requirement are junk (or worse, selfish). In any case, structural roles or multilevel selection theorizing are not what ENCODE commentators are endorsing when they proclaim the end of junk, touting the existence of 4 million gene switches or myriad elements that determine gene expression and paperclip help guy assigning biochemical functions for 80% of the genome. Indeed, there would be no excitement in either the press or the scientific literature if all the ENCODE team had done was acknowledge an established theory concerning DNA’s structural importance. Rather, the excitement comes from interpreting ENCODE’s data to mean that a much larger fraction of our DNA than until very recently thought contributes to themes our survival and reproduction as organisms, because it encodes information transcribed or expressed phenotypically in one tissue or another, or specifically regulates such expression. ENCODE (5) defines a functional element (FE) as “a discrete genome segment that encodes a defined product (for example, protein or non-coding RNA) or displays a reproducible biochemical signature (for example, protein binding, or a specific chromatin structure).” A simple thought experiment involving FEs so-defined is at the heart of my argument.
Suppose that there had been (and probably, some day, there will be) ENCODE projects aimed at paperclip help enumerating, by transcriptional and chromatin mapping, factor footprinting, and so forth, all of the essays on locke FEs in paperclip help the genomes of Takifugu and a lungfish, some small and large genomed amphibians (including several species of Plethodon ), plants, and various protists. There are, I think, two possible general outcomes of this thought experiment, neither of which would give us clear license to abandon junk. The first outcome would be that FEs (estimated to be in a collection of essays the millions in our genome) turn out to be more or less constant in number, regardless of C-value—at least among similarly complex organisms. If larger C-value by itself does not imply more FEs, then there will, of course, be great differences in what we might call functional density (FEs per kilobase) (26) among species. FEs spaced by kilobases in Arabidopsis would be megabases apart in maize on average. Averages obscure details: the extra DNA in guy the larger genomes might be sequestered in essay a few giant silent regions rather than uniformly stretching out the space between FEs or lengthening intragenic introns. However, in either case, this DNA could be seen as a sort of polite functionless filler or diluent. At best, such DNA might have functions only of the structural or nucleoskeletal/nucleotypic sort. Indeed, even this sort of functional attribution is not necessary. There is room within an expanded, pluralistic and hierarchical theory of C-value (see below) (12, 27) for much DNA that makes no contribution whatever to survival and reproduction at guy the organismal level and thus is essay of media, junk at paperclip help guy that level, although it may be under selection at the sub- or supraorganismal levels (TEs and clade selection).
If the human genome is junk-free, then it must be very luckily poised at essay of media some sort of minimal size for organisms of human complexity. We may no longer think that mankind is at paperclip the center of the universe, but we still consider our species’ genome to be unique, first among many in having made such full and efficient use of all of its millions of essays on locke, SINES and LINES (retrotransposable elements) and introns to guy encode the multitudes of lncRNAs and house the millions of enhancers necessary to make us the uniquely complex creatures that we believe ourselves to in early of essays be. However, were this extraordinary coincidence the paperclip help case, a corollary would be that junk would not be defunct for many other larger genomes: the term would not need to be expunged from the genomicist’s lexicon more generally. Essays On Locke. As well, if, as is commonly believed, much of the functional complexity of the paperclip help human genome is to be explained by essays on locke evolution of our extraordinary cognitive capacities, then many other mammals of lesser acumen but similar C-value must truly have junk in their DNA. The second likely general outcome of my thought experiment would be that FEs as defined by ENCODE increase in help number with C-value, regardless of essays on locke, apparent organismal complexity. If they increase roughly proportionately, FE numbers will vary over a many-hundredfold range among organisms normally thought to help guy be similarly complex. Defining or measuring complexity is, of essay on impact of media, course, problematic if not impossible.
Still, it would be hard to paperclip guy convince ourselves that lungfish are 300 times more complex than Takifugu or 40 times more complex than us, whatever complexity might be. More likely, if indeed FE numbers turn out to increase with C-value, we will decide that we need to think again about what function is, how it becomes embedded in macromolecular structures, and what FEs as defined by naturopathy writing companies ENCODE have to tell us about paperclip it. What do we mean by function, informational or otherwise? Most philosophers of biology, and likely, most practicing biologists when pressed, would endorse some form of the essays on locke selected effect (SE) definition of help, function (28 ? –30). Diversity. Selected effect is the form of teleological explanation allowed, indeed required, by Darwinian theory (31). Accordingly, the functions of a trait or feature are all and only those effects of its presence for which it was under positive natural selection in the (recent) past and for which it is paperclip, under (at least) purifying selection now. Appendix Essays. They are why the guy trait or feature is there today and possibly why it was originally formed. Thus, we might reasonably say that the function of the lac operon in Escherichia coli is (and presumably, long has been) to in early allow facultative growth of help, bacteria on ?-galactosides, because we believe that, long before E. coli was brought into the laboratory, the lac operon was maintained by on impact of media selection to help allow such growth. We might also say that one of the functions of the human FOXP2 gene (which we share with many other vertebrates) is now to support speech (32), although in the more distant mammalian past, it could not have. We would imagine that there has been selection for speech in essay on role models human populations over considerable time.
Traits like FOXP2, now under positive or purifying selection for one effect but first arising because of selection for paperclip help another, are what Gould and Vrba (33) called “exaptations”. What we would not want to call functions (or even exaptations) are effects never so far selected for—side effects, as it were. Appendix In Academic. Gould and Lewontin (34) famously called these “spandrels.” They comprise both undesirable but apparently unavoidable consequences, like vulnerability to phages in paperclip help guy bacteria with pili or lower back pain in primates walking upright, and essays on locke seemingly neutral ones, like the help thumping noise made by the heart, to use an example beloved of of media, philosophers. Paperclip Guy. Indeed, even fortuitously advantageous traits, such the FOXP2 -enabled capacity to leave voice messages on answering machines, are not SE functions. We do not think that our ancestors experienced positive selection for leaving voice messages, although our descendants well might (and FOXP2 would then for them have acquired a new exaptive function). In any case, past selection, recent or ancient, can only be inferred, and appendix in academic essays we must use indirect ways to make the inference. One way, likely the most reliable but not universally applicable, is evolutionary conservation.
If diverse lineages retain a DNA sequence despite the erosive force of mutational divergence, there must be some effect maintained by purifying selection. Paperclip Guy. The above is essays on locke, not to help say that all conserved sequences are conserved through purifying selection at the level of for creative writing, organisms: some may be selfish. Help. Conversely, some conserved functions, such as the appendix essays complementary base-pairings that maintain ribosomal RNA secondary structures, do not require primary sequence conservation (35). Moreover, not all sequences that are likely to be currently under purifying organismal selection are conserved on an evolutionary (transspecies) timescale. In a recent comparative genomic survey, Ward and Kellis (36) find both mammal-conserved human sequences showing increasing diversity within our species (and thus, likely becoming nonfunctional in humans) and mammal-nonconserved sequence showing reduced within-human diversity (and thus, likely acquiring new function among us). Ponting and Hardison (37), using methods that they believe to take into account such turnover, “estimate that the paperclip help guy steady-state value of ? sel [the proportion of all nucleotides in the human genome that are subject to on impact of media purifying selection because of their biological function] lies between 10% and 15%” (37). Another way to paperclip help guy attribute function is essays, through experimental ablation: whatever organism-level effect E does not occur after deleting or blocking the expression of a region R of DNA is help guy, taken to be the latter’s function. This attribution is naturopathy essay writing companies, close to the everyday understanding of function, as in help the function of the on role carburetor is to oxygenate gasoline. The approach embodies what philosophers would call a causal role (CR) definition of function and supposedly eschews evolutionary or historical justifications. Much biological research into function is done this way, but I think that most biologists consider that experimental ablation indirectly points to guy SE. They believe that effect E could, under suitable conditions, be shown to have contributed to the past fitness of organisms and most importantly, that R exists as it does because of E . Cardiologists do not say that it is the function of the heart to make a thumping noise, although stopping the heart will silence it.
Similarly, geneticists studying Huntington disease would not say that the themes for creative trinucleotide repeat in the cognate gene, reiteration of which gives rise to the disorder, has disease causation as a function—although replacing the guy repeat with a nonidentical set of unique triplets encoding the same amino acid sequence would eliminate the deleterious effect (38). A third, and in early a collection of essays the least reliable, method to infer function is mere existence. The presence of a structure or the occurrence of a process or detectable interaction, especially if complex, is paperclip help, taken as adequate evidence for its being under selection, even when ablation is infeasible and the possibly selectable effect of presence remains unknown. Because our genomes have introns, Alu elements, and essay endogenous retroviruses, these things must be doing us some good. Because a region is transcribed, its transcript must have some fitness benefit, however remote. Because residue N of protein P is leucine in species A and isoleucine in species B, there must be some selection-based explanation. This approach enshrines “panadaptationism,” which was forcefully and paperclip effectively debunked by Gould and Lewontin (34) in naturopathy companies 1979 but still informs much of molecular and evolutionary genetics, including genomics.
As Lynch (39) argues in his essay “ The Frailty of Adaptive Hypotheses for paperclip help guy the Origins of Adaptive Complexity ,” This narrow view of evolution has become untenable in diversity childhood a collection of essays light of help guy, recent observations from genomic sequencing and in academic essays population genetic theory. Numerous aspects of genomic architecture, gene structure, and developmental pathways are difficult to explain without invoking the nonadaptive forces of genetic drift and mutation. In addition, emergent biological features such as complexity, modularity, and paperclip evolvability, all of which are current targets of appendix in academic, considerable speculation, may be nothing more than indirect by-products of processes operating at lower levels of organization. Functional attribution under ENCODE is of this third sort (mere existence) in paperclip guy the main. Appendix Essays. Although FEs as defined by guy ENCODE might be cross-identified by several methods and models even evolutionarily conserved, they could most often be the paperclip help guy molecular equivalent of spandrels—structured elements that are the for creative indirect consequence of selection operating on other features but are themselves selectively neutral, a form of structured noise.
Demonstrations that some biochemical signatures are not neutral and may even meet SE criteria say nothing about the rest and are, of course, expected as long as opportunism and help guy co-optation are understood to be key elements in evolution. In taking such a liberal definitional course, ENCODE follows the lead of the Gene Ontology (GO) project, which defines molecular function in decontextualized nonhistorical terms (40): Molecular function describes activities, such as catalytic or binding activities, that occur at essays on locke the molecular level. GO molecular function terms represent activities rather than the entities (molecules or complexes) that perform the actions, and do not specify where or when, or in what context, the action takes place. Proponents of ENCODE actually are concerned with what they call “functional validation” but principally seem worried about the danger of mistaking functional specificity (recognition or activity) rather than the risk of attributing function (especially regulatory function) where none exists in the SE sense. Paperclip Help. Stamatoyannopoulos (41) writes: These examples illustrate a natural temptation to equate activity with patterning of epigenomic features. Essay On Role Models. However, such reasoning drifts progressively farther away from experimentally grounded function or mechanistic understanding. The sheer diversity of cross-cell-type regulatory patterning evident in distal regulatory DNA uncovered by ENCODE suggests tremendous heterogeneity and functional diversity.
ENCODE is thus in a unique position to promote clearer terminology that separates the identification of functional elements per se from the ascription of specific functional activities using historical experimentally defined categories, and paperclip help also to dissuade the ascription of essays on locke, very specific functions based on a biochemical signature in place of a deeper mechanistic understanding. There are three other “natural temptations” that I would caution consumers of the ENCODE project product to avoid. The first temptation is the assumption that, because some members of a class of paperclip guy, elements have acquired SE functions, all or most must have functions or (more broadly) that the class of elements as a whole can thus be declared functional. On Role. Stamatoyannopoulos (41), for instance, writes: In marked contrast to the prevailing wisdom, ENCODE chromatin and paperclip guy transcription studies now suggest that a large number of transposable elements encode highly cell type-selective regulatory DNA that controls not only their own cell-selective transcription, but also those of neighboring genes. Far from an evolutionary dustbin, transposable elements appear to be active and on role lively members of the paperclip guy genomic regulatory community, deserving of the same level of scrutiny applied to essay on role models other genic or regulatory features.
It is help guy, surely inevitable that evolution, that inveterate tinkerer, will have sometimes co-opted some TEs for such purposes (42). However, it is an overenthusiastic extrapolation to describe TEs as a class as “active and lively members of the genomic regulatory community.” Moreover, the childhood a collection word “regulation” has itself degraded through use by paperclip genomicists, from designating evolved effects shown or likely to enhance fitness, presumably by efficient control of the use of resources, to more broadly denoting any measurable impact of one element or process on other elements or processes, regardless of fitness consequences. I think this broadening of definition misleads biologists such as Barroso (43) in essay on impact of media a passage cited later in this essay. Pacemakers regulate heartbeats and that is their function: tasers and caffeine also affect cardiac rhythm, but we would not (at least in the former case) see this as regulatory function. Regulation, defined in this loose way, is, for paperclip help instance, the assumed function of many or most lncRNAs, at essays on locke least for some authors (6, 7, 44, 45). However, the transcriptional machinery will inevitably make errors: accuracy is paperclip help guy, expensive, and writing companies the selective cost of discriminating against all false promoters will be too great to bear. There will be lncRNAs with promoters that have arisen through drift and exist only as noise (46).
Similarly, binding to proteins and other RNAs is something that RNAs do. It is inevitable that some such interactions, initially fortuitous, will come to be genuinely regulatory, either through positive selection or the paperclip neutral process described below as constructive neutral evolution (CNE). However, there is in early childhood a collection of essays, no evolutionary force requiring that all or even most do. At another (sociology of science) level, it is inevitable that molecular biologists will search for and discover some of those possibly quite few instances in which function has evolved and paperclip help argue that the naturopathy essay function of lncRNAs as a class of elements has, at last, been discovered. The positivist, verificationist bias of contemporary science and the politics of its funding ensure this outcome. However, what is the correct conceptual framework here? Why should either function or nonfunction for a class of guy, elements be taken as the in academic essays null hypothesis, and why should evidence for paperclip or against function, however defined, be taken as support of one or the other? Either is a form of essentialism or natural kind thinking inappropriate in contemporary biology.
There is, after all, nothing in nature that constrains classes of genetic elements defined by humans as sharing certain common characteristics to share others not part of that definition. The second natural temptation is to assume that function of a part implies function of the whole. Co-optation of the promoters of TEs or the insertion of for creative, bona fide regulatory sequences into introns is help, taken to impart function to the TE or intron as a whole. However, the cell does not necessarily see the rest of the TE or the intronic surround of an embedded enhancer as relevant to its activity, and only the promoter or enhancer sequence may be under selection. Even when an entire genetic element seems relevant or necessary (whole introns must be removed even if only certain sites are active in their removal), there is the possibility of childhood, excess baggage or junk-like character. Do enhancer-harboring introns really need to be so long? Another analogy seems in order: My computer might be 5 ft from the wall socket, but if I have only a 10-ft electrical cord all 10 ft will seem functional, because cutting the cord anywhere will turn off my machine. In this connection, note that much more than one-half of 80.4% of the human genome that ENCODE deems functional is so considered because it is transcribed (4), most often into paperclip help an intron or lncRNA, only a tiny fraction of the length of which is for creative writing, likely to be involved in potentially regulatory interactions. A third and related natural temptation is to inflate functional attribution through choice of window size. The ENCODE Project Consortium notes (5) that: The vast majority (80.4%) of the help guy human genome participates in at appendix least one biochemical RNA- and/or chromatin-associated event in at least one cell type. Much of the genome lies close to a regulatory event: 95% of the genome lies within 8 kilobases (kb) of a DNA–protein interaction (as assayed by bound ChIP-seq motifs or DNase I footprints), and 99% is within 1.7 kb of at paperclip least one of the biochemical events measured by ENCODE.
Even this last and largest percentage, assuming the naturopathy average biochemical event to directly involve tens to hundreds of help, bases (41), assigns functions to only a minority (perhaps 10%) of the genome’s base pairs. ENCODE’s data are indeed unexpected and in academic impressive, but without some principled and agreed-on metric for functional density and FE boundaries, any answer to the question “how much of the guy genome is functional?” remains endlessly negotiable and appendix in academic essays transparently window size-dependent. In her News and View editorial in the September 6, 2012 issue of Nature , Barroso (43) speculates as follows concerning the vast majority of human DNA, until now thought useless: …there is help, a good reason to keep this DNA. Diversity In Early Childhood A Collection. Results from the ENCODE project show that most of these stretches of DNA harbor regions that bind proteins and RNA molecules, bringing these into paperclip guy positions from which they cooperate with each other to naturopathy regulate the function and level of expression of protein-coding genes. In addition, it seems that widespread transcription from non-coding DNA potentially acts as a reservoir for the creation of new functional molecules, such as regulatory RNAs. In addition to equating regulation with having an effect, Barroso (43) revives here the notion that excess DNA is paperclip guy, not junk because it may some day be of use, and writing companies thus it is maintained as a reservoir. Brenner (47) long ago derided this sort of reasoning as follows: There is guy, a strong and widely held belief that all organisms are perfect and that everything within them is there for in academic essays a function. Help Guy. Believers ascribe to the Darwinian natural selection process a fastidious prescience that it cannot possibly have and some go so far as to think that patently useless features of existing organisms are there as an investment for the future. One sees similar Panglossian futuristic speculation in some of the essays on locke recent literature on robustness and evolvability (critique in ref. 48).
However, it cannot in general be the case that selection operating at the level of fitness of individuals within a species can favor the origin or maintenance of traits that incurs selective cost at that level, while offering only the remotest hope of future benefit to the individual and its descendants. Other evolutionary mechanisms can. The publications by Lynch et al. (24) and Lynch (39, 49) have effectively argued that drift operating in very small populations will (by chance) encourage accumulation of DNA that can add to help guy C-value and might, in the future, come in in early handy. Selection at the suborganismal (selfish DNA) level may also seem to be future-directed: TEs do sometimes later become useful through co-optation or general effects on paperclip, the generation of for creative, novelty (42, 50). Indeed, Fedoroff (51) has recently proposed that TEs should not be described pejoratively as “selfish” and that the prevailing view—that the help epigenetic silencing mechanisms that eukaryotes use to limit TE replication arose to do just that—puts the evolutionary cart before the horse. Rather, Fedoroff (51) suggests that these mechanisms, by also limiting recombination between repeated TEs (which makes genomes smaller), allow TEs to accumulate, growing genomes and that this was a “…critical step in the evolution of multicellular organisms, underpinning the ability to diversify duplicates for expression in specific cells and essay on impact tissues” (51). Fedoroff (51) concludes that On balance, then, the paperclip guy likelihood that contemporary eukaryotic genomes evolved in the context of epigenetic mechanisms seems vastly greater than the likelihood that they were invented as an afterthought to combat a plague of parasitic transposons. However, evolutionary explanations of genome structure need not be either/or in naturopathy writing this sense, after it is help, recognized that selection affecting the genome operates at naturopathy writing companies all (including supraorganismal) levels of the biological hierarchy (12, 27). Guy. TEs can be selected through selfish replication at the level of DNA, while selection at on impact of media the level of paperclip help guy, organisms has established silencing mechanisms to reign in TE replication, and appendix essays selection at the level of clades has looked favorably on those clades with complex genomes that engender evolutionary novelty and render whole-clade extinction less likely. (That is, clades that have TE-rich dynamic genomes may have indeed because of paperclip help guy, that produced more and more interestingly diverse and evolutionarily robust and evolvable descendant species.) Evolutionary forces operate simultaneously at all levels in the same and different directions with differing strengths and results measurable in different units (such as the frequency of essay writing, TEs in an individual genome, TE-enhanced individuals in a species, TE-bearing species in a genus, or classes comprising such species in a phylum). Indeed, one could reasonably argue for help an eventual expansion of the SE definition of “function” to include all levels as long as we distinguish them (DNA-level function, organism-level function, clade-level function, and so forth). Models. This definitional expansion might well lead to a reduction in the amount of help guy, DNA that we could reasonably call junk.
However, I think such an on role models, expanded idea of function does not currently inform ENCODE or most genomic thinking, and in any case, the problems of inference, evidence, and appropriate null hypotheses remain. Quite often, we can intuit the results of a thought experiment before articulating the reasons for our intuition. This propensity is the mysterious appeal and practical use of thought experiments. My intuition is that, when ENCODE-like methods are applied with equal thoroughness to larger genomes, outcomes of the second sort described above will be obtained. That is, lungfish will have many more FEs than Takifugu , and large-genomed Plethodon species will have more than smaller-genomed ones. If there were a primate with a C-value substantially greater than that of H. sapiens , it would prove to have more FEs, even if judged more primitive in intelligence or on behavioral grounds. An exception might be genomes in which C-value increases are very recent and caused by paperclip help the expansive replication of repetitive sequences that previously lacked ENCODE-definable sites.
Assuming these predictions are borne out, what might we make of it? Lynch (39) suggests that much of the genomic- and systems-level complexity of eukaryotes vis a vis prokaryotes is models, maladaptive, reflecting the inability of help, selection to block fixation of incrementally but mildly deleterious mutations in themes for creative the smaller populations of the former. Thus, for guy instance, the fact that eukaryotic molecular machines comprise more interacting subunits than their prokaryotic counterparts reflects the inability of selection operating on smaller populations to enforce functional efficiency. Additionally, to be sure, the proliferation of short- and long-range molecular interactions deleteriously interposing themselves within previously simpler regulatory networks will be harder to essay of media stop in small than large populations. Several recent publications (52 ? ? –55) have revived the paperclip argument that CNE is appendix in academic, just such an interpositional force, possibly a very powerful one. A simple example of paperclip guy, CNE would be a process by which self-splicing intron RNAs could become dependent on proteinaceous splicing factors. Initially, the essays on locke RNA secondary structure is sufficient to guy catalyze self-removal, but fortuitously bound proteins that stabilize the RNA can compensate for (presuppress) mutations that might destabilize elements of the structure necessary for independent splicing. Because they are not now deleterious, such mutations will accumulate to equilibrium: the purifying selection pressure that maintained RNA secondary structure has gone. Models. No selection is paperclip, involved at this stage. Of Media. If there are several such potentially presuppressible mutations, then a ratchet-like mechanism will make it difficult or impossible for paperclip help guy the RNA to ever regain splicing independence. Essay. Elimination of the protein will become a lethal event.
Therefore, purifying selection now prevents the loss of the complex feature (molecular interdependency), although positive selection did nothing to create it. The entire multiprotein, multi-RNA, eukaryotic spliceosome might have evolved through reiterations of this process along with very many of the intricacies of the cellular machinery (52 ? ? –55). CNE would work in concert with any population-size effect. Help. Neither entails positive selection for the complex structure and/or processes thus produced—only purifying selection against its elimination. Philosophers who endorse SE definitions of essay writing companies, function have not, to my knowledge, embraced or even considered such CNE scenarios, which would meet CR definitions. Considering traits fixed by CNE to have SE function would add still additional arrows to the quiver of panadaptationism and should perhaps be discouraged. A common consequence of CNE is that even structures or processes that have arisen by positive selection because they increase organismal fitness will later become more complex in terms of the number of intermolecular interactions required for their successful completion. Function diffuses. Genetic networks will first acquire and then require more and more protein–nucleic acid, protein–protein, and nucleic acid–nucleic acid intermolecular associations. Larger genomes, producing more RNAs (and sometimes more proteins), offer up more macromolecules and variants as potential fortuitous presuppressors and more potential DNA binding sites.
Recognition systems for transcription and help transcription factor binding cannot be made indefinitely more accurate without the aid of unbearably slow and selectively costly proofreading systems. Tradeoffs between speed, economy, and appendix essays accuracy will unavoidably entail that larger genomes will produce disproportionately more noise in terms of fortuitous transcripts capable of becoming presuppressors and thus, more complex, seemingly regulatory, networks of interaction. Some will be functional in a CR if not an SE sense, and some will have arisen through CNE so that they are now maintained by purifying selection. However, many, possibly the vast majority, are just there. The above considerations are but some of the paperclip help reasons that one might intuit that FE number will scale with genome size. A very recent comparative analysis of transcription factor binding sites in model organisms (45) confirms this conjecture.
Ruths and Nakhleh (45) claim that …neutral evolutionary forces alone can explain binding site accumulation, and that selection on the regulatory network does not alter this finding. If neutral forces drive the accumulation of essays on locke, binding sites, then, despite selective constraints, organisms with large amounts of [noncoding] DNA would evolve functional, yet ‘overcomplicated’ networks. The renewed debate over junk, thus, owes much of its heat to at least four misconceptions or misrepresentations. First is the pretense that there is any definable boundary between informational and structural (genic and nongenic) functions for paperclip help guy DNA. Increasingly, genomics is expanding the boundaries of information as geneticists have typically understood it. Essay Of Media. Minimally, gene means more than it used to help guy mean. Djebali et al. (56) write …the determination of genic regions is of essays, currently defined by guy the cumulative lengths of the isoforms and essays their genetic association to phenotypic characteristics, the likely continued reduction in the lengths of intergenic regions will steadily lead to the overlap of most genes previously assumed to be distinct genetic loci. This supports and paperclip help guy is consistent with earlier observations of in academic, a highly interleaved transcribed genome, but more importantly, prompts the reconsideration of the help definition of on role, a gene. As this is a consistent characteristic of annotated genomes, we would propose that the paperclip help guy transcript be considered as the basic atomic unit of inheritance. Concomitantly, the term gene would then denote a higher-order concept intended to capture all those transcripts (eventually divorced from their genomic locations) that contribute to appendix in academic essays a given phenotypic trait. However, regulatory loci are also informational even if not transcribed, and ENCODE has documented many long-range interactions between chromosomal regions that may be brought together physically in the nucleus, a very complex and structure-rich molecular machine, at some time during the cell cycle.
Therefore, in this sense, the gross structure of the paperclip help chromosome set also carries information that may be relevant to naturopathy companies the function of genes, broadly defined. Additionally, all DNA has the job of serving as a template for its own replication—to that extent, encoding information. It is help, nevertheless true that a distinction between structural and informational roles has long been part of the C-value argument for junk DNA. This line of reasoning has held that high C-value might be necessary for cellular function, but the nongenic DNA that fills the requirement is informationally junk. ENCODE’s claim is essay models, that much more of the DNA is, in paperclip help fact, informational (especially regulatory) than we had thought, and indeed ENCODE’s focus is on essays on locke, sites likely to be involved directly or indirectly in transcription—on the “myriad elements that determine gene expression” to quote The Lancet (3). Therefore, the paperclip guy structure–information distinction informs the interpretation of the project’s results, and essay of media without it there would be nothing novel or newsworthy in guy the assertion that all of the human genome has some sort of role in human biology. Themes For Creative Writing. We have known that since the mid-1980s.
Second is the help conflation of appendix in academic essays, SE and CR definitions of function. Help Guy. Those of us who speak of excess DNA as informationally junk mean that its presence is not to be explained by past and/or current selection at the level of organisms—that it has no informational function construable historically as an SE. Those who say that almost the whole of the human genome is functional informationally do so on the basis of an operational diagnosis embracing a nonhistorical CR definition of in early a collection, function. This definition is certain to paperclip identify as functions very many effects that have not been selected. The rhetoric attending the appendix declared “eulogy for junk DNA” (4) sweeps this distinction under the carpet. Third is paperclip help guy, a false natural kind ontology, essentialist in nature, that encourages ( i ) the attribution to a whole class of operationally defined genetic elements those functions known only for a few and/or ( ii ) the attribution to the whole length of such a genetic element a function that resides in only part of it. In the essay on impact of media case of lncRNAs and intron transcripts, whose lengths together make up more than three-quarters of 80% of the genome said to be functional, this second sort of functional attribution seems especially misleading. Fourth may be a seldom-articulated or -questioned notion that cellular complexity is adaptive, the product of positive selection at the organismal level. Our disappointment that humans do not have many more genes than fruit flies or nematodes has been assuaged by evidence that regulatory mechanisms that mediate those genes’ phenotypic expressions are more various, subtle, and sophisticated (57), evidence of the sort that ENCODE seems to guy vastly augment.
Yet there are nonselective mechanisms, such as CNE, that could result in naturopathy companies the scaling of FEs as ENCODE defines them to paperclip help C-value nonadaptively or might be seen as selective at some level higher or lower than the level of individual organisms. Splits within the diversity childhood a collection of essays discipline between panadaptationists/neutralists and paperclip help guy those researchers accepting or doubting the themes for creative writing importance of multilevel selection fuel this controversy and others in biology. I submit that, up until now, junk has been used to denote DNA whose presence cannot reasonably be explained by natural selection at the level of the organism for help encoded informational roles. There remain good reasons to believe that much of the diversity in early childhood a collection of essays DNA of many species fits this definition. Nevertheless, while still insisting on SE functionality, we might want to come up with new definitions of function and junk by ( i ) abandoning the distinction between informational and nucleoskeletal or nucleotypic roles for DNA, ( ii ) admitting that there may be strong selection for C-value as a determinant of many cell biological features, ( iii ) fully embracing hierarchical selection theory and acknowledging that different genomic features may have legitimate functions defined and in play at different levels, and ( iv ) expanding the SE definition of function to include traits that arise neutrally but are preserved by purifying selection (12). Much that we now call junk could then become functional. However, such a philosophically informed theoretical expansion is not what ENCODE, or at least those authors stressing the demise of junk, so far seem to have in mind (1 ? ? ? –5). In the end, of course, there is no experimentally ascertainable truth of these definitional matters other than the truth that many of the paperclip guy most heated arguments in biology are not about facts at themes for creative writing all but rather about the guy words that we use to models describe what we think the facts might be. However, that the debate is in the end about the meaning of paperclip help, words does not mean that there are not crucial differences in our understanding of the evolutionary process hidden beneath the writing rhetoric. I note that a very forcefully worded critique by Graur et al. Paperclip. (58), with more specific objections to ENCODE's methodology, was published while this manuscript was in the proof stage.
I thank Evelyn Fox Keller, Eric Bapteste, James McInerney, Andrew Roger, and the Centre for Comparative Genomics and Evolutionary Bioinformatics (CGEB) group for comments on this manuscript and the Canadian Institutes for appendix in academic essays Health Research for support.
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And since every sentence ever written is paperclip guy, one or the other, this is hardly a formula. The program does require structure, but it also allows for natural, real writing. Cause-effect, problem-solution, compare-contrast are all logical patterns of thought, but they are all patterns of thought that must be expressed in organized paragraphs and in whole compositions. And for young and struggling writers, it’s the paragraphs and the whole compositions that are the naturopathy writing companies, problem. What is a paragraph? What is an introduction and a conclusion? How are paragraphs connected and related to paperclip each other? How are the introduction and conclusion connected to in early childhood a collection the other paragraphs? The patterns and systems in Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay teach students how ideas and paperclip guy paragraphs are connected, along with how the stages of the writing process are connected.
This program helps students discover and internalize the connections—quickly and easily. Appendix In Academic. Then the “Purpose in Writing” section builds upon these skills by applying them to 14 different types of writing, including cause-effect, problem-solution, and compare-contrast. In effect, you will teach both of these: The structure that guarantees your students will do well on writing assessments. The connection, rhythm, and flow of effective writing that will change the way your students feel about writing. Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay will do this quickly, easily, and in a way your students will never forget. Writing Without Pattern: Confused and help guy Unorganized Writing. If your students don’t like to diversity in early write, or if they don’t write in nice paragraph form, it’s likely that when they read back their own writing to themselves they see one long thought, or worse yet, a long list of paperclip help guy, words. They see no overall big picture, no guiding structure, and no main message. They can’t see what is going on with their own writing.
There is no pattern to it—so they feel lost in it. Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay is a simple writing curriculum that guarantees your elementary and middle school students will feel truly great about the diversity in early, entire writing process. Everything in guy, this program ties together both logically and essay writing companies systematically. Paperclip Help. Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay brings about real understanding and not just compliance. When students read back their multi-paragraph writing, they will do so with pride and confidence. Based on my experience, that act alone changes the writing paradigm. Essay Writing Companies. Student writers transform into passionate authors! The Research Shows: Teaching Grammar and Writing. In The Neglected ‘R,’ the National Commission on Writing stated two clear facts about teaching writing: “Experiments over the last 50 years have shown negligible improvements in paperclip help, the quality of student writing as a result of on role, grammar instruction.” “Decades of research (Elly, 1979, Hillocks, 1986, Freedman, 1993, Freedman and Daiute, 2001) have shown that instructional strategies such as isolated skill drills fail to improve student writing.” Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay is not a grammar program.
Grammar is very important, and I do not neglect teaching it. However, grammar instruction becomes substantially more effective when it’s incorporated into and made a part of paperclip, a full classroom writing routine. Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay will help you turn your grammar students into writing students. In its simplest form, here is what the research says works. It’s not rocket science. Teach: Teach lessons on grammar, organization, genre, technique, and process. Write: Assign meaningful writing assignments across the curriculum. Have students write often. Ownership: Foster students’ ownership of their own writing.
Teach students to use checklists and rubrics in order to essay on role models fix and evaluate their own writing. Accountability: Hold students accountable for the writing skills they learn across the curriculum. After using Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay , teaching writing is this easy. This program is the foundation and the framework that makes teaching writing easy. Basically, the paperclip, research shows that it is essays on locke, very difficult to teach writing to non-writers, as non-writers don’t see why grammar and literary techniques are important. In contrast, writers who really write are interested in help, making their own writing better! After you get your students writing using Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay , day by day, you will find that about half of all of your students’ grammar errors simply disappear. Half? Yes.
Real understanding along with pride of ownership will bring about real change. It’s likely that your students know more grammar rules and writing rules than they choose to use. Teach grammar, definitely, but students need to essays on locke apply it in what they consider to be real writing. That’s what the research shows. Elementary School Writing Errors Become Middle School Writing Errors and then Become Habit. Below is a list of common multi-paragraph writing errors. They exist in paperclip, elementary school and then continue into middle school. Writing. And this is why high school teachers end up spending valuable class time teaching five-paragraph essays. These misunderstandings and misconceptions about organization and structure don’t get easier to help teach after elementary school.
In fact, they often become harder to teach because students have been practicing writing (and thinking) the wrong way for naturopathy essay writing companies, so long that they become set in help guy, their bad habits. Unfortunately, with more homework and increased writing expectations, many middle school students become overwhelmed with both their schoolwork and naturopathy writing homework. So let’s solve these multi-paragraph writing problems when it’s relatively easy, in elementary school or early middle school, before they become firmly entrenched habits! Say Goodbye to All of guy, These Multi-Paragraph Writing Errors, Misconceptions, and Poor Writing Habits: Students fail to answer the essay question or don’t follow the in academic essays, directions. They are off topic.
Students don’t understand what a true introduction or conclusion is. Students believe “paragraph form” means you simply start a new paragraph every 3-5 sentences. Students repeat ideas or paragraphs. Paperclip Help. The more they write, the on impact, more they repeat. Students don’t want to do prewriting. They don’t see the value or purpose of prewriting. They believe prewriting is a waste of time. Students write whatever pops into their minds. The more they write, the more they ramble. Students focus on many, many tiny details that go on and on whenever they write more than a paragraph or two. Students find it difficult to connect their prewriting to their writing.
At extremes, student prewriting actually seems to prevent students from getting started on the real writing for which they will be graded. Students use inconsistent form within an essay. Paperclip Help Guy. Sometimes a paragraph is about one main idea; sometimes it’s about many. Students use inconsistent structure from essay to essay on role essay. Paperclip Help. Sometimes they write correctly; sometimes they don’t. Students don’t have a system for getting their work started and for getting it finished. And many, many more! Not only will you eliminate all these problems, but you will also create the skills that put your students in essay of media, complete control over the paragraph, how paragraphs fit together within an essay, and the relationship between paragraphs and the introduction and paperclip help conclusion. On Impact Of Media. Your students will be able to organize and help guy compose an entire multi-paragraph essay in 30 minutes or less, and it will be so good that no one will believe it is a first draft!
…Better Results, Faster, Than Ever Before. I’ve taught 4th and 5th grade for five years. It’s amazing that in two months I was able to get my students writing better than I had been able to in an a collection of essays, entire year previously. We have a writing program, but it doesn’t teach what this teaches. This program works! Thanks! -M. Lutz, Cleveland, Ohio – Teacher. Let’s Examine the System That Transforms Children into Confident Authors! Even though this curriculum is simple and sequential, individual students have individual needs. As such, I have made sure that when you are using Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay , you are never left without a resource.
You have 246 pages of the following resources: In addition to the methodology and the resources, seven additional components and characteristics ensure your success with this writing curriculum. The Program’s Seven Components and Characteristics that Help Create Writing Success. This methodology works! But beyond the methodology, this program helps create writing success for a variety of teachers and paperclip guy students, in a variety of ways, and for a variety of essay models, reasons. Paperclip Help Guy. Let’s look at seven of these components and characteristics that help teachers and students achieve writing success.
Complete Model : This writing curriculum forms a whole ; it’s a complete model and methodology. Each step of the methodology is either a pattern or a system. Not only are the patterns and on role models systems made clear—but they are also clearly connected. Students quickly see that organized writing is not random. Once students understand this, their writing confidence improves. They see that they will surly become successful writers.
Evaluation Method : There is a built-in method of guy, evaluation that allows teachers and models students to objectively evaluate writing progress. Did the curriculum really work? Both you and your students will be able to answer this question—objectively! Sample Answers : Sample answers remove all doubt and provide clear guidance. This kind of certainty powers you forward. Pacing and Implementation Guidance : You receive loads of pacing and implementation guidance. Whatever grade level you teach, and whatever your time constraints, you will know how to proceed in order to help get results quickly and easily. On Impact. Appendices : Over the years, I’ve interacted with program users and I’ve answered all the questions! Furthermore, you receive valuable resources that point you in the right direction so that you can continue to build on your students’ newfound writing success.
Foundation and Framework : This multi-paragraph writing model provides a foundation and framework that teachers and schools can continue to build on all year, and paperclip guy even year after year. It creates a shortcut and shorthand for addressing all multi-paragraph writing. This makes it easy to layer on a collection, additional skills, techniques, and strategies, while keeping student active in real writing across the help guy, curriculum. Essay On Role Models. Adaptable and Flexible : You may change grade levels or need to teach several different grade levels simultaneously. Help. You may find yourself tutoring or remediating students. Essay On Impact Of Media. Regardless, the methodology travels with you and provides a roadmap to writing success. I even know of teachers who use the methodology with adult learners who need to paperclip help guy improve their writing quickly—and it works!
You may not need every single page, resource, and pattern in order to appendix in academic essays achieve writing success, but you will have the guy, resources available. This is a complete writing program where all the of media, gaps have been filled. What’s Inside of paperclip help, Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay ? Some of what you will see is traditional, and some are true breakthroughs. Essays On Locke. It’s the paperclip help, breakthroughs that make this program so effective! The breakthroughs are the reason why I put this program down on paper! Having said that, I have used all of the program’s breakthrough concepts alongside of traditional writing vocabulary—topic sentence, main idea, paragraph, introduction, body, conclusion, and more. Essay Of Media. Students must know these terms when it’s time for state and district assessments, and I make sure they learn them and understand them! Looking over the program outline below, you may think I have given away a few of the paperclip help, secrets that make this program so effective. It should be noted that what is naturopathy essay, not included is the 246-page student guide/ workbook that makes this step-by-step system as easy to teach as A, B, C! Welcome, Introduction, and Evaluation System. Section 1: Introducing the Patterns.
Pattern 1: The A, B, C Sentence ™ – Students think, “Why can’t everything be this simple? This one sentence outlines an entire essay!” Pattern 2: The Secret A, B, C Sentence ™ – Teachers spend months trying to get students to understand the complex concept that this amazing pattern teaches in paperclip help, a single sentence. Pattern 3: Chunking Down: Getting More Specific – This pattern uses highly visual and diversity of essays kinesthetic language, which builds understanding. The concept is explained and illustrated with high-interest diagrams. Paperclip Help. Students learn exactly how everything they read and in early of essays study in school is organized.
Students internalize this kind of thinking and logic and apply it to their own writing. Pattern 4: Chunking Up: Looking at the Big Picture – Both Patterns 3 and 4 use highly visual and kinesthetic language, along with plenty of fabulous diagrams. This language makes sense to kids–and adults! Everyone will find the diagrams and examples fascinating! Pattern 5: The Perfect Paragraph – What does perfect mean to you? Perfect to me means that students say, “I truly understand this!” This Perfect Paragraph combines patterns 1-4 in order to create a perfect understanding of help, paragraphs. You and your students will love this pattern! Pattern 6: Brainstorming and Prewriting – Once again, we use a number of patterns from above, as it’s all connected . Soon students connect the patterns in this prewriting system directly to the entire structure of on impact of media, their essay. Paperclip Guy. Your students also learn a variety of do’s and don’ts. Prewriting must add value to the writing process, and students must see that they are creating value, and not wasting time. This is prewriting with a connected purpose!
Section 2: Writing a Complete Essay. Pattern 7: Rules and Systems for Writing and Discussing our Complete Essay – Students will be writing a number of multi-paragraph essays, and hopefully, they will quickly share and discuss a number of these essays. In order to make the most of this time, we need a few systems, a few shortcuts, and a common language. In Academic. It makes all the difference in the world. We will all be on the same page—and that means we save LOTS of time and eliminate LOTS of frustration! Patterns 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12: These five patterns are five steps that help students grow an paperclip help guy, essay. The body paragraphs stay the same, but the naturopathy essay, introduction and help guy conclusion build from extremely simple to attention grabbing and powerful.
These patterns create a kind of understanding that helps even 3rd graders grasp how everything in a complete essay is connected. Teachers try to explain this with logic, but it rarely works. In particular, Patterns 8, 9, and 10 do what words alone cannot do—and we use the same patterns that students have already mastered. This means we achieve the goal quickly and without question. In short, we begin with a complete, simple essay, and we sequentially and incrementally build upon appendix in academic essays that essay using all the help, patterns and organizational techniques students have already learned. A Three-Point Analysis of Section 1 and Section 2: This is both a writing curriculum and on impact a methodology.
Showing is just slightly better than telling. Doing, on paperclip, the other hand, is infinitely better than both! This is not a formula. It is a writing curriculum composed of built-in connection! Section 3: Applying and Extending the Patterns. Patterns 13-14: Writing Prompt Breakdown and themes for creative Analysis – In order to paperclip receive high scores on state writing assessments, students must address every aspect of the writing prompt. Students may not write about just the parts they wish to write about. Here are two powerful strategies that make certain that students break down the companies, writing prompts correctly, follow the paperclip help guy, directions, and stay on topic. Patterns 15-16: Advanced Brainstorming and diversity in early a collection of essays Prewriting – These two patterns deal with the big picture in whole compositions.
Students learn how to dig deep and find the most important main ideas. Help. They also learn how to of media organize them for guy, effect. Your students will be able to publish multi-page essays and reports once they understand this. Pattern 17: How to Get Great Ideas for Your Writing – This section contains a number of fun and interesting ways to come up with great ideas, yet at this point in in academic, the writing program, getting ideas is rarely an issue! Pattern 18: Transitions and paperclip Sequencing – The real ART of writing! Pattern 19: The Perfect Paragraph with Detail Extensions – Detail Extensions are details about details . Appendix Essays. Detail Extensions often take the form of commentary and elaboration, both of which are important writing concepts. Commentary and guy elaboration raise state writing assessment scores; however, students must keep the commentary and elaboration under control. Detail Extensions keep the writing under control and all connected! To Infinity and Beyond: Where Do We Go From Here? Student Evaluation: The Timed Writing System. The Timed Writing System contained in this writing curriculum is writing companies, a timed portfolio powered with nitroglycerin!
Let’s just say, you will not need to point out the writing progress to your students. They will be the ones telling you, “I can’t even read what I was writing before!” I guarantee this. This brand new 22-page section ties together 14 different types of writing. It answers two questions: to inform to persuade to describe to argue to help guy compare and contrast. to explain to classify to essay on impact narrate to critique to explain the paperclip guy, cause and effect. to entertain to define to evaluate to describe a problem and essays explain a solution. Your students will understand and engage in each of paperclip guy, these types of writing, and with a little practice, they will be able to apply all of these types of writing in essay, any assignment they receive.
Most important, your students will understand how to help guy interconnect these “paragraphs with a purpose” within an entire “essay with a purpose.” Additionally, they will understand how this “purpose” or “intent” is expressed both within their topic sentence and within their thesis statement. Proven Methods and a Proven System That Works! When it comes to children’s education, time is essay of media, valuable! You have the right to know that the help, educational materials you are using have been tested and proven effective by real teachers and in real classrooms! As such, my credential is viewable at naturopathy essay writing companies the “California Commission on Teacher Credentialing” website. This is standards-based instruction, implemented in a creative way, that works with all elementary and middle school students. Paperclip Help. You will now get the for creative writing, results in a matter of months that you had only DREAMED of getting over the course of an entire school year!
Better results and better understanding in help guy, one-third the time! Enthusiasm spreads like wildfire! It’s so exciting to see a choir of essay models, students looking at the writing they had written just months before and exclaiming, “Mr. Barger, I can’t even read what I had written before. It doesn’t make any sense.” I was a little skeptical when I first saw a few of the patterns, but then I figured out how it all fit together. Help. What I had used with my older child had not worked as I had hoped, so I decided I wanted to try something more focused and clear-cut. This curriculum clearly has a goal in appendix in academic, mind. I taught my 4th grader to write a complete essay in paperclip help, a fraction of the time that it had taken me before, and it was fun! -Fran W.— Minneapolis, MN -Homeschool Parent. I guarantee that this program will bring about better results, faster than any writing program available for all grades 2-6, as well as when used remedially in grades 7 and above.
I guarantee that all teachers, homeschooling parents, and even concerned parents will be able to implement this program and essay on role models get the same results that I have gotten. As you can see, I’m confident with what this program can do. I have always offered a no-questions-asked money back guarantee, and I have sold well over 1000 programs. Even the paperclip, early adapters were extremely happy, but I’ve now communicated with users, answered questions, and added to the program. You will know exactly how to writing get results and then how to build on paperclip help, that success. This program is appendix essays, not an end to help writing growth. In fact, it’s intended to a collection of essays be a new beginning! This program will be the paperclip, engine that powers your writing instruction all year long—and beyond. You will be teaching writing to students who can really write! The Story of How this Program Came to Be. The heart of this Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay program began with a 3rd grade classroom that had experienced well over essay of media 55 teachers and substitutes throughout the school year.
I took over the class during my off-track time for the final seven weeks of their school year. Paperclip Guy. I had taught 3rd grade before, and I knew the writing skills that this class should have. They had none of them. Based on what I saw, it seemed to me that the essay, entire school year had been lost. Teaching writing had always been a passion of paperclip help, mine, but I was at essay models a loss for how to get this class writing even somewhat decently.
I did have a great methodology for teaching writing that worked in a normal classroom situation, but in this situation , I had to paperclip get creative. And I did! This situation forced me to think outside the box. I came up with the the A, B, C Sentence ™ and the children’s faces lit up! Next came the in academic, Secret A, B, C Sentence ™, and help the kids had an almost puzzled expression that said, “This is diversity in early of essays, easy! Is it really this simple?” A few weeks later, I was taken by complete surprise when suddenly one student after another started exclaiming, “I can’t even read what I was writing before!” I had never seen anything like it. We continued forward!
Thirty-seven days after arriving in this class, these students were able to write the best complete essays of help, any class I had ever taught. Diversity Childhood A Collection Of Essays. I insisted the principal take home the students’ before-and-after timed writings and look them over. When she came to return them, her eyes welled up as she asked, “You mean these are first drafts?!” I replied, “Yes. Help. That’s an objective TIMED WRITING – 25-minutes from start to on role models finish.” Many nice words followed, but for me… the principal’s eyes had said it all. Over the next few years, I built on guy, and perfected the system in both elementary and themes middle school classrooms. Now the effectiveness of the program is bottled up within these amazing patterns and systems. Let me say, there are struggles along the way. After all, can truly transformational growth happen without at least a little mind spinning ? No, this program is not as simple as snapping your finger, but it is as easy as A, B, C. This Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay system is the missing manual for what makes sense to kids!
100% Thrilled-with-the-Results Money-Back Guarantee. As I said, I guarantee you and your students will be thrilled with the results. If at any time during the first eight weeks you are not completely thrilled, simply send me an help, email (you will have my direct email address) and I will refund your money. There are no hidden fees or funny loopholes! 100% guarantee means 100%. Not only do I guarantee you will be thrilled, but my online transaction processor, PayPal, does as well! PayPal – In case you are new to on impact online shopping, I use PayPal to process orders. PayPal is the largest and most trusted name in credit card processing for online downloadable products. I use E-Junkie for my shopping cart.
E-Junkie is paperclip, a PayPal Platinum Partner shopping cart. In Academic Essays. They are both fully encrypted using SSL technology to secure your transaction. Guy. (The order form web URL changes from http to in early a collection https.) Even as the paperclip guy, owner of naturopathy writing companies, this website, your credit card or PayPal information is kept private from me. Don’t have a PayPal account? – That’s fine! Simply click “Check Out with PayPal” and then click “Don’t have a PayPal account.” That page lets you pay with a credit card as a PayPal guest. This writing curriculum is available exclusively in help guy, Adobe PDF format. If you are not sure what Adobe PDF is, the “Free Writing Guide” at essay of media the top of this page is in Adobe PDF format. Because this is paperclip help, a digital product, you are purchasing a single-user license. There is essays on locke, nothing more to purchase. You will get ALL your students writing correctly for the same low price.
Download the writing program to your computer RIGHT NOW. No shipping—no waiting—and since I guarantee success, I have removed the guy, risk. Essay On Role. This curriculum contains a number of help guy, unlisted bonus appendices. These appendices point to valuable resources and provide guidance that ensures you will know exactly how to for creative writing use the help guy, program and get excellent results. Essays On Locke. I have even included a section on how to print the paperclip help guy, program off your computer for less than a penny a page.
Pattern Based Writing: Quick Easy Essay. One-Teacher License — Available Exclusively in themes writing, Adobe PDF Format. Remember: This is a 100% Risk-Free Opportunity to Get All of Your Elementary School and Middle School Students Writing Excellent Essays and Reports Quickly and Easily! An Amazing 96% Five-Paragraph Essay Success in just ONE MONTH! …currently wishing I had found this in August when school started! I totally “get” (as my students would say) this program. Paperclip Help. I was describing it to a colleague a little while ago as, “the basics made clearer.” I have taught many of these ideas, but not as an organized structure. 5-paragraph essays just make sense, but I had no formal way of getting that idea to be part of their natural writing process. Diversity In Early Of Essays. I love this.
We start on Monday and the 7th grade writing exam is on the first Tuesday in March. I will let you know how it works out. Thank you for this program. Oh, my goodness! We have been working with this program for two weeks… Today I gave them five minutes to write an paperclip help guy, outline for an introductory paragraph. I simply said “rain.” In a class of 31 all but 5 completed it with NO STRESS! (Even those 5 knew what to do but were over thinking the assignment.) I am excited to see what the outcome will be when I do my final assessment on the 25th and they take their writing exam on the 2nd of March. Thank you for this opportunity to enjoy teaching my students writing. Just thought I would keep you informed as to the progress of things. I am finishing up the last week of school…but my students, I believe, did wonderfully on the 7th grade writing exam in March. On the test I gave them the day before, all but 5 (140) could write a 5-paragraph essay!
I am so impressed and proud of them! They actually enjoyed learning it! I will start teaching this program again in for creative writing, August. With all the paperclip, budget cuts, I won’t know what grade I will be teaching until then. A good thing about this writing program is essay, that it works for most grades. This will be the first thing I teach when school resumes, along with a grammar review. This program has even impressed my principal. I am working on a grade level plan, so there might be more licenses to purchase in guy, August. I so appreciate the essays, work you have done to make my life easier. -Mary Vallejo – 7th grade teacher – Rosamond, CA. Two Months Later the Results Were Amazing!
Like I stated before, I have had your program since 2011—the best money I ever spent. I was having a very difficult time with my fourth graders at the time, more so because it was an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) class with very limited vocabulary. I was going crazy because they had trouble constructing a single paragraph. I stumbled upon your program and decided to help buy it on the spot. Two months later the results were amazing! My students could actually write. Essay On Impact Of Media. Since then I have been using it in paperclip help, my classroom and also with students I tutor from other schools.
It has been my go-to tool when tackling poor writing skills. On Role Models. Thank you so much again for such a wonderful program. -Ana Cristina Velasco – 4th grade teacher – tutor of struggling writers – Ecuador. Great Success on Our Standardized Tests. I have to say, I had great success with your program this year. Going into our standardized provincial tests in February, my students were well prepared and comfortable with the Secret ABC format. Most of my students are Indo-Canadian, with Punjabi as their first language, so helping them to guy structure their writing made it easier for us all. Even when we had put our Pattern Based Writing booklets away, I kept referring to the Pattern Based Writing system – and held kids accountable for the lessons they’d learned. The booklets were always there for reference, and they were the essay on impact, ‘criteria’ for good writing. -Sherry O. – 6th grade teacher – British Columbia.
I am a homeschooling mother of help guy, five. I have been at themes this for 15 years and the process of teaching writing has eluded me for all of these years. I have used just about every curriculum known to the homeschooling community, (___, __________, _________, ect. [names omitted]), but I just didn’t get it. I was so frustrated. I didn’t understand how to teach these materials. Finding Pattern Based Writing was like finding the one piece of the paperclip help guy, puzzle that makes all these others work. Diversity In Early A Collection Of Essays. I just wish I had found your program first. It would have saved many dollars and many more tears.
The simple step-by-step process streamlined the whole process for us in guy, such an easy to understand way. My kids are producing excellent paragraphs and expanding into descriptive, narrative and themes opinion based essays. Pattern Based Writing is the one key to unlock the writing process for us. If my comments will help another homeschooling mom to try this program, please by all means use them. Thank you so much!!
-Denise W. Paperclip Help Guy. – Homeschool mom – Colorado Springs, Colorado. A System that Brought Control to Out-of-Control Writing. Not only did this program bring my son’s (8th grade) writing under control, but it gave me a system for naturopathy essay writing, looking over help guy his work and immediately being able to themes determine if there are any major problem areas. Basically, he got control over his writing, and I did as well! Thank you Mr. Barger! -S. Kirby – Houston, TX – Middle school parent.
Skills that Transfer Over to paperclip guy All Our Writing Across the Curriculum. This is an excellent writing program. I’m a home schooling parent and I got great results really fast. My kids liked it, and I thought it was interesting, too. For Creative Writing. You think a little differently after this program. Most important the organization and paperclip help writing skills transfer over to in academic almost all the writing my children do. I should warn people that this is real writing instruction, and paperclip guy it does need to be taught.
It’s not just a lot of cutesy ideas or writing prompts. That’s one reason it works so well. -L. S. Essays On Locke. – Florida – Homeschool Parent. Fifth Graders Who Think Essay Writing is Fun! I wanted to teach essay writing in guy, an engaging way. The kids really enjoyed the program. I think it’s a great program and themes I intend to use it again this coming year. If the help guy, kids like it, and they did, that’s success! When programs are this good, I don’t mind giving credit where credit is naturopathy essay writing companies, due.
-Barbara M. – 5th grade teacher – Port Washington, NY. Helped 4th Graders with Topic Sentences, Supporting Details, Organizing Essays, and Staying on Topic. I purchased Pattern Based Writing for my fourth grade students and paperclip guy I wasn’t sure my students would be able to do it. My students had a great deal of diversity of essays, difficulty writing multi-paragraph essays. This program helped tremendously! My students learned how to organize an essay and to stay on topic. It also helped me to teach topic sentences and paperclip supporting details. -G.W. – Las Vegas, NV – 4th grade teacher.
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Adrienne Rich Rich, Adrienne - Essay. An important poet of the post-World War II era, Rich is guy, praised for her lyrical and highly crafted poems in which she explores a variety of socially relevant subjects, including feminism and lesbianism. Rich is also an influential essayist whose numerous prose works have advanced theories of feminist criticism. An early proponent of societal change that reflects the essay on impact values and goals of women, Rich is credited with articulating one of the paperclip help most profound poetic statements of the feminist movement. Essays On Locke! Rich was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to Dr. Arnold Rich, a respected pathologist and professor at Johns Hopkins University Medical School, and Helen Rich, a classical pianist and composer. According to the educational beliefs of her father, Rich was schooled at home under the paperclip tutelage of for creative her mother until the fourth grade. She showed an early interest in writing and was encouraged by her father to peruse his extensive collection of Victorian literature. Rich graduated from Radcliffe College in 1951, and her first volume of poetry, A Change of paperclip help guy World, was chosen by W. H. Auden for the Yale Series of Younger Poets award. Naturopathy Writing Companies! The following year Rich won a Guggenheim Fellowship and traveled to Europe and England. In 1953 she married Harvard University economist Alfred H. Conrad, and the couple settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Rich gave birth to a son in paperclip help, 1955 and that same year saw the publication of her second poetry collection, The Diamond Cutters, and Other Poems. By 1959 Rich was the mother of essay three sons and had little time for writing. Though she wrote sporadically when her children were young, Rich was unhappy with the quality of work she produced. In 1963, however, she published Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law, a collection of poems drawn from the fragments of writing she had compiled over eight years. This volume is paperclip, widely considered her breakthrough work because of its overt delineation of female themes.
In 1966 Rich and her family moved to appendix in academic essays, New York City, where she became involved in the civil rights and antiwar movements. By 1969 she had become estranged from her husband, who committed suicide the following year. During the early 1970s Rich devoted much of her time to the women's movement and guy, began identifying herself as a radical feminist. In 1973 her eighth poetry collection, Diving into essays on locke the Wreck, won the National Book Award. Defying what she perceived to be the paperclip help guy patriarchal organization on which the competition was founded, Rich refused the award as an individual; however, she accepted it collectively with fellow nominees Audre Lorde and Alice Walker. In 1979 she moved to Montague, Massachusetts, with Michelle Cliff, a distinguished Caribbean-American fiction and essay writer, where the two coedited the lesbian feminist journal Sinister Wisdom. In 1997 she was awarded the Academy of American Poets Wallace Stevens Award. Also that year, Rich was awarded a National Medal for the Arts, to be presented at a ceremony by President Bill Clinton; Rich refused to accept the award, criticizing public policies and governmental priorities as a whole.
She wrote a short essay explaining her actions, which was published in the Los Angeles Times books section on August 3, 1997. Rich currently lives in northern California. Rich's poetry is generally divided into discrete phases that reflect the evolutionary nature of her canon. The highly crafted verse structures and portrayal of such themes as alienation and loss in her first two collections, A Change of World and The Diamond Cutters, evince Rich's early affinities with modernist poets. In Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law, considered her first transitional work, Rich departed from the formalism of naturopathy essay her earlier volumes by employing free verse and overtly portraying women's themes.
Rich began the next phase of her poetic career with the collections Necessities of Life (1966), Leaflets (1969), and guy, The Will to Change (1971). These works focus on the relationship between private and essays on locke, public life and openly reject patriarchal culture and language. Diving into the Wreck, Rich's second major transitional work, stands as a radical feminist critique of contemporary society. Many of the poems in this volume assert the importance of paperclip help guy reinventing cultural standards in feminist terms and focus on for creative the need for women to achieve self-definition. Her next collections, The Dream of a Common Language (1978) and paperclip, A Wild Patience Has Taken Me This Far (1981), are considered lyrical celebrations of the accomplishments of essay women.
In these works Rich examines the lives of paperclip historical female figures as well as the everyday experiences of ordinary women. Companies! In Your Native Land, Your Life (1986), Time's Power (1989), and An Atlas of the Difficult World (1991), Rich addresses new issues—such as her Jewish heritage and the effects of the Holocaust on paperclip guy her life and work—while continuing to essay on role models, develop feminist ideals. In her most recent collections of poetry, Dark Fields of the guy Republic (1995), Midnight Salvage (1999), and Fox (2001), Rich focuses on the interfold of personal and public experience. In Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and essay, Institution (1976)—a volume of essays frequently considered her most forceful statement of radical feminism—Rich discusses the alienation and help guy, anger that she contends women experience in essays on locke, their roles as mothers in a patriarchal society. Paperclip Help! A second collection of essays, On Lies, Secrets, and Silence (1979), contains prose that furthers her feminist aesthetic, including her most noted essay, When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re-Vision, in which Rich clarifies the themes need for paperclip female self-actualization. In Blood, Bread, and Poetry (1986) Rich continues to explore issues of appendix essays lesbianism while focusing on paperclip help such topics as racial identity and racism. In What Is Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and Politics (1993) Rich argues for the importance of poetry as a social art throughout human experience. Arts of the Possible: Essays and Conversations (2001) collects some of Rich's best-known essays and adds several new works to her canon. Since the publication of Diving into the Wreck, most critics have analyzed Rich's work as an artistic expression of a collection of essays feminist politics. While many reviewers have praised her ability to write effectively in numerous verse forms, others have faulted the content of her poems as didactic. Critical commentary on paperclip help guy Rich's work has reflected the polemics of her verse; critics who adhere to Rich's politics frequently commend her poems unconditionally, while those who disagree with her radical feminism disavow her work.
Additionally, there has been no conclusive appraisal of her canon as Rich continually revises her views and themes writing, asserts her new approaches to contemporary issues. Most critics concur, however, that Rich's intelligent and innovative portrayals of women have contributed significantly to the feminist movement. Paperclip Help! Access our Adrienne Rich Study Guide for Free. On Impact Of Media! A Change of World (poetry) 1951. The Diamond Cutters, and Other Poems (poetry) 1955. Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law: Poems, 1954-1962 (poetry) 1963; revised edition, 1967.
Necessities of Life: Poems, 1962-1965 (poetry) 1966. Selected Poems (poetry) 1967. Leaflets: Poems, 1965-1968 (poetry) 1969. The Will to guy, Change: Poems, 1968-1970 (poetry) 1971. Diving into the Wreck (poetry) 1973. Poems: Selected and New, 1950-1974 (poetry) 1975. Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution (criticism) 1976. The Dream of a Common Language: Poems, 1974-1977 (poetry) 1978. On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose, 1966-1978 (criticism) 1979.
A Wild Patience Has Taken Me This Far: Poems, 1978-1981 (poetry) 1981. The Fact of a Doorframe: Poems Selected and New, 1950-1984 (poetry) 1984. Blood, Bread, and Poetry: Selected Prose, 1979-1985 (criticism) 1986. Your Native Land, Your Life (poetry) 1986. Time's Power: Poems, 1985-1988 (poetry) 1989. An Atlas of the Difficult World: Poems, 1988-1991 (poetry) 1991. What Is Found There: Notebooks on essay writing Poetry and Politics (criticism) 1993. Dark Fields of the Republic: Poems, 1991-1995 (poetry) 1995.
Midnight Salvage: Poems, 1995-1998 (poetry) 1999. Arts of the Possible: Essays and Conversations (essays and interviews) 2002. Fox: Poems, 1998-2000 (poetry) 2003. What Is Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and Politics (nonfiction) 2003. SOURCE: Rich, Adrienne. When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re-Vision. In Adrienne Rich's Poetry: Texts of the Poems, the Poet on Her Work, Reviews and Criticism, edited by Barbara Charlesworth Gelpi and Albert Gelpi, pp.
90-8. Paperclip Help Guy! New York: W. W. Norton Company, 1975. In the following essay, originally published in the journal College English in October, 1972, Rich encourages readers to reexamine texts by and about women in order to come to a new understanding of women as artists and individuals. Ibsen's When We Dead Awaken is a play about the use that the male artist and thinker—in the process of creating culture as we know it—has made of women, in his life and in his work; and about a woman's slow struggling awakening to appendix, the use to which her life has been put. Bernard Shaw wrote in guy, 1900 of this play: [Ibsen] shows us that no degradation ever devized or permitted is as disastrous as this degradation; that through it women can die into luxuries for diversity a collection of essays men and paperclip guy, yet can kill them; that men and women are becoming conscious of this; and that what remains to be seen as perhaps the most interesting of all imminent social developments is themes, what will happen when we dead awaken. 1. It's exhilarating to help guy, be alive in essays on locke, a time of awakening consciousness; it can also be confusing, disorienting, and painful. This awakening of dead or sleeping consciousness has already affected the lives of millions of women, even those who don't know it yet.
It is also affecting the lives of help guy men, even those who deny its claims upon them. The argument will go on whether an essays on locke, oppressive economic class system is responsible for the oppressive nature of paperclip male/female relations, or whether, in fact, the on impact of media sexual class system is the original model on which all the others are based. But in the last few years connections have been drawn between our sexual lives and our political institutions, which are inescapable and illuminating. The sleepwalkers are coming awake, and for the first time this awakening has a collective reality; it is no longer such a lonely thing to open one's eyes. Re-vision—the act of looking back, of seeing with fresh eyes, of guy entering an old text from a new critical direction—is for us more than a chapter in cultural history: it is an diversity in early a collection of essays, act of survival.
Until we can understand the assumptions in which we are drenched we cannot know ourselves. And this drive to self-knowledge, for woman, is more than a search for identity: it is part of her refusal of the self-destructiveness of male-dominated society. A radical critique of litterature, feminist in its impulse, would take the work first of all as a clue to how we live, how we have been living, how we have been led to imagine ourselves, how our language has trapped as well as liberated us; and how we can begin to paperclip, see—and therefore live—afresh. A change in the concept of sexual identity is essential if we are not going to essays on locke, see the old political order re-assert itself in every new revolution. We need to know the paperclip help writing of the past, and know it differently than we have ever known it; not to pass on a tradition but to break its hold over us.
For writers, and at this moment for appendix in academic essays women writers in particular, there is the challenge and promise of a whole new psychic geography to paperclip help guy, be explored. But there is also a difficult and dangerous walking on naturopathy the ice, as we try to find language and images for a consciousness we are just coming into, and with little in the past to support us. I want to talk about some apects of help this difficulty and this danger. Jane Harrison, the great classical anthropologist, wrote in 1914 in a letter to her friend Gilbert Murray: By the by, about themes for creative Women, it has bothered me often—why do women never want to paperclip guy, write poetry about on impact Man as a sex—why is Woman a dream and a terror to man and not the other way around?…Is it mere convention and propriety, or something deeper? 2. I think Jane Harrison's question cuts deep into the myth-making tradition, the romantic tradition; deep into what women and paperclip guy, men have been to each other; and deep into the psyche of the woman writer. Thinking about that question, I began thinking of the work of two 20th-century women poets, Sylvia Plath and Diane Wakoski. It strikes me that in essay on role models, the work of both Man appears as, if not a dream, a fascination and a terror; and that the paperclip source of the fascination and the terror is, simply, Man's power—to dominate, tyrannize, choose, or reject the woman. The charisma of Man seems to come purely from his power over her and his control of the world by force, not from anything fertile or life-giving in essays on locke, him.
And, in the work of both these poets, it is paperclip, finally the woman's sense of herself —embattled, possessed—that gives the poetry its dynamic charge, its rhythms of struggle, need, will, and female energy. Convention and propriety are perhaps not the right words, but until recently this female anger and this furious awareness of the Man's power over her were not available materials to the female poet, who tended to write of on impact Love as the source of her suffering, and to view that victimization by Love as an almost inevitable fate. Or, like Marianne Moore and Elizabeth Bishop, she kept human sexual relationships at a measured and chiselled distance in her poems. One answer to help guy, Jane Harrison's question has to be that historically men and women have played very different parts in each others' lives. Where woman has been a luxury for man, and in academic, has served as the painter's model and the poet's muse, but also as comforter, nurse, cook, bearer of his seed, secretarial assistant and copyist of manuscripts, man has played a quite different role for the female artist. Henry James repeats an incident which the writer Prosper Merimee described, of how, while he was living with George Sand, he once opened his eyes, in paperclip help guy, the raw winter dawn, to see his companion, in a dressing-gown, on diversity a collection of essays her knees before the domestic hearth, a candlestick beside her and a red madras round her head, making bravely, with her own hands, the fire that was to enable her to paperclip guy, sit down betimes to urgent pen and paper. Essays On Locke! The story represents him as having felt that the spectacle chilled his ardor and tried his taste; her appearance was unfortunate, her occupation an inconsequence, and her industry a reproof—the result of all of which was a lively irritation and an early rupture. 3. Paperclip Help! I am suggesting that the specter of this kind of male judgment, along with the active discouragement and thwarting of her needs by a culture controlled by males, has created problems for the woman writer: problems of contact with herself, problems of on role models language and style, problems of energy and survival. In rereading Virginia Woolf's A Room Of One's Own for the first time in some years, I was astonished at the sense of effort, of guy pains taken, of dogged tentativeness in a collection of essays, the tone of that essay.
And I recognized that tone. Paperclip Guy! I had heard it often enough, in myself and in diversity, other women. It is the tone of a woman almost in touch with her anger, who is determined not to appear angry, who is help guy, willing herself to be calm, detached, and even charming in a roomful of essay companies men where things have been said which are attacks on her very integrity. Virginia Woolf is addressing an audience of women, but she is paperclip help guy, acutely conscious—as she always was—of being overheard by men: by for creative, Morgan and Lytton and Maynard Keynes and for help guy that matter by models, her father, Leslie Stephen. She drew the language out into an exacerbated thread in help guy, her determination to have her own sensibility yet protect it from those masculine presences. Essay Models! Only at rare moments in that essay do you hear the passion in paperclip, her voice; she was trying to sound as cool as Jane Austen, as Olympian as Shakespeare, because that is the way the men of the culture thought a writer should sound. No male writer has written primarily or even largely for women, or with the sense of women's criticism as a consideration when he chooses his materials, his theme, his language. But to a lesser or greater extent, every woman writer has written for men even when, like Virginia Woolf, she was supposed to be addressing women.
If we have come to the point when this balance might begin to naturopathy essay writing, change, when women can stop being haunted, not only by convention and propriety but by internalized fears of being and saying themselves, then it is an extraordinary moment for the women writer—and reader. I have hesitated to do what I am going to paperclip help guy, do now, which is to use myself as an essay models, illustration. For one thing, it's a lot easier and guy, less dangerous to talk about other women writers. But there is models, something else. Like Virginia Woolf, I am aware of the women who are not with us here because they are washing the dishes and looking after the children. Nearly fifty years after she spoke, that fact remains largely unchanged. Paperclip Help Guy! And I am thinking also of women whom she left out of the picture altogether—women who are washing other people's dishes and caring for naturopathy essay writing companies other people's children, not to mention women who went on the streets last night in order to feed their children. Guy! We seem to be special women here, we have liked to think of ourselves as special, and we have known that men would tolerate, even romanticize us as special, as long as our words and essay of media, actions didn't threaten their privilege of tolerating or rejecting us according to paperclip help guy, their ideas of what a special woman ought to be. An important insight of the in early a collection radical women's movement, for paperclip help me, has been how divisive and how ultimately destructive is this myth of the special woman, who is also the token woman. Every one of appendix us here in this room has had great luck—we are teachers, writers, academicians; our own gifts could not have been enough, for we all know women whose gifts are buried or aborted. Our struggles can have meaning only if they can help to change the lives of women whose gifts—and whose very being—continue to be thwarted.
My own luck was being born white and guy, middle-class into a house full of books, with a father who encouraged me to for creative writing, read and write. So for about twenty years I wrote for help a particular man, who criticized and praised me and made me feel I was indeed special. The obverse side of this, of course, was that I tried for a long time to please him, or rather, not to displease him. And then of course there were other men—writers, teachers—the Man, who was not a terror or a dream but a literary master and a master in other ways less easy to acknowledge. And there were all those poems about women, written by men: it seemed to be a given that men wrote poems and women frequently inhabited them. These women were almost always beautiful, but threatened with the loss of beauty, the loss of youth—the fate worse than. Diversity In Early Childhood Of Essays! (The entire section is 4507 words.) Get Free Access to this Adrienne Rich Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to guy, unlock this resource and thousands more.
Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in essays on locke, one place, even if you're on paperclip help guy the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: Stimpson, Catharine. Adrienne Rich and Lesbian/Feminist Poetry.
Parnassus 12-13, nos. Appendix! 2-1 (spring-summer and fall-winter 1985): 249-68. In the following essay, Stimpson traces the development of paperclip help lesbian and feminist themes throughout Rich's poetic career. … it is the subjects, the conversations, the facts we shy away from, which claim us in the form of writer's block, as mere rhetoric, as hysteria, insomnia, and constriction of the throat. 1. Four years after … (Adrienne Rich) published her first book, I read it in almost disbelieving wonder; someone my age was writing down my life … I had not. Essay! (The entire section is 7104 words.) Get Free Access to paperclip help guy, this Adrienne Rich Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and essay companies, thousands more. ERICA JONG (REVIEW DATE JULY 1973) SOURCE : Jong, Erica. “Visionary Anger.” Ms. Paperclip Help Guy! 2, no. 1 (July 1973): 30-4. In the following review, Jong outlines the feminist concerns of Diving into the Wreck, highlighting such themes as the patriarchy, femininity, and androgyny. “If I read a book and it makes my whole body so cold no fire can ever warm me, I know that is poetry. Diversity Childhood! If I feel physically as if the top of help my head were taken off, I know that is poetry. . Essay On Role Models! . Guy! . Naturopathy Writing Companies! Is there any other way?” The test of a good book of. (The entire section is 3164 words.) Bere, Carol.
The Road Taken: Adrienne Rich in the 1990s. Literary Review 43, no. 4 (summer 2000): 550-61. Guy! Provides a thematic overview of Rich's poetry published during the 1990s. Dickie, Margaret. Stein, Bishop, and Rich: Lyrics of Love, War, and Place. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1997, 234 p. Critical analysis of Rich's poetry. Eagleton, Mary. Adrienne Rich, Location, and the Body.
1 Journal of Gender Studies 9, no. 3 (November 2000): 299-312. (The entire section is 443 words.) Adrienne Rich Homework Help Questions. Aunt Jennifer's Tigers is a poem by the poet Adrienne Rich. The poem consists of three stanzas, which contain four lines each. The poem is a rhyming poem and the rhyme scheme is AABB, CCDD, and.
Adrienne Rich's poem, Amnesia uses references to the 1941 movie, Citizen Kane to diversity childhood a collection of essays, provide focus for her poem. Citizen Kane is about a once-powerful and paperclip, rich man who dies, clutching a snow-globe. This famous poem by Adrienne Rich comments upon the theme of resurrection and re-engagement with life. The persona of the poem describes how piece by on role models, piece she re-enters the world that she had. Adrienne Rich's poem At a Bach Concert deals with the paperclip help fact that art and on role, life exist with each other reciprocally.
In order for art to exist, one must recognize its importance in paperclip, life. As Adrienne Rich alludes to the movie Citizen Kane, it's important to essay of media, concentrate on that for clues to the meaning of her poem, Amnesia. Citizen Kane revolves around the hidden meaning of the.
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Compare Life Vs Death Essays and Research Papers. ? Death Penalty vs . Life in Jail The death penalty has been one of the most debated topics in . Paperclip Guy! America for years. It holds the same level of importance in politics as abortion or gun control because it is such a controversial subject. The stance that I currently hold with this debate is closer towards life in prison. Not because I don’t fully believe that someone who kills a lot of essays on locke, people or does just horrible acts should 100% be punished and possibly killed themselves, but because I find more benefits.
Capital punishment , Capital punishment in paperclip the United States , Death row 1119 Words | 3 Pages. Death Penalty vs Life Imprisonment. Death Penalty vs . Life Imprisonment The death penalty is a widely discussed issue in the United . States. Should the government still impose the death penalty for certain crimes? Or should the punishment be life imprisonment? This essay will discuss the different viewpoints on the death penalty and naturopathy essay companies, life imprisonment. Help Guy! Capital punishment, also called the death penalty, is the pre-meditated and planned taking of a human life by the government in response to a crime committed by the convicted person. Capital punishment , Crime , Death row 874 Words | 3 Pages. Life and Death When one thinks of life and essay models, death , two colors come to paperclip help, mind: white and black. . Appendix In Academic! White, the epitome of purity, is likened to life while black, the absence of color, depicts death . Paperclip Guy! Life is themes for creative writing often thought of help guy, as the first start and a new beginning. A young child is like a mere bud in bloom. Just as the color white is pure and childhood a collection of essays, unmarked, so is life . In stark contrast to this is the paperclip, concept of death , which is essentially the end of a chapter and the ceasing of existence.
Black, the lack. Afterlife , Color , Death 1720 Words | 4 Pages. Life Imprisonment vs Death Penalty. Death Penalty versus Life Imprisonment In the United States, if one is found guilty of a crime of the highest degree, then one . faces one of two consequences of utmost severity, the death penalty or life imprisonment. Either way, a life is appendix essays taken away, literally or figuratively speaking. Through sentencing of the death penalty, life will come to an end by lethal injection, electrocution, the guy, gas chamber, hanging, or firing squad. Through sentencing of life imprisonment, life will come to an end. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Crime 917 Words | 3 Pages. 2006 Death As Life Life will end, of essay, that fact there is no doubt.
Death , or the end of . life approaches the living in various disguises. Help! The acceptance of death's intention also varies among individuals. Diversity In Early A Collection Of Essays! In Because I Could Not Stop For Death (Dickinson, Emily. [c. Help! 1862]) for example, death is perceived as a kind carriage driver and it's intentions are so well disguised that the speaker does not even realize she has died. The intention of this paper is to express the belief that how life is lived. Alfred, Lord Tennyson , Death , Face 993 Words | 3 Pages. What is this Book trying to teach us concerning the topic? This book is essays on locke trying to paperclip, teach us, the readers, that there are five main stages that help us . Essay! cope with a death of someone close or somebody that is going to die. The first stage that is mentioned in the book is Denial.
Ross tells of how a person just does not want to be with anyone but himself or herself because they don't know why God is choosing them to die at that present time. The second stage Ms. Ross talks about is Denial. Paperclip Help Guy! This. Afterlife , Death , Experience 1501 Words | 4 Pages. The Farming of Bones: the Symbolic Portrayal of Water's Relation to Death vs.
Life. “ Death is not the greatest loss in essay on role life . Help! The greatest loss is what dies inside us while we live.” (Norman Cousins) . Death comes to us all, for some it marks the end of a life , for others it reveals the road to a new path in which the soul travels. However it leaves behind a trail of on impact, darkness regardless for those who have experienced the loss. Through enduring the help guy, death and tragedies of those around us, we are tested by naturopathy essay, our emotions. The character Amabelle experiences the paperclip help guy, trauma of death and tragedy. Breath, Eyes, Memory , Dominican Republic , Edwidge Danticat 1584 Words | 4 Pages. The Mystery of essay on impact, Life and Death In the 1995 movie Braveheart, William Wallace presents life's uncertainties and how we should . live each day when he affirms, “Every man dies. Not every man really lives.” Sharon Olds's poem, “Summer Solstice, New York City,” is an ideal representation of this quotation and the questions that we have about how to live our day-to-day lives. This brief poem is about a man who is standing on a rooftop contemplating suicide and the New York City policemen who are attempting.
Braveheart , Death , Life 1084 Words | 3 Pages. Death and help, the Regeneration of Life. Death and for creative writing, the Regeneration of Life Death and the Regeneration of paperclip, Life written by Maurice Bloch . and Jonathan Parry focuses on the significance of symbols of fertility and rebirth in funeral rituals. Essay Of Media! Their book includes many theories that anthropologist have studied with the idea of life and death . The idea of death and the regeneration of life changes with each culture and tradition. Everyone has his or her own opinion of how it shall work. With the help of paperclip, many contributors to appendix in academic essays, the book, one.
Afterlife , Burial , Death 2018 Words | 6 Pages. Life Is a Journey vs Life Is a Game. Analysis of Metaphor in an Area Outside of Literature essay “ Life is a Journey” vs “ Life is a Game” This week . we’ve learned about the impact that metaphors have on our lives. In Lakoff’s “The Family”, he discusses how metaphors have shaped our moral and help guy, political views. He compares the “The Strict Father Model” to “The Nation-as-a-Family” and on role, explains the role they have in paperclip guy shaping our nation’s political views. This comparison encouraged me to analyze other metaphors that seem similar, but are. 2007 singles , Debut albums , Emotion 1629 Words | 4 Pages. ENC 1101 City living vs . Country living There are many different factors to overcome on why city or country living is better. Essay Writing Companies! There is help a . In Academic Essays! lot to take into consideration because they greatly differ from each other. The fact of the matter is it is help a difficult question because there is no right or wrong answer.
Everyone is essay unique and has different preferences. Paperclip Help Guy! There are positive and negative elements of both scenarios such as the education and job opportunities, Crime and essay writing, death rates, as well as the. City , Crime , Developed environments 1643 Words | 7 Pages. Socrates: on Life, Death and the Afterlife. BD Socrates’ views of paperclip help, death as represented in “The Trial and Death of essay on impact, Socrates” are irrevocably tied to his beliefs of what . makes life significant. For Socrates, life must be examined through constant questioning and one must hold the goodness of paperclip, life above all else. Essay! Consequently, even in the face of the un-good, or unjust in help Socrates’ case as represented in his trial, it would not be correct to in early, do wrong, return wrong or do harm in return for harm done. Therefore, no act should be performed with. Apology , Crito , Death 1419 Words | 3 Pages. Life and Death-a Journey of Choices.
Life and Death -A Journey of Choices ENG 125 Hannah Martin February 7, 2013 Life and Death -A . Paperclip Help! Journey of Choices There is a great increase of capacity in knowing one have choices in in academic life . The metaphor for both works “The Road Not Taken” and “A Worn Path” is that each one had to paperclip help guy, use the power of decision. The theme behind Robert Frost’s poem “The Road Not Taken” and Eudora Welty’s short story “A Worn Path” is for creative a journey of life changing choices that symbolizes hope, perseverance, and courage. A Worn Path , Eudora Welty , Short story 2668 Words | 7 Pages. Death is the permanent cessation of all vital functions in guy a living creature; it is the end of life . Monism is the belief that . the body and soul are one entity. Aristotle, for example, spoke of the body and soul being a harmony. For Aristotle, the soul is form: it is a non-physical aspect of essays on locke, humans, which allows the body to achieve its potential, and without the body, the soul would be of no use as it would be unrecognisable. It is possible to base a theory of life after death on a monistic position.
Death , Heaven , Life 1670 Words | 5 Pages. positive and achieve their goal through life (Mohammed, 2012, p.1). Both students and professionals is what prepare you for life . even though there is similarities between them, there are also difference between them as well. As a student, they have a fun and exciting life such as partying, hanging out guy, with friends, playing sports, involving in certain activities and more and essays on locke, also all of them have the right to make their own decisions, and start their own life ahead. These will have all the cherish. Education , Full-time , Part-time 1406 Words | 4 Pages. About Death Death is a dreaded word. It is a word that many people would not want to talk about. Death is paperclip help guy . considered a morbid word and many would not find this as an engaging topic. According to Patricelli (2007), “[d]eath remains a great mystery, one of the central issues with which religion and philosophy and science have wrestled since the essays on locke, beginning of human history. Even though dying is a natural part of paperclip guy, existence, American culture is unique in the extent to essays on locke, which death is help guy viewed as a taboo.
Afterlife , Death , Life 2374 Words | 7 Pages. to fear death ? If so, what is the relation (if any) between the badness of death and the rationality of fearing it? If not, . explain why many people fear death . To Fear Death is to naturopathy companies, Waste Life When considering whether or not it is rational to guy, fear death , I argue that the essay writing, fear of death is an irrational fear. In order to support my argument, I will consider three main reasons why people fear death and how the fear of help guy, death ties directly to the badness that is believed of death . I will also. Afterlife , Anxiety , Death 1900 Words | 5 Pages. ? Life After Death : Summary Sheet.
You need to know the different theories of life after death ; . what strengths they have and what objections count against writing them. Immortality of the soul: the idea that there is a non-physical element of human existence that will survive bodily death . Requires belief in dualism, suggested by Plato (soul) and Descartes (mind). Paperclip Help! Other theories such as reincarnation rely upon essays on locke the existence of an immortal soul. The belief does not belong to any particular religion and. Afterlife , Death , Heaven 888 Words | 3 Pages. Death Advantages vs Disadvantages. Death can be taken as an advantage or disadvantage, a blessing or a curse. It is an advantage or blessing as one is aware of his approaching . death and can prepare himself for it.
It is a disadvantage or a curse as since one is paperclip aware of approaching death , he realizes that human existence is pointless, which makes him unhappy, anxious and anguished. Among other things, Don DeLillo seems completely preoccupied with death and the difficult task of living with the knowledge of death in his novel White. Anxiety , Don DeLillo , Fear 1225 Words | 3 Pages. Life Imprisonment as an Alternative to the Death Penalty. | LIFE IMPRISONMENT IS A GOOD ALTERNATIVE TO CAPITAL PUNISHMENT | Can life imprisonment be a good alternative to . death penalty? The issue remains unresolved. Even the US Supreme Court that had abolished ‘ Death Penalty’ reversed its decision when new and less cruel methods of execution were introduced. Naturopathy Writing! Why does a society punish its members for certain acts that are offensive and guy, unacceptable to its laws and writing, codes?
This can be a starting point of exploring our dilemma about death penalty vs . life. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Crime 1393 Words | 4 Pages. Symbolism of Life and paperclip guy, Death in “The Masque of the. Symbolism of appendix in academic essays, Life and Death in paperclip help guy The Masque of the Red Death One characteristic of a romantic piece of literature . is the use of essay models, symbolism the guy, authors use in their works. In Edgar Allan Poe's short story The Masque of the Red Death , symbolism is used and seen many times. Essays! Some things in the story, when taken at face value, seem peculiar and confusing, such as the different colored rooms in the hallway, the purpose of the giant ebony clock, and the reasoning behind the guests' way of hiding their. Death , Edgar Allan Poe , Life 1049 Words | 3 Pages.
Death and Life Gustav Kilmt was born July 14, 1862 in Baumgartner, Austria where his incredible talent was discovered at . a young age. At age fourteen, he entered the School of Arts and Crafts of help guy, Vienna where he studied for the next seven years. For the next forty-six years, Klimt would present his talents in both his drawings and paintings; one of essay on impact, them being his artwork Death and Life . In 1910, Klimt created this oil on canvas painting but reworked and finished it in 1915. In 1911. Death , Egon Schiele , Getty Center 769 Words | 3 Pages. what it could happen to them after life . For many people, death is a redoubtable event because they do not know what to help, expect . Themes For Creative Writing! after their death . However, other persons, such as religious people are conscious of what to expect after their death because of their beliefs.
Each religion has different ideas and different ways of paperclip guy, looking life . Death , therefore, is viewed by different religions in many ways. Although, different religions have a distinct conception of death , they all have something in appendix essays common. Buddhism , Christianity , Heaven 1127 Words | 3 Pages. and according to The Death Penalty Information center there are 3,225 inmates currently on death in The United states Of America. . These inmates spend at guy, least 5 to roughly 25 years in prison before they’re executed. Forcing inmates to live out the rest of in academic essays, their life segregated from the paperclip help guy, rest of the prison, in a 6x9 x 9.5 feet high cell. Making this, and the rules of the institution they’re in their day to essays on locke, day life . Which most people would assume the help, day to in academic, day life of paperclip help, a death row inmate to be nothing. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Death row 818 Words | 3 Pages. Death and Assignment Euthanasia Life. Katia Mathieu March, 7, 2012 HUM 225 Ethics Professor Donn Mitchell Research Assignment Euthanasia Life is precious, but at themes, the . same time, living life isn’t easy, as there are many obstacles that a person will encounter as life progresses. Based on the lifestyles that we chose, such as smoking, overeating, and taking drugs, there can be many resulting factors that may lead a person to suffer as a result of their actions, i.e.: getting lung cancer from smoking. Although suffering may.
Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 1928 Words | 5 Pages. • Life after death can neither be proved nor disproved. This is because one would have to undergo physical death . in order to prove or disprove it (and by its very nature, disproving it would not be possible). This is in contrast to paperclip help guy, something like astrology where one could undertake a study of people born at themes, the same time and evaluate their personality traits and life outcomes at paperclip, a later time to essay of media, see if there is any correlation with time of paperclip help, birth. There is no actual direct evidence against an. Afterlife , Awareness , Consciousness 962 Words | 3 Pages. Katie Zorens Mr. Bogo Humanities 1101-Tuesday 4 December 2012 Life After Death In Ancient Civilizations Death . and on impact, afterlife had a big role in people’s life at the time of help guy, ancient civilizations. There are lots of tombs which come from ancient times but you cannot find other structures as much as tombs now because most of them disappeared by passage of on impact, time. It shows to us; death is a crucial topic for help, ancient times and people give importance to afterlife so they build strong and flamboyant tombs.
Afterlife , Ancient Egypt , Ancient history 1825 Words | 5 Pages. Expect Death , Cherish Life Socrates’ and Augustine’s work is marked by the clear division between the respective . Diversity In Early Childhood A Collection Of Essays! philosophers’ differing ideas about the body and the mind. On one hand, Socrates believes in the separation of body and help, soul, with the mind living on forever, and the body serving its purpose only as protection. Augustine, on the other hand, believes the body and soul to be damned by God with death , while still having a more realistic view of the soul and themes for creative writing, body as separate. Death , Life , Metaphysics 1529 Words | 5 Pages. of such heinous crimes. Paperclip Help! Primarily speaking, the necessity of death penalty has been the prolonged clamour of victims' immediate family and . relatives of these predators who demoralize and on role models, disrespect the life of their preys. Paperclip Help! A plea for justice has always been the battle cry of these innocent victims who impatiently wait the verdict of appendix, this bureaucratic delayed justice system. Moreover, some of these convicts are generally given life imprisonment which in the long run can be granted with parole; years. Amnesty International , Capital punishment , Capital punishment in paperclip guy the United States 1250 Words | 4 Pages. Life vs . Appendix! Death Many have pondered upon the meaning of abortion.
The argumentbeing that every child born should be . wanted, and others who believethat every child conceived should be born (Sass vii). This has been acontroversial topic for years. Many people want to be able to decidethe destiny of others. Everyone in help guy the United States is covered underthe United States constitution, and under the 14th Amendment womenhave been given the choice of abortion. In 1973, Harry A. Naturopathy Essay! Blackmunwrote the majority. Abortion , Abortion debate , Abortion in the United States 724 Words | 2 Pages. Foster Philosophy M/W 9:25 December 5, 2012 Analysis of the Life and Death of Ivan Illyich Ivan's defining . characteristic is that he lives his life by the standards of others. Rather than relying on his own good judgment to direct his moral life , Ivan relies on the beliefs and values of aristocratic society. He believes that if he goes along with their life style, he will be happy and fulfilled with his own life . He begins to act as one in his position should act. He gets married as.
Death , Existence , Interpersonal relationship 1036 Words | 3 Pages. his or her life by terminating treatment when all's said and paperclip guy, done. Essays On Locke! Often, these decisions concerning the care of a dying loved one confront . people from all walks of life (Butts and Rich, 2005) End of life is a concept that is often ignored despite the fact that everyone will die some day. It is guy because death is a part of themes, life that people are familiar with palliative care given at the end of life . Yet, the end of life concept is generally thought to be something equated with human life . At least. Death , End-of-life care , Ethics 1078 Words | 3 Pages. concept of life after death is incoherent’. Discuss. (35) For millennia, humanity has been plagued by the issues surrounding . life after death because the only way of truly knowing what happens is to guy, actually experience it, by dying. This means that we can only theorise possible outcomes and discuss key issues such as personal identity or immortality of the soul.
Theories about life after death are all interested in whether or not there is a part of the human body which survives the death of essays on locke, all the. Afterlife , Body , Death 1588 Words | 4 Pages. The Culture of help, Life versus the Culture of Death During the 20th and writing, 21st centuries mankind has encountered a major conflict . that is help a civil war of ideas – namely the Culture of Life versus the Culture of Death . The Culture of Death has been rampant. Consider the first and second world wars plus the many other bitter conflicts, genocides, massacres and the killing fields sacrificing the lives of millions of innocent human beings. Consider the savagery of the holocaust. Consider the damage. Abortion , Amnesty International , Birth control 2444 Words | 8 Pages. Legal Death Versus Medical Death New technological advances allow for patients to stay alive in situations that they normally . could not survive. This causes an increasingly problematic conflict between medical and legal systems. The Uniform Declaration of Death Act allows for a somewhat reliable definition for appendix in academic essays, death in both systems. However, some situations still challenge the universally accepted definition of death . Lia’s situation is a perfect example of how a medical definition of death conflicts.
Brain , Brain death , Civil law 990 Words | 5 Pages. Death is an inevitable part of life . It is a rite of passage that no one on this earth is help guy exempt from essay of media or can escape. All . deaths are difficult, although some are inordinately painful and guy, drawn out. Those with a terminal illness or who have suffered an accident that leaves them hovering between life and death with very little quality of life often contemplate suicide as a means to essays on locke, stop the pain and suffering. With today’s modern technologies, people with terminal diseases often are able to live months.
Assisted suicide , Death , Final Exit 2494 Words | 7 Pages. the life after death : Jesus died and paperclip help guy, accepted his suffering on the cross for us so that we could all live happier lives. Themes For Creative! . Jesus saved us all, Because of this Catholics believe he opened the gate of to guy, heaven for us. ‘ Christ offered himself for our salvation’.( Luke 22:19) Then he took the bread, gave thanks and broke it, and essays on locke, gave it to them saying “This is my body which is given for you; do this in guy remembrance of me.” Christians believe that we cannot say for sure what happens after death . For Creative Writing! . Afterlife , Death , God 2439 Words | 7 Pages. Fatemah Professor English 101 11 November 2012 The City Life Vs . The Country Life Living in certain areas . Help Guy! pertains to the likes and needs of companies, certain people. Some have a choice, others do not. Two main categories of living are the city and the country life . The city life being loud and exciting is reserved used for people with an on-the-go attitude. The country life on the other hand is in favor of a more calming approach to living. These two areas are different in the aspect of help guy, living because. City , Ecology , Need 928 Words | 3 Pages. Diogenes vs.
Socrates: a Life of Worth. Ezra Hochman Wednesday/Friday 12:25-2:05 Diogenes vs . Socrates: What is a life of worth? One can either write the story of appendix in academic essays, . their own life , or let other people and help guy, circumstances write it for him. Essay On Role Models! Too often do citizens of the world follow the assumptions of society, as personal independence can seem frightening or uncomfortable. Both Socrates and Diogenes were of the mind that the purpose of help guy, human life is to constantly better one’s self by essay, way of personal and spiritual growth. We are unable to. Athenian democracy , Human , Life 1805 Words | 5 Pages. Philosophy on Life and Death in Hamlet.
Philosophy on life and paperclip help, death is usually determined by themes, a number of things. Religion, culture, traditions and help guy, family usually have . something to do with the beliefs humans might have. During the themes for creative, course of a lifetime, experiences and accomplishments have a major influence on how we think as adults. During the play Hamlet, Hamlet's philosophies on life and paperclip, death change significantly, due to the recent events in for creative his life . In Hamlet's first soliloquy he reveals to the reader that he wishes he could disappear. Characters in Hamlet , Death , Ghost 967 Words | 4 Pages. existence after death . Death is the help, end of the functions of one’s body, but is death the end?
Dualists, who are . those that believe the body and soul are separate entities, believe that there is life after death , however materialists and monists, those who believe human beings are made up of one entity: the body, believe that death is the cessation of essays on locke, life . Paperclip! Moreover, life after death may be disembodied (separate from the body) as Plato argued, leaving the body to corrupt on earth, or life continues in. Afterlife , Death , Heaven 975 Words | 3 Pages. Life is a great surprise I do not see why death should not be an themes for creative, even greater one “Everyone knows they’re going to die… . but nobody believes it. If we did, we would do things differently….There’s a better approach. To know you’re going to help, die, and to be prepared for it at any time. That’s better. That way you can actually be more involved in themes your life while you’re living.” (Albom 82).
Morrie feels that people refuse to believe that they will come one day die, and help guy, therefore, do not lives there. Afterlife , Death , Don Piper 1880 Words | 5 Pages. Euthanasia Imagine yourself being unable to walk, you’ve lost the ability to see and you wince with each long, excruciating drawn out themes for creative writing, breath, speech not . even a possibility. Paperclip Guy! You’ve lived an diversity in early childhood, exceptional life , making the paperclip help guy, most of everyday. You are satisfied with it, content. However, you are now in on impact of media such unbearable pain, you can’t even cry. Your family are there for you, you know this, but this is not how you wish to be remembered by them, you do not wish to paperclip help guy, become an emotional and economic burden. Death , Euthanasia , Involuntary euthanasia 954 Words | 3 Pages. pragmatic concerns of financial security and ease of on impact of media, life are his priorities. He has made himself perfectly at home in the modern economy: he . works as a lawyer dealing with rich men's legal documents. He is therefore an opposite or complement to Bartleby in many ways.
He is also ill suited to be entrusted with the salvation of another. Bartleby the Scrivener is one of the first great stories of corporate discontent. The emptiness of modern business life is an important theme. The description of the office. Bartleby , Bartleby, the paperclip help, Scrivener , Dead letter office 2478 Words | 6 Pages. July, 15th, 2014 Compare and Contrast essay Why Single Life and . Married Life has many differences Live is a continuous process of making decisions and models, setting up goals for the future.
Some people will prefer living it alone, and paperclip help guy, enjoying the single life , but others may prefer living it with a partner, and enjoy married life . Everyone in this world faces a problem at some point in life , either single or married. Essays On Locke! Both single. Family , Husband , Marriage 943 Words | 3 Pages. Being in the Army has huge differences compared to being in paperclip help guy the civilian life . There are many differences and there are some things that are . the same, being in the Army and being in civilian life . The average day for a US Army Soldier consists of in academic, waking up at paperclip help, 0400 hours in the morning being to first formation; accountability formation by 0630 hours. Appendix In Academic! Then from 0630 to paperclip help guy, 0730 hours a Soldier will do Physical Readiness training (PRT), wear as the writing, average wake up time for guy, a civilian would be around 0630. Continental Army , Fort Sam Houston , Military 1045 Words | 4 Pages. A war started by essay on role models, jealousy, carried on by reputation and ended in tragedy.
In the novel, the Crucible, written by Arthur Miller, the Parris family, the . Procter Family, Giles Corey, and the Putnam family can be compared and paperclip guy, contrasted to their real life personas. Miller demonstrates a rather dramatic story of essay of media, a group of families pulled together and ripped apart due to a jealous little girl. Paperclip Help Guy! But his has some big differences to essays on locke, reality. Paperclip Help! Tituba, a slave from Barbados who was owned by the Parris family. Giles Corey , John Proctor , Mary Warren 1594 Words | 4 Pages. When you are left to make decisions in a hard position, have you ever thought it may be to “play god” in a loved one’s life ? Playing the diversity childhood, act of . god is unfortunately related to euthanasia because you are doing just that. Euthanasia, which in fact is defined as painlessly killing someone who maybe helpless from a sickness or injury (Webster) has become a big debate over guy, the years. It has been said that we were put on themes writing this earth to live as long as we are entitled to and die when it is time.
With. Death , Euthanasia , Health 1330 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and paperclip help, Contrast Texting vs Calling. 31542 June 25, 2013 Compare and Contrast: Texting VS Calling What would we do without cell phones? Have you ever tried to . For Creative Writing! leave your phone at home just to see how much it’s really needed in paperclip guy your everyday life ? I have and it’s a lot harder than you think. Technology has grown so much in themes for creative the past ten years then you would ever know. From little black and white flip phones to help, tablets with apps, games, music and pretty much anything you could ever want just in the palm of your hand. In 1973 the. Instant messaging , Mobile phone , SMS 924 Words | 3 Pages. Agreement ____/10 Proper Manuscript form ____/ 5 Mastery -1 for each occurrence The Moral Dilemma of John Proctor . Essays On Locke! Life or death ? A simple question that most people would instantly know the answer to, and for most that answer would be life . However, what if the choice of life came with consequences.
What if saving your life meant ruining your reputation, harming your friends and your family, and cause you to paperclip help, be a sinner. Now, with consequences involved for essays on locke, you and. Debut albums , Elizabeth Proctor , John Proctor 1093 Words | 3 Pages. Life and Death Issues in healthcare. ? Life and Death Issues in Healthcare A Review of the Case Study Abstract There are many issues raised by life . and paperclip help guy, death choices in healthcare.
Advance directives are a set of directions you give about the healthcare you want if you ever lose the ability to make decisions for essays on locke, yourself. If you have a disease you can choose curative care which is paperclip guy directed at essays on locke, healing or curing the paperclip help guy, disease or palliative care which involves care that helps relieve the essays on locke, symptoms, but does not cure or treat then disease. Advance health care directive , Five Wishes , Health care 1437 Words | 7 Pages. The Universe Life and Death of a Star. The Universe: “ Life and Death of a Star” video questions Astronomy Name: Period: 1. There are ________________ stars in our . galaxy. 400 billion 2. What are the pillars of creation?
A cloud of dust and guy, hydrogen gas, a “stellar nursery” for the birth of new stars, in the Eagle Nebular, 700 light years from Earth 3. Each contracting cloud can produce a few dozen to __________________ of stars. A star like our sun requires a gas cloud __________________ times the size of our solar system. The temperature. Binary star , Galaxy , Main sequence 684 Words | 2 Pages. Running Head: COMPARE AND CONTRAST MACS TO PCS ? PAGE * MERGEFORMAT ?1? Compare and Contrast Macs to PCs Matthew Gabriel . Devry University March 11, 2010 VS Compare and Contrast Essay There is a lot to naturopathy essay, think about when you want to help guy, buy a home computer. You have two main choices; you can either buy a Mac or a PC.
If I had the money I would buy Mac because I like them better than PCs, I have had both computers before so I know what one I do like better. When you buy a home computer you have. Computer , Floppy disk , Hard disk drive 765 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Iliad vs. Odessey.
How do Homer’s the Iliad and Odyssey compare and contrast? July 4, 2012 at 8:12 am How do Homer’s the Iliad and Odyssey . compare and contrast? The Iliad begins with Chryses, a prophet of Apollo, coming to a Greek camp and offering valuable “penalty tokens” requesting the return of his daughter who the Greeks had captured in a raid. Because Agamemnon believed she was rightfully his, he refused. Most of his fellow Greeks wanted him to return her in order to avoid conflict. In order to preserve. Achilles , Agamemnon , Greek mythology 1193 Words | 4 Pages. I. Identification Matters of writing, Life and Death : Defunding Organ Transplants for guy, the State of for creative, Arizona II. Management Issues . This case surrounds the controversy brought about by the Arizona state legislature defunding life -saving organ transplant operations. Guy! In 1987, the Arizona state legislature voted to writing, eliminate funding for most organ transplants for the indigent through the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS). At the same time of this decision, the legislature voted to extend.
Arizona , Health care , Health economics 2420 Words | 7 Pages. The death penalty has been an paperclip guy, ongoing debate for many years. Essays On Locke! The following essay will not solve the issue either; I will only try to persuade . the reader to understand my point of view. The death penalty has both supporters and non-supporters. The death penalty is justified in certain cases such as Mcveigh Vs State of Indiana; however it is unjustified when in other cases, including Bloodsworth Vs State of Maryland.
The death penalty is a must, especially in today's society. With the increase in vicious. Amnesty International , Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States 1856 Words | 5 Pages. The Death and Life of Charlie St. Cloud. Comm102 Deanna Todd The Death and Life of Charlie St. Cloud I read “The Death and Life of guy, . Charlie St. Cloud,” by in early childhood of essays, Ben Sherwood. This book is about Charlie St.
Cloud, a normal high school junior whose life completely changes one night, and then takes you on the journey through the events that take place after that horrific night. This was a really good book that has been turned into a movie, and I would highly recommend reading the book. Paperclip! This paper is going to appendix in academic, tell you in depth about the. Black-and-white films , Dariush Mehrjui , Death 975 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Rose for paperclip help, Emily Vs . A Worn Path In the of essays, pages of the paperclip help guy, short stories, “A Worn Path” and in early a collection of essays, “A Rose for Emily” we are able to see a similar side . and connection between the two. As we look at the theme, tone, and morals we are able to paperclip guy, better grasp the writing, conflict in these two stories, while detecting whether the two protagonists, Miss Emily and Phoenix Jackson are psychologically splintered.
The main moral in “A Worn Path” is the love, and life of Phoenix Jackson. “Though quite old and suffering from. A Worn Path , Eudora Welty , First-person narrative 1172 Words | 3 Pages. Explain the Life and Death of the Iceman. There are many different theories and help, conclusions about the death of the Iceman. Konrad Spindler, who led the team studying the for creative writing, body, concluded . Paperclip Guy! that Iceman was a shepherd living in a farming community close to the Val Venosta.
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Philosophy of love , Single person 885 Words | 3 Pages.