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FREE Writing Prompts About Sports “Imagine you are a goalpost
annotated reference Global Environmental Change. Due: Feb. 24 in lecture class . Assignment: As part of your assignment for group debates at the end of the term, you will need to conduct some research on your debate topic. This assignment helps you get started on this research. Your task here is to sports essay provide an annotated list of references of at least seven sources (at least 2 scholarly, at extended essays, least 4 print media-- see below) that might be useful for the debate. Each person in your group should compile and turn in a separate reference list (which should therefore not be substantially identical). Before your debate, you will get together with your groupmates to decide which references to actually use in sports essay your debate and your team debate brief. The annotated bibliography will be counted as part of your grade for mentor section. Late assignments will incur 10% penalty for each calendar day they are late. Print vs electronic media: Print media represent anything that has been published in print form. Essays. It can be newsmagazine, book, or journal article.
Electronic versions of items that have been published in print media can be considered as print media. You need to sports essay prompts find at least 4 print media references. Electronic media include anything that is essay hell, available only over the web or in electronic format. Scholarly vs mass-media references: A scholarly reference is one that has a clearly defined date and author (or authors), and which contains reference citations or footnotes. Examples of scholarly references include all journal articles, some books, and some web sources.
Scholarly references are what you and others can most rely on; they represent the results of research performed by the author (primary research) or a synthesis (with conclusions) of research performed by others (secondary research). Any reference that has undergone a peer-review process (for example, reviews of scientific studies performed by other scientists) is considered scholarly. You need to sports find at least 2 scholarly references, which can be either print media (more likely) or electronic. A mass-media reference is everything else; it is typically meant for the public, and represents either opinion, or a discussion of research performed by someone else whose main purpose is to disseminate information rather than draw conclusions. Examples include most of the material available on the web, news magazines, and beall, newspapers. Some of this material can be very useful for a debate, but because it represents either opinion or is somewhat removed from the essay prompts original research, it is a less reliable source of analysis, information than scholarly research. Reference list: You should use proper reference format for your annotated bibliography. This means an prompts, alphabetized list (according to author last name), with hanging paragraph indents. References should give: --author name (if known), --publication date (if known), --journal name (italicized) with volume (bolded) and page numbers (if a journal article), --book titles, book publishers, and publication city (if a book), --newspaper or newsmagazine name. For web sources, always provide the URL and the date you accessed it.
Also: -- if an author but no date is given, list the date as no date. Common App Essay Fall. --if no author is sports, identified, use the research on water title of the article in essay the source instead. --if no title is given, make one up which is appropriate for the content. For each reference you should add a few sentences that give your comments as to what the reference says, how it might be useful for your debate, or anything that indicates you have grasped the essential ideas of the reference and thought about it. For each reference you give, indicate whether it is MASS-MEDIA or SCHOLARLY, and if it is PRINT-MEDIA. EXAMPLE The following provides an example of nine annotated references. The first annotation would look like something you would actually write. This list satisfies the requirements of the dustin smith essays assignment by sports essay prompts giving at least two (in this case 3) scholarly references, and at least four (here 5) print-media references. The actual references would have hanging indents (which I cannot show easily using this html code), which means that all but the first line would be indented. Essay Hell. Most of the sports essay references below were found a few years ago, and the links may no longer work. This illustrates one of the problems with the web. Anderson M.K. (2002) Hot on the contrails of weather. http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,52512,00.html?tw=wn_story_related . Accessed Nov.
3, 2004. This reference discusses a study that was performed by a scientist examining the effects that contrails have on 50 excellent weather. The study found that there was 1.2 degree C greater fluctuation between day and night temperatures during Sept. 11-12, 2001, when airplanes were grounded in the U.S., compared to usual. The writer appears to be a correspondent, but the prompts report appears to be fairly objective, and there is an actual name of a scientist given that makes me think the persuasive essays on technology information is essay prompts, somewhat reliable. The study results, if legitimate, illustrate the potential for the activities of people to change weather, but don't provide any concrete info that climate is being changed by dustin beall smith essays people. I think this webpage was interesting, but I wouldn't make a big case of sports, it in my debate without finding more information. App Essay. It's pretty short on specifics. MASS-MEDIA. Sports. Aircraft Vapor Trails (2004) Aircraft vapor trails 'could cause global warming'. http://breaking.examiner.ie/2004/04/29/story145192.html . Accessed May 2, 2004.
This is an actual web reference with no author, but the link is now broken only a few months after I accessed the page (illustrating one problem with purely electronic media, and why a date of downloading needs to be given). As no author was given, I used the first part of the title instead. It is a good example of an essays on technology, electronic mass media reference with a relatively small amount of content. It appears to be based on sports essay scholarly research but doesn't provide many specifics which would easily lead to this research. Dustin Smith Essays. Notice that like the other examples given here, I have not used word-wrap to break apart the URL. MASS-MEDIA. Black Soot and Snow: A Warmer Combination (2003) http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/stories/20031222/ . Accessed May 2, 2004. This is an actual web reference. It is an sports prompts, example of a web source that I would consider to prompts be mass media, but based on reputable work. The latter scholarly work could be found easily because it is listed in the web document.
The web site indicates a U.S. government (NASA) source, and sports essay prompts, the name of a scientist who performed the research. Although this scientist is app essay prompts fall 2013, associated with the website, he isn't the prompts actual author of the help writing introduction thesis web document, so I've used the title instead of the author for the alphabetical position. Sports Prompts. Both the essay hell source and scientist name suggest a higher degree of accountability and reputability than the previous two references. MASS-MEDIA, but almost scholarly. Sports Essay Prompts. Hansen, J., and L. Nazarenko (2004) Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 423-428, doi:10.1073/pnas.2237157100, in press.
Here is the actual reference for the study cited above. Notice that the paper was not yet printed by the time the common app essay prompts fall 2013 web page was produced. A little work would be needed to prompts find this article, which has presumably been published. For annotations, you could say what the main point of the article is (that soot produced by pollution landing on ice absorbs heat because of its low albedo, and thereby leads to ice melting and essay hell, atmospheric warming through a positive feedback), maybe how the essay prompts study was conducted, and was was found specifically, and whether this information would be useful for your debate, either pro or con. Research Paper. SCHOLARLY, PRINT MEDIA. Bottoms J., Majors D.E. and A. Jones (1997) Models and Madness. Wow Books: New York. This is a fictitious example of sports essay, a book.
I would consider it to be scholarly if it arrives at some conclusions based on research paper on water analysis of research that has been performed. SCHOLARLY, PRINT MEDIA. Brains Y. and P. Smarts (1976) Girls' value systems: A study of identity and development. Sports. Human Society Today 56 , 37-49. This fictitious example of a journal article is a good example of primary research. It might be very technical. It would probably be a good reference to use simply for saying that scientists with good credentials have done the essay hell work, but it might also be a good idea to find supplemental mass-media works that quote this study and would be easier to digest. SCHOLARLY, PRINT MEDIA. Sports. Mandelbaum R. (2004).
Greenmark. Discover 25 , 48-55. On Water. This is an prompts, actual print media reference. Beall Smith. Discover is sports essay prompts, a monthly science newsmagazine. This particular article is a good example of something meant for the educated public; it has no references, but it covers a lot of ground and has information that could be useful for a debate. There are no credentials given for the author, so I would assume he is a reporter of some sort and I might not trust this source overly for 50 excellent extended that reason. Essay Prompts. But the material provided is good for a debate-- just enough detail to get into issues, without too much to get bogged down in. If your debate rivals don't pick up on the weak credentials of the author, why not take advantage of on water analysis, this? MASS-MEDIA, PRINT MEDIA. Ozone Hole (no date) The Ozone Hole. http://www.theozonehole.com/ Accessed May 2, 2004.
This is an essay prompts, actual web reference. It's a good example of paper on water, a web source with no date or author. It is definitely designed for the general public and is mass media. I wouldn't rely on this without getting back-up, but you are free to sports prompts use even this type of reference in your debate if you so choose. MASS-MEDIA. Yahright B. (1988) Barbie is not realistic! About time magazine 3 , 194-196. Help. This fictitious article is published, but I'm assuming from the title and sports essay, journal name that it is an opinion piece written for a newsmagazine. So, it qualifies as print mass-media.
MASS-MEDIA, PRINT MEDIA.
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Selection Of Strong Topics For A Discursive Essay About Sport
Internet Encyclopedia of prompts Philosophy. Formalism in aesthetics has traditionally been taken to refer to the view in the philosophy of art that the properties in virtue of which an artwork is an artwork—and in virtue of which its value is fall 2013, determined—are formal in sports, the sense of being accessible by direct sensation (typically sight or hearing) alone. While such Formalist intuitions have a long history, prominent anti-Formalist arguments towards the end of the twentieth century (for example, from Arthur Danto and Kendall Walton according to which none of the aesthetic properties of a work of art are purely formal) have been taken by many to be decisive. Yet in essay hell, the early twenty-first century there has been a renewed interest in and defense of Formalism. Contemporary discussion has revealed both “extreme” and more “moderate” positions, but the most notable departure from traditional accounts is the move from Artistic to Aesthetic Formalism. One might more accurately summarize contemporary Formalist thinking by noting the complaint that prominent anti-Formalist arguments fail to accommodate an important aspect of our aesthetic lives, namely those judgements and experiences (in relation to art, but also beyond the art-world) which should legitimately be referred to as “aesthetic” but which are accessible by direct sensation, and proceed independently of one’s knowledge or appreciation of a thing’s function, history, or context. The presentation below is divided into five parts. Part 1 outlines an historical overview. It considers some prominent antecedents to prompts, Formalist thinking in the nineteenth century, reviews twentieth century reception (including the anti-Formalist arguments that emerged in the latter part of this period), before closing with a brief outline of the main components of the twenty-first century Formalist revival. Part 2 returns to the early part of the twentieth century for a more in-depth exploration of one influential characterisation and defense of dustin essays Artistic Formalism developed by art-critic Clive Bell in his book Art (1913). Critical reception of Bell’s Formalism has been largely unsympathetic, and some of the more prominent concerns with this view will be discussed here before turning—in Part 3—to the prompts Moderate Aesthetic Formalism developed in the early part of the twenty-first century by Nick Zangwill in his The Metaphysics of Beauty (2001).
Part 4 considers the writing introduction application of Formalist thinking beyond the art world by essay, considering Zangwill’s responses to anti-Formalist arguments regarding the aesthetic appreciation of nature. The presentation closes with a brief conclusion (Part 5) together with references and suggested further reading. When A. G. Baumgarten introduced the term “aesthetic” into the philosophy of art it seemed to be taken up with the essay hell aim of recognising, as well as unifying, certain practices, and perhaps even the concept of beauty itself. It is essay prompts, of note that the paper on water phrase l’art pour l’art seemed to gain significance at roughly the same time that the term aesthetic came into wider use. Much has been done in recognition of the sports essay emergence and consolidation of the l’art pour l’art movement which, as well as denoting a self-conscious rebellion against Victorian moralism, has been variously associated with bohemianism and Romanticism and characterises a contention that, for research on water, some, encapsulates a central position on art for the main part of the nineteenth century. First appearing in Benjamin Constant’s Journal intime as early as 1804 under a description of sports Schiller’s aesthetics, the initial statement: “ L’art pour l’art without purpose, for all purpose perverts art” has been taken not only as a synonym for the disinterestedness reminiscent of Immanuel Kant’s aesthetic but as a modus operandi in 50 excellent essays history, its own right for a particular evaluative framework and corresponding practice of those wishing to produce and insomuch define the boundaries of artistic procedure. These two interpretations are related insofar as it is suggested that the emergence of sports essay prompts this consolidated school of thought takes its initial airings from a superficial misreading of Kant’s Critique of research Judgement (a connection we will return to in Part 3).
Kant’s Critique was not translated into sports prompts French until 1846, long after a number of allusions that implicate an understanding and certainly a derivation from extended Kant’s work. John Wilcox (1953) describes how early proponents, such as Victor Cousin, spoke and essay prompts wrote vicariously of Kant’s work or espoused positions whose Kantian credentials can be—somewhat undeservedly it turns out—implicated. Common App Essay Fall 2013? The result was that anyone interested in sports, the arts in the early part of the essays history nineteenth century would be exposed to a new aesthetic doctrine whose currency involved variations on terms including aesthetic, disinterest, free, beauty, form and sublime. By the 1830s, a new school of aesthetics thus accessed the diluted Kantian notions of sports artistic genius giving form to the formless, presented in Scheller’s aesthetics, via the notion of beauty as disinterested sensual pleasure, found in Cousin and his followers, towards an understanding of a disinterested emotion which constitutes the paper on water analysis apprehension of beauty. All or any of which could be referred to by the expression L’art pour l’art ; all of which became increasingly associated with the term aesthetic. Notable adoption, and thus identification with what may legitimately be referred to as this “school of thought” included Victor Hugo, whose preface to Cromwell, in 1827, went on to constitute a manifesto for the French Romantic movement and sports prompts certainly gave support to the intuitions at beall, issue. Theophile Gautier, recognising a theme in Hugo, promoted a pure art-form less constrained by religious, social or political authority. In the preface to his Premieres poesies (1832) he writes: What [end] does this [book] serve? - it serves by being beautiful… In general as soon as something becomes useful it ceases to be beautiful. This conflict between social usefulness versus pure art also gained, on the side of the latter, an association with Walter Pater whose influence on the English Aesthetic movement blossomed during the 1880s where the adoption of sentimental archaism as the ideal of beauty was carried to extravagant lengths. Here associations were forged with the likes of Oscar Wilde and Arthur Symons, further securing (though not necessarily promoting) a connection with aestheticism in general. Such recognition would see the prompts influence of l’art pour l’art stretch well beyond the second half of the nineteenth century.
As should be clear from this brief outline it is not at all easy, nor would it be appropriate, to suggest the emergence of a strictly unified school of thought. There are at least two strands that can be separated in what has been stated so far. At one extreme we can identify claims like the following from the preface of Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray : “There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written or badly written.” Here the emphasis is initially on the separation of the value of art from social or moral aims and values. The sentiment is clearly reminiscent of Gautier’s claim: “Only those things that are altogether useless can be truly beautiful; anything that is useful is essay hell, ugly; for sports prompts, it is the expression of some need…”. Yet for Wilde, and many others, the claim was taken more specifically to legitimise the production and value of amoral, or at least morally controversial, works. In a slightly different direction (although recognisably local to the above), one might cite James Whistler: Art should be independent of all claptrap—should stand alone […] and common app essay prompts fall 2013 appeal to the artistic sense of eye or ear, without confounding this with emotions entirely foreign to it, in devotion, pity, love, patriotism and the like. While the second half of this statement seems merely to echo the sentiments expressed by Wilde in the same year, there is, in sports essay prompts, the first half, recognition of the essays contention Whistler was later to sports prompts, voice with regard to help introduction, his painting; one that expressed a focus, foremost, on the arrangement of line, form and colour in the work. Here we see an element of l’art pour l’art that anticipated the importance of formal features in the twentieth century, holding that artworks contain all the requisite value inherently—they do not need to sports essay prompts, borrow significance from biographical, historical, psychological or sociological sources.
This line of thought was pursued, and can be identified, in essay hell, Eduard Hanslick’s The Beautiful in essay, Music (1891); Clive Bell’s Art (1913); and Roger Fry’s Vision and Design (1920). Help Introduction Thesis? The ruminations of sports essay which are taken to have given justification to various art movements from common app essay fall abstract, non-representational art, through Dada, Surrealism, Cubism. While marked here as two separable strands, a common contention can be seen to run through the above intuitions; one which embarks from, but preserves, something of the aesthetic concept of disinterestedness, which Kant expressed as purposiveness without purpose. L’art pour l’art can be seen to encapsulate a movement that swept through Paris and England in the form of the new Aesthetic (merging along the way with the essay prompts Romantic Movement and bohemianism), but also the central doctrine that formed not only the movement itself, but a well-established tradition in the history of aesthetics. L’art pour l’art captures not just a movement but an aesthetic theory; one that was adopted and defended by both critics and artists as they shaped art history itself. Towards the end of the twentieth century Leonard Meyer (in Dutton, 1983) characterised the intuition that we should judge works of art on the basis of beall their intrinsic formal qualities alone as a “common contention” according to which the sports prompts work of art is said to have its complete meaning “within itself”. On this view, cultural and stylistic history, and the genesis of the artwork itself do not enhance true understanding. Meyer even suggests that the separation of the aesthetic from religion, politics, science and so forth, was anticipated (although not clearly distinguished) in Greek thought. It has long been recognised that aesthetic behaviour is different from ordinary behaviour; however, Meyer goes on to argue that this distinction has been taken too far. Essays On Technology? Citing the Artistic Formalism associated with Clive Bell (see Part 2), he concludes that in actual practice we do not judge works of art in terms of their intrinsic formal qualities alone.
However, Artistic Formalism, or its close relatives, have met with serious (or potentially disabling) opposition of the kind found in Meyer. Gregory Currie (1989) and David Davies (2004) both illustrate a similar disparity between our actual critical and appreciative practices and essay prompts what is (in the end) suggested to be merely some pre-theoretical intuition. Making such a point in persuasive essays, his An Ontology of Art, Currie draws together a number of sports essay familiar and related aesthetic stances under the term “Aesthetic Empiricism”, according to which. [T]he boundaries of the aesthetic are set by the boundaries of vision, hearing or verbal understanding, depending on which art form is in question. (Currie, 1989, p.18) Currie asserts that empiricism finds its natural expression in 50 excellent essays history, aesthetics in the view that a work—a painting, for instance—is a “sensory surface”.
Such a view was, according to Currie, supposed by David Prall when he said that “Cotton will suffice aesthetically for snow, provided that at sports essay prompts, our distance from beall it it appears snowy”. It is the assumption we recover from sports essay Monroe Beardsley (1958) in the view that the limits of musical appreciation are the limits of research what can be heard in sports essay, a work. Currie also recognises a comparable commitment concerning literature in Wimsatt and Beardsley’s The Intentional Fallacy (1946). We can add to Currie’s list Clive Bell’s claim that. To appreciate a work of art we need bring with us nothing from life, no knowledge of its ideas and affairs, no familiarity with its emotions… we need bring with us nothing but a sense of form and research paper analysis colour and a knowledge of three-dimensional space.
Alfred Lessing, in his “What is Wrong with Forgery?” (in Dutton, 1983), argues that on the assumption that an prompts artwork is a “sensory surface” it does seem a natural extension to claim that what is aesthetically valuable in a painting is a function solely of how it looks. This “surface” terminology, again, relates back to Prall who characterised the aesthetic in terms of an exclusive interest in the “surface” of things, or the thing as seen, heard, felt, immediately experienced. It echoes Fry’s claim that aesthetic interest is constituted only by app essay, an awareness of “order and variety in sports essay prompts, the sensuous plane”. However, like Kendall Walton (1970) and Arthur Danto (1981) before him, Currie’s conclusion is that this common and influential view is nonetheless false. Walton’s anti-formalism is presented in his essay “Categories of Art” in which he first argues that the aesthetic properties one perceives an artwork as having will depend on which category one perceives the work as belonging to app essay prompts fall 2013, (for example, objects protruding from a canvas seen under the category of essay “painting”—rather than under the category of “collage”—may appear contrary to expectation and thus surprising, disturbing, or incongruous).
Secondly, Walton argues that the aesthetic properties an artwork actually has are those it is persuasive essays on technology, perceived as having when seen under the category to which it actually belongs. Sports? Determination of “correct” categories requires appeal to paper, such things as artistic intentions, and as knowledge concerning these requires more than a sense of form, color, and sports prompts knowledge of three-dimensional space, it follows that Artistic Formalism must be false (see Part 3 for 50 excellent history, a more in-depth discussion of Walton’s anti-formalist arguments). Similarly, Danto’s examples—these include artworks such as Marcel Duchamp’s “Readymades”, Andy Warhol’s Brillo Boxes , and Danto’s hypothetical set of indiscernible red squares that constitute distinct artworks with distinct aesthetic properties (indeed, two of sports which are not artworks at all but “mere things”) — are generally taken to provide insurmountable difficulties for traditional Artistic Formalism. Danto argues that, regarding most artworks, it is 50 excellent essays history, possible to imagine two objects that are formally or perceptually indistinguishable but differ in artistic value, or perhaps are not artworks at all. Despite the prominence of these anti-formalist arguments, there has been some notable resistance from the Formalist camp. In 1983 Denis Dutton published a collection of articles on sports prompts forgery and the philosophy of art under the title The Forger’s Art . Here, in an article written for on technology, the collection, Jack Meiland argues that the value of originality in art is not an aesthetic value. In criticism of the (above) position held by Leonard Meyer, who defends the value of sports prompts originality in app essay prompts 2013, artworks, Meiland asks whether the essay prompts original Rembrandt has greater aesthetic value than the copy? He refers to “the appearance theory of aesthetic value” according to which aesthetic value is independent of the non-visual properties of the work of common art, such as its historical properties.
On this view, Meiland argues, the copy, being visually indistinguishable from the original, is equal in sports essay prompts, aesthetic value. Indeed, he points to an arguable equivocation in the sense of the word “original” or “originality”. The originality of the dustin smith work will be preserved in sports essay, the copy—it is rather the level of creativity that may be surrendered. Paper Analysis? We might indeed take the sports prompts latter to devalue the copied work, but Meiland argues that while originality is a feature of a work, creativity is a feature applicable to the artist or in this case a feature lacking in the copyist, it therefore cannot affect the aesthetic quality of the work. Thus we cannot infer from the lack of creativity on essay hell the part of the artist that the work itself lacks originality. This distinction between “artistic” and “aesthetic” value marks the sports prompts transition from essay hell Artistic to Aesthetic Formalism. Sports Essay? Danto, for example, actually endorsed a version of the latter in maintaining that (while indistinguishable objects may differ in terms of their artistic value or art-status) in being perceptually indiscernible, two objects would be aesthetically indiscernible also. Hence, at common, its strongest formulation Aesthetic Formalism distinguishes aesthetic from sports essay non-aesthetic value whilst maintaining that the former is restricted to those values that can be detected merely by attending to what can be seen, heard, or immediately experienced. Values not discerned in common, this way may be important, but should not be thought of as (purely) “aesthetic” values. Nick Zangwill (2001) has developed a more moderate Aesthetic Formalism, drawing on the Kantian distinction between free (formal) and dependent (non-formal) beauty.
In relation to the value of art, Zangwill accepts that “ extreme formalism ” (according to which all the aesthetic properties of a work of art are formal) is false. But so too are strongly anti-Formalist positions such as those attributable to Walton, Danto, and Currie (according to which none of the essay prompts aesthetic properties of a work of art are purely formal). Common App Essay Prompts Fall 2013? Whilst conceding that the prompts restrictions imposed by Formalism on persuasive on technology those features of an artwork available for consideration are insufficient to deliver some aesthetic judgements that are taken to be central to the discourse, Zangwill maintains that there is nonetheless an “important truth” in formalism. Many artworks have a mix of formal and non-formal aesthetic properties, and at least some artworks have only formal aesthetic properties. Moreover, this insight from the Aesthetic Formalisist is essay, not restricted to the art world. Many non-art objects also have important formal aesthetic properties. Zangwill even goes so far as to dustin beall essays, endorse extreme Aesthetic Formalism about inorganic natural items (such as rocks and sports essay sunsets). In Part 1 we noted the translation of the L’art pour l’art stance onto pictorial art with reference to Whistler’s appeal to “the artistic sense of eye and ear” . Many of the accounts referred to above focus on pictorial artworks and the specific response that can be elicited by these. Here in dustin, particular it might be thought that Bell’s Artistic Formalism offers a position that theoretically consolidates the sports prompts attitudes described. Formalism of beall essays this kind has received largely unsympathetic treatment for its estimation that perceptual experience of line and colour is uniquely and properly the essay prompts domain of the aesthetic. Yet there is some intuitive plausibility to elements of the view Bell describes which have been preserved in subsequent attempts to re-invigorate an help writing interest in the application of formalism to aesthetics (see Part 3).
In this section we consider Bell’s initial formulation, identifying (along the way) those themes that re-emerge in contemporary discussion. a. Clive Bell and ‘Significant Form’ The claim under consideration is essay prompts, that in pictorial art (if we may narrow the scope for the purposes of this discussion) a work’s value is a function of its beauty and beauty is to be found in research on water, the formal qualities and arrangement of paint on canvas. Nothing more is required to judge the value of a work. Here is Bell: What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto’s frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of essay prompts Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne?
Only one answer seems possible - significant form. In each, lines and colours combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. These relations and combinations of lines and 50 excellent extended history colours, these aesthetically moving forms, I call Significant Form; and essay Significant Form is the one quality common to all works of visual art. (1913, p.5) These lines have been taken to summarise Bell’s account, yet alone they explain very little. One requires a clear articulation of what “aesthetic emotions” are, and what it is to have them stirred. Also it seems crucial to note that for Bell we have no other means of recognising a work of art than our feeling for it. The subjectivity of help writing introduction thesis such a claim is, for Bell, to be maintained in any system of aesthetics. Furthermore it is the exercise of bringing the essay viewer to feel the aesthetic emotion (combined with an attempt to app essay prompts 2013, account for the degree of aesthetic emotion experienced) that constitutes the function of criticism . “…[I]t is useless for a critic to tell me that something is a work of art; he must make me feel it for myself. Sports Essay Prompts? This he can do only by making me see; he must get at my emotions through my eyes.” Without such an emotional attachment the subject will be in no position to legitimately attribute to the object the status of artwork. Unlike the proponents of the previous century Bell is not so much claiming an ought (initially) but an on technology is . Significant form must be the sports measure of artistic value as it is the only thing that all those works we have valued through the ages have in common.
For Bell we have no other means of common app essay prompts fall 2013 recognising a work of art than our feeling for sports essay, it. If a work is unable to common, engage our feelings it fails, it is not art. If it engages our feelings, but feelings that are sociologically contingent (for example, certain moral sensibilities that might be diminished or lost over time), it is not engaging aesthetic sensibilities and, inasmuch, is not art. Thus if a work is unable to stir the viewer in this precise and uncontaminated way (in virtue of its formal qualities alone), it will be impossible to ascribe to the object the status of artwork. We are, then, to sports essay prompts, understand that certain forms—lines, colours, in particular combinations—are de facto producers of some kind of aesthetic emotion. They are in this sense “significant” in a manner that other forms are not. Without exciting aesthetic rapture, although certain forms may interest us; amuse us; capture our attention, the object under scrutiny will not be a work of art.
Bell tells us that art can transport us. [F]rom the persuasive essays on technology world of man’s activity to a world of aesthetic exaltation. Sports Essay? For a moment we are shut off from human interests; our anticipations and memories are arrested; we are lifted above the stream of life. The pure mathematician rapt in his studies knows a state of mind which I take to be similar if not identical. Thus the significance in question is a significance unrelated to the significance of common 2013 life. “In this [the aesthetic] world the emotions of prompts life find no place. It is a world with emotions of its own.” Bell writes that before feeling an app essay fall aesthetic emotion one perceives the rightness and necessity of the combination of form at sports, issue, he even considers whether it is this, rather than the form itself, that provokes the paper emotion in question. Bell’s position appears to sports, echo G. E. Moore’s intuitionism in the sense that one merely contemplates the object and recognises the significant form that constitutes its goodness.
But the spectator is essay hell, not required to know anything more than that significant form is essay prompts, exhibited. Bell mentions the question: “Why are we so profoundly moved by forms related in a particular way?” yet dismisses the essay hell matter as extremely interesting but irrelevant to aesthetics. Bell’s view is that for “pure aesthetics” we need only consider our emotion and its object—we do not need to “pry behind the object into the state of mind of him who made it.” For pure aesthetics, then, it need only be agreed that certain forms do move us in certain ways, it being the business of an sports artist to arrange forms such that they so move us. Central to Bell’s account was a contention that the response elicited in the apprehension of significant form is one incomparable with the emotional responses of the introduction thesis rest of sports experience. Essay Hell? The world of human interests and emotions do, of course, temper a great deal of our interactions with valuable objects, these can be enjoyable and beneficial, but constitute impure appreciation. Essay? The viewer with such interests will miss the full significance available. He or she will not get the common app essay best that art can give. Bell is scathing of the sports prompts mistaken significance that can be attributed to representational content, this too signifies impure appreciation. He suggests that those artists “too feeble to create forms that provoke more than a little aesthetic emotion will try to eke that little out by suggesting the emotions of life”.
Such interests betray a propensity in artists and viewers to merely bring to art and take away nothing more than the ideas and associations of their own age or experience. Such prima facie significance is the significance of a defective sensibility. As it depends only on what one can bring to the object, nothing new is added to one’s life in its apprehension. For Bell, then, significant form is able to carry the viewer out of life and into ecstasy. The true artist is fall 2013, capable of feeling such emotion, which can be expressed only in form; it is sports, this that the subject apprehends in the true artwork. Much visual art is concerned with the physical world—whatever the emotion the artists express may be, it seemingly comes through the contemplation of the familiar. Bell is careful to state, therefore, that this concern for the physical world can be (or should be) nothing over and above a concern for the means to the inspired emotional state. Any other concerns, such as practical utility, are to smith, be ignored by art. With this claim Bell meant to differentiate the use of artworks for essay prompts, documentary, educational, or historical purposes. Persuasive Essays On Technology? Such attentions lead to a loss of the sports prompts feeling of emotions that allow one to common prompts fall, get to the thing in itself.
These are interests that come between things and our emotional reaction to them. In this area Bell is dismissive of the practice of intellectually carving up our environment into sports essay practically identified individuations. Such a practice is superficial in requiring our contemplation only to history, the extent to sports prompts, which an object is to research on water, be utilised. It marks a habit of recognising the label and overlooking the thing, and sports essay prompts is indicative of a visual shallowness that prohibits the majority of us from seeing “emotionally” and common app essay fall 2013 from grasping the significance of form. Bell holds that the essay discerning viewer is concerned only with line and colour, their relations and qualities, the apprehension of which (in significant form) can allow the essay hell viewer an sports essay prompts emotion more powerful, profound, and dustin smith genuinely significant than can be afforded by any description of sports prompts facts or ideas. Thus, for Bell: Great art remains stable and common app essay fall 2013 unobscure because the feelings that it awakens are independent of time and place, because its kingdom is not of this world.
To those who have and hold a sense of the significance of form what does it matter whether the sports prompts forms that move them were created in Paris the essay hell day before yesterday or in Babylon fifty centuries ago. Prompts? The forms of art are inexhaustible; but all lead by help introduction thesis, the same road of aesthetic emotion to the same world of aesthetic ecstasy. (1913, p.16) What Bell seems to be pushing for is a significance that will not be contingent on peculiarities of one age or inclination, and it is certainly interesting to see what a pursuit of this characteristic can yield. Essay Prompts? However, it is unclear why one may only reach this kind of significance by looking to emotions that are (in some sense) out of this world. Persuasive Essays On Technology? Some have criticised Bell on his insistence that aesthetic emotion could be a response wholly separate from the rest of a person’s emotional character. Essay Prompts? Thomas McLaughlin (1977) claims that there could not be a pure aesthetic emotion in research on water analysis, Bell’s sense, arguing that the aesthetic responses of a spectator are influenced by her normal emotional patterns. On this view the prompts spectator’s emotions, including moral reactions, are brought directly into play under the control of the artist’s technique. It is difficult to deny that the significance, provocativeness and interest in many works of art do indeed require the spectator to help writing thesis, bring with them their worldly experiences and prompts sensibilities.
John Carey (2005) is equally condemning of Bell’s appeal to the peculiar emotion provided by works of art. He is particularly critical of Bell’s contention that the same emotion could be transmitted between discreet historical periods (or between artist and latter-day spectator). On the common app essay fall 2013 one hand, Bell could not possibly know he is experiencing the same emotion as the Chaldean four thousand years earlier, but more importantly to sports prompts, experience the same emotion one would have to share the same unconscious, to have undergone the extended essays same education, to have been shaped by the same emotional experiences. It is important to note that such objections are not entirely decisive. Provocativeness in general and indeed any interests of this kind are presumably ephemeral qualities of a work. These are exactly the kinds of transitory evaluations that Bell was keen to sidestep in characterising true works and sports essay the properties of lasting value. The same can be said for all those qualities that are only found in a work in virtue of the spectator’s peculiar education and introduction emotional experience. Bell does acknowledge such significances but doesn’t give to them the importance that he gives to formal significance. Sports Prompts? It is 50 excellent extended, when we strip away the sports essay prompts interests, educations, and the provocations of a particular age that we get to those works that exhibit lasting worth.
Having said that, there is essay hell, no discernible argument in support of the claim that the lasting worth Bell attempts to isolate should be taken to essay, be more valuable, more (or genuinely) significant than the kinds of ephemeral values he dismisses. Even as a purported phenomenological reflection this appears questionable. In discussion of much of the criticism Bell’s account has received it is important not to run together two distinct questions. Persuasive On Technology? On the one hand there is the question of whether or not there exists some emotion that is peculiar to the aesthetic; that is “otherworldly” in the sense that it is not to be confused with those responses that temper the rest of our lives. The affirmation of this is certainly implicated in Bell’s account and is rightly met with some consternation. Essay Prompts? But what is liable to become obscured is that the suggestion of such an inert aesthetic emotion was part of Bell’s solution to dustin beall essays, the more interesting question with which his earlier writing was concerned.
This question concerns whether or not one might isolate a particular reaction to certain (aesthetic) objects that is sufficiently independent of time, place and sports prompts enculturation that one might expect it to be exhibited in subjects irrespective of their historical and social circumstance. One response to this question is indeed to posit an emotional response that is unlike all those responses that are taken to be changeable and contingent on time, culture and so forth. Looking at the changeable interests of the research paper art-world over time, one might well see that an interest in representation or subject matter betrays the essay prompts spectator’s allegiance to “the gross herd” (as Bell puts it) of some era. But it seems this response is unsatisfactory. As we have seen, McLaughlin and Carey are sceptical of the kind of inert emotion Bell stipulates. Bell’s response to such criticisms is to claim that those unable to accept the research paper on water postulation are simply ignorant of the emotion he describes.
While this is philosophically unsatisfactory the issue is potentially moot. Still, it might be thought that there are other ways in which one might characterise lasting value such as to capture the kind of quality Bell pursued whilst dismissing the sports prompts more ephemeral significances that affect a particular time. Regarding the second question, it is essays, tempting to sports essay, see something more worthwhile in Bell’s enterprise. Paper On Water Analysis? There is at sports, least some prima facie attraction to Bell’s response, for, assuming that one is trying to essays on technology, distinguish art from non-art, if one hopes to capture something stable and unobscure in drawing together all those things taken to be art, one might indeed look to formal properties of works and one will (presumably) only include those works from any time that do move us in the relevant respect. What is lacking in Bell’s account is some defense of the claim, firstly that those things that move Bell are the domain of true value, and secondly that we should be identifying something stable and sports essay prompts unobscure. Why should we expect to identify objects of antiquity as valuable artworks on the basis of their stirring our modern dispositions (excepting the claim—Bell’s claim—that such dispositions are not modern at all but timeless)? Granted, there are some grounds for pursuing the kind of account Bell offers, particularly if one is interested in essay hell, capturing those values that stand the test of prompts time. However, Bell appears to motivate such a pursuit by making a qualitative claim that such values are in some way more significant, more valuable than those he rejects.
And it is difficult to isolate any argument for such a claim. c. Aesthetic versus Non-Aesthetic Appreciation. The central line of research on water Bell’s account that appears difficult to accept is that while one might be able to isolate a specifically perceptual response to artworks, it seems that one could only equate this response with all that is valuable in art if one were able to prompts, qualify the centrality of this response to the exclusion of others. This presentation will not address (as some critics do) the essay hell question of whether such a purely aesthetic response can be identified; this must be addressed if anything close to Bell’s account is to be pursued. But for sports essay prompts, the time being all one need acknowledge is that the mere existence of this response is not enough to legitimise the work Bell expected it to do. A further argument is required to justify a thesis that puts formal features (or our responses to these) at centre stage. Yet aside from this aim there are some valuable mechanisms at essays history, work in Bell’s theory. Sports Essay Prompts? As a corollary of his general stance, Bell mentions that to understand art we do not need to essays, know anything about art-history. It may be that from works of art we can draw inferences as to the sort of people who made them; but an intimate understanding of an essay artist will not tell us whether his pictures are any good. This point again relates to Bell’s contention that pure aesthetics is essay hell, concerned only with the question of whether or not objects have a specific emotional significance to us.
Other questions, he believes, are not questions for aesthetics: To appreciate a man’s art I need know nothing whatever about the artist; I can say whether this picture is better than that without the help of history, but if I am trying to account for the deterioration of his art, I shall be helped by prompts, knowing that he has been seriously ill… To mark the deterioration was to make a pure, aesthetic judgement: to account for it was to become an historian. (1913, pp.44-5, emphasis added) The above passage illustrates an element of Bell’s account some subsequent thinkers have been keen to preserve. Bell holds that attributing value to a work purely on the basis of the position it holds within an art-historical tradition, (because it is by Picasso, or marks the common app essay prompts fall 2013 advent of cubism) is not a pursuit of aesthetics. Although certain features and relations may be interesting historically, aesthetically these can be of no consequence. Sports? Indeed valuing an object because it is old, interesting, rare, or precious can over-cloud one’s aesthetic sensibility and puts one at a disadvantage compared to the viewer who knows and cares nothing of the object under consideration. Research? Representation is, also, nothing to do with art’s value according to Bell. Thus while representative forms play a part in many works of art we should treat them as if they do not represent anything so far as our aesthetic interest goes. It is fairly well acknowledged that Bell had a non-philosophical agenda for these kinds of claims. It is easy to see in Bell a defense of the value of abstract art over other art forms and this was indeed his intention. The extent to which Renaissance art can be considered great, for example, has nothing to do with representational accuracy but must be considered only in light of the formal qualities exhibited.
In this manner many of the values formerly identified in artworks, and indeed movements, would have to be dismissed as deviations from the essay prompts sole interest of the aesthetic: the pursuit of significant form. There is a sense in which we should not underplay the role of the critic or philosopher who should be capable of challenging our accepted practices; capable of refining or cultivating our tastes. Writing Thesis? To this end Bell’s claims are not out of place. However, while there is some tendency to sports essay, reflect upon purely formal qualities of a work of art rather than artistic technique or various associations; while there is essay hell, a sense in which many artists attempt to depict something beyond the evident (utility driven) perceptual shallowness that can dictate our perceptual dealings, it remains obscure why this should be our only interest. Unfortunately, the exclusionary nature of sports Bell’s account seems only to be concerned with the aesthetic narrowly conceived, excluding any possibility of the development of, or importance of, other values and interests, both as things stand and in research paper, future artistic development. Sports Essay? Given the thesis qualitative claim Bell demands concerning the sports prompts superior value of significant form this appears more and more troubling with the increasing volume of works (and indeed values) that would have to be ignored under Bell’s formulation. As a case in point (perhaps a contentious one but there are any number of related examples), consider Duchamp’s Fountain (1917) . In line with much of the criticism referred to in Part 1, the essays problem is that because Bell identifies aesthetic value (as he construes it) with “art-hood” itself, Artistic Formalism has nothing to say about essay prompts, a urinal that purports to be anti-aesthetic and beall smith yet art. Increasingly, artworks are recognised as such and valued for reasons other than the presence (or precisely because of their lack) of aesthetic properties, or exhibited beauty. The practice continues, the works are criticised and valued, and formalists of essay prompts this kind can do very little but stamp their feet. The death of Artistic Formalism is apparently heralded by the departure of practice from essays theory.
d. Conclusions: From Artistic to (Moderate) Aesthetic Formalism. So what are we to take from Bell’s account? His claims that our interactions with certain artworks yield an emotion peculiar to the aesthetic, and not experienced in our everyday emotional lives, is sports essay prompts, rightly met with consternation. It is unclear why we should recognise such a reaction to be of a different kind (let alone a more valuable kind) to those experienced in other contexts such as to discount many of our reactions to paper, ostensible aesthetic objects as genuine aesthetic responses. Few are prompted by Bell’s account to accept this determination of the essay aesthetic nor does it seem to satisfactorily capture all that we should want to in this area. Essay Hell? However, Bell’s aim in producing this theory was (ostensibly) to essay prompts, capture something common to aesthetic objects. In appealing to a timeless emotion that will not be subject to common app essay fall, the contingencies of any specific era, Bell seemingly hoped to account for the enduring values of works throughout time. It is easy enough to recognise this need and the place Bell’s theory is supposed to hold in satisfying what does appear to be a sensible requirement.
It is less clear that this path, if adequately pursued, should be found to be fruitless. That we should define the realm of the aesthetic in virtue of those works that stand the test of time has been intuitive to some; how else are we to draw together all those objects worthy of theoretical inclusion whilst characterising and discounting failed works, impostors, and anomalies? Yet there is sports prompts, something disconcerting about research paper on water analysis, this procedure. That we should ascribe the label “ art” or even “ aesthetic” to a conjunction of sports essay prompts objects that have, over time, continued to impress on us some valuable property, seems to invite a potentially worrying commitment to relativity. The preceding discussion has given some voice to persuasive, a familiar enough contention that by indexing value to our current sensibility we stand to dismiss things that might have been legitimately valued in sports essay prompts, the past.
Bell’s willingness to acknowledge, even rally for, the on water analysis importance of abstract art leads him to a theory that identifies the value of sports works throughout history only on the basis of their displaying qualities (significant form) that he took to be important. The cost (although for Bell this is essay hell, no cost) of such a theory is that things like representational dexterity (a staple of the Renaissance) must be struck from the list of sports prompts aesthetically valuable properties, just as the pursuit of such a quality by artists must be characterised as misguided. The concern shared by those who criticise Bell seems to stem from an outlook according to which any proposed theory should be able to capture and common fall 2013 accommodate the sports essay prompts moving trends, interests and evaluations that constitute art history and drive the very development of artistic creation. This is thesis, what one expects an art theory to essay, be able to common, do. This is where Artistic Formalism fails, as art-practice and art theory diverge. Formalism, as a theory of sports art , is ill suited to make ontological distinctions between genuine- and help introduction thesis non-art. A theory whose currency is perceptually available value will be ill-equipped to officiate over a practice that is governed by, amongst other things, institutional considerations; in fact a practice that is able to prompts, develop precisely by identifying recognised values and then subverting them. Help Writing Thesis? For these reasons it seems obvious that Formalism is not a bad theory of art but is no theory of art at all. This understood, one can begin to see those elements of Bell’s Formalism that may be worth salvaging and those that must be rejected.
For instance, Bell ascribes a particular domain to aesthetic judgements, reactions, and evaluations such as to sports essay, distinguish a number of other pronouncements that can also be made in reference to help, the object in question (some, perhaps, deserve to be labelled “aesthetic” but some—arguably—do not). Essay Prompts? Bell can say of Picasso’s Guernica (1937) that the way it represents and expresses various things about the essay hell Spanish Civil War might well be politically and historically interesting (and valuable)—and might lead to the ascription of various properties to sports prompts, the work (being moving, or harsh). Likewise, the fact that it is by Picasso (or is a genuine Picasso rather than a forgery) will be of interest to some and prompts fall 2013 might also lead to the ascription of certain properties. But arguably these will not be aesthetic properties; no such property will suggest aesthetic value. Conversely, the fact that a particular object is a fake is often thought to devalue the work; for many it may even take away the sports essay prompts status of work-hood. Persuasive On Technology? But for Bell if the object were genuinely indistinguishable from the original, then it will be capable of displaying the same formal relations and will thus exhibit equal aesthetic value. It is this identification of aesthetic value with formal properties of the work that appears—for some—to continue to hold some plausibility. However, there have been few (if any) sympathisers towards Bell’s insistence that only if something displayed value in virtue of its formal features would it count as art, or as valuable in essay, an aesthetic . A more moderate position would be to ascribe a particular domain to formal aesthetic judgements, reactions and evaluations, while distinguishing these from essay hell both non-formal aesthetic judgements, and non-aesthetic (for example, artistic, political, historical) judgements.
On this kind of approach, Bell’s mistake was two-fold: Bell ran into essay difficulties when he (1) attempted to tie Formalism to writing introduction thesis, the nature of sports essay art itself, and (2) restricted the aesthetic exclusively to writing, a formal conception of beauty. By construing formalism as an aesthetic theory (as an account of what constitutes aesthetic value ) or as part of an aesthetic theory (as an account of one kind of aesthetic value), whilst at the same time admitting that there are other values to be had (both aesthetic and non-aesthetic), the Formalist needn’t go so far as to ordain the priority or importance of sports essay prompts this specific value in the various practices in which it features. In this way, one can anticipate the stance of the Moderate Formalist who asserts (in terms reminiscent of Kant’s account) there to be two kinds of beauty: formal beauty, and non-formal beauty. Formal beauty is an aesthetic property that is entirely determined by “narrow” non-aesthetic properties (these include sensory and non-relational physical properties such as the lines and colours on the surface of a painting). Persuasive Essays On Technology? Non-formal beauty is determined by “broad” non-aesthetic properties (which covers anything else, including appeals to the content-related aspects that would be required to sports essay prompts, ascertain the aptness or suitability of essays history certain features for the intended end of the painting, or the accuracy of a representational portrait, or the category to which an artwork belongs). While these notions require much clarification (see Part 3), a useful way to essay, express the aspirations of this account would be to note that the Moderate Formalist claims that their metaphysical stance generates the only theory capable of accommodating the aesthetic properties of all works of art. Unlike Bell’s “extreme Formalism”, maintaining all aesthetic properties to be narrowly determined by sensory and intrinsic physical properties; and unlike “anti-Formalism”, according to which all aesthetic properties are at least partly determined by dustin essays, broad non-aesthetic properties such as the artist’s intentions, or the artwork’s history of sports essay production; the Moderate Formalist insists that, in essay hell, the context of the philosophy of art, many artworks have a mix of formal and non-formal aesthetic properties; that others have only non-formal aesthetic properties; and that at essay prompts, least some artworks have only formal aesthetic properties. 3. Nick Zangwill’s Moderate Aesthetic Formalism. The issue of formalism is introduced on the assumption that aesthetic properties are determined by certain non-aesthetic properties; versions of formalism differ primarily in their answers to the question of which non-aesthetic properties are of interest.
This part of the presentation briefly outlines the central characterisations of “form” (and their differences) that will be pertinent to an understanding of twenty-first century discussions of extended essays Formalism. For present purposes, and in light of the previous discussion, it will be satisfactory to focus on essay formal characterisations of artworks and, more specifically visual art. a. Extreme Formalism, Moderate Formalism, Anti-Formalism. Nick Zangwill recognises that arrangements of lines, shapes, and colours (he includes “shininess” and “glossiness” as colour properties) are typically taken as formal properties, contrasting these with non-formal properties which are determined, in part, by the history of production or context of common app essay creation for the artwork. In capturing this divide, he writes: The most straightforward account would be to say that formal properties are those aesthetic properties that are determined solely by sports, sensory or physical properties—so long as the physical properties in question are not relations to other things or other times. This would capture the intuitive idea that formal properties are those aesthetic properties that are directly perceivable or that are determined by properties that are directly perceivable. (2001, p.56) Noting that this will not accommodate the claims of some philosophers that aesthetic properties are “dispositions to writing thesis, provoke responses in human beings”, Zangwill stipulates the word “narrow” to include sensory properties , non-relational physical properties , and essay dispositions to provoke responses that might be thought part-constitutive of aesthetic properties; the word “broad” covers anything else (such as the extrinsic property of the history of production of a work). Extended Essays? We can then appeal to a basic distinction: Formal properties are entirely determined by narrow nonaesthetic properties, whereas nonformal aesthetic properties are partly determined by broad nonaesthetic properties. (2001, p.56) On this basis, Zangwill identifies Extreme Formalism as the view that all aesthetic properties of an essay prompts artwork are formal (and narrowly determined), and Anti-Formalism as the view that no aesthetic properties of an help writing introduction thesis artwork are formal (all are broadly determined by history of production as well as narrow non-aesthetic properties). His own view is a Moderate Formalism , holding that some aesthetic properties of an sports artwork are formal, others are not.
He motivates this view via a number of strategies but in essay hell, light of earlier parts of this discussion it will be appropriate to focus on Zangwill’s responses to those arguments put forward by the anti-formalist. b. Responding to Kendall Walton’s Anti-Formalism. Part 1 briefly considersed Kendall Walton’s influential position according to sports essay prompts, which in order to make any aesthetic judgement regarding a work of history art one must see it under an art-historical category. Sports Essay Prompts? This claim was made in response to various attempts to “purge from criticism of works of art supposedly extraneous excursions into matters not (or not “directly”) available to inspection of the works, and to focus attention on the works themselves” (See, for example, the discussion of common app essay prompts fall 2013 Clive Bell in sports, Part 2). In motivating this view Walton offers what he supposes to be various “intuition pumps” that should lead to the acceptance of his proposal. In defense of a moderate formalist view Nick Zangwill has asserted that Walton’s thesis is at best only partly accurate. For Zangwill, there is common prompts, a large and significant class of works of art and aesthetic properties of works of art that are purely formal; in Walton’s terms the sports essay aesthetic properties of these objects emerge from the “configuration of colours and writing thesis shapes on a painting” alone. This would suggest a narrower determination of those features of sports prompts a work “available to inspection” than Walton defends in his claim that the history of production (a non-formal feature) of essay hell a work partly determines its aesthetic properties by determining the category to which the work belongs and sports prompts must be perceived. Zangwill wants to resist Walton’s claim that all or most works and values are category-dependent; aiming to vindicate the paper on water disputed negative thesis that “the application of aesthetic concepts to a work of art can leave out of consideration facts about its origin”. Zangwill is keen to point out that a number of the intuition pumps Walton utilises are less decisive than has commonly been accepted. Regarding representational properties, for example, Walton asks us to consider a marble bust of sports a Roman emperor which seems to us to resemble a man with, say, an essays aquiline nose, a wrinkled brow, and an expression of grim determination, and about which we take to sports, represent a man with, or as having, those characteristics.
The question is why don’t we say that it resembles or represents a motionless man, of uniform (marble) colour, who is severed at the chest? We are interested in representation and help writing introduction thesis it seems the object is in sports essay, more respects similar to the latter description than the former. 50 Excellent Extended Essays? Walton is able to account for the fact that we are not struck by the similarity in the latter sense as we are by the former by appeal to his distinction between standard, contra-standard and variable properties: The bust’s uniform color, motionlessness, and abrupt ending at sports essay prompts, the chest are standard properties relative to the category of busts, and since we see it as a bust they are standard for us. Help? […] A cubist work might look like a person with a cubical head to someone not familiar with the cubist style. Prompts? But the standardness of such cubical shapes for essay hell, people who see it as a cubist work prevents them from making that comparison. Prompts? (1970, p.345) His central claim is that what we take a work to represent (or even resemble) depends only on the variable properties , and not those that are standard, for the category under which we perceive it. It seems fairly obvious that this account must be right. Zangwill agrees and is hence led to accept that in the case of representational qualities there is persuasive essays, nothing in sports essay, the objects themselves that could tell the viewer which of the opposing descriptions is appropriate.
For this, one must look elsewhere to such things as the history of production or the conventionally accepted practices according to which the object’s intentional content may be derived. Zangwill argues that while representational properties might not be aesthetic properties (indeed they are possessed by ostensibly non-aesthetic, non-art items such as maps, blueprints, and road signs) they do appear to be among the research analysis base (non-aesthetic) properties that determine aesthetic properties. Given that representational properties of a work are, in part, determined by the history of production, and assuming that some aesthetic properties of representational works are partly determined by prompts, what they represent, Zangwill concludes some aesthetic properties to be non-formal. This is dustin smith essays, no problem for the Moderate Formalist of course; Walton’s intuition pump does not lead to an anti-formalist argument for it seems equally clear that only a subclass of artworks are representational works. Sports Prompts? Many works have no representational properties at all and are thus unaffected by the insistence that representational properties can only be successfully identified via the presence of art-historical or categorical information.
Given that Zangwill accepts Walton’s claim in respect only to a subclass of aesthetic objects, Moderate Formalism remains undisturbed. However, Walton offers other arguments that might be thought to have a more general application and thus forestall this method of “tactical retreat” on the part of the would-be Moderate Formalist. The claim that Walton seems to hold for all artworks (rather than just a subclass) is that the persuasive essays art-historical category into which an artwork falls is aesthetically relevant because one’s belief that a work falls under a particular category affects one’s perception of it—one experiences the work differently when one experiences it under a category. Crucially, understanding a work’s category is essay, a matter of understanding the degrees to which its features are standard, contra-standard and variable with respect to on technology, that category. Here is Walton’s most well-known example:
Imagine a society which does not have an sports essay prompts established medium of painting, but does produce a kind of work called guernicas. Guernicas are like versions of Picasso’s “ Guernica ” done in various bas-relief dimensions. All of them are surfaces with the colours and shapes of Picasso’s “ Guernica, ” but the surfaces are moulded to protrude from the wall like relief maps of different kinds of terrain. Research Paper Analysis? […] Picasso’s “ Guernica ” would be counted as a guernica in this society - a perfectly flat one - rather than as a painting. Its flatness is variable and sports essay the figures on 50 excellent essays its surface are standard relative to the category of guernicas . […] This would make for a profound difference between our reaction to “ Guernica ” and theirs. (1970, p.347) When we consider (as a slight amendment to Walton’s example) a guernica in this society that is physically indistinguishable from Picasso’s painting, we should become aware of the sports prompts different aesthetic responses experienced by members of common fall 2013 their society compared to ours.
Walton notes that it seems violent, dynamic, vital, disturbing to us, but imagines it would strike them as cold, stark, lifeless, restful, or perhaps bland, dull, boring—but in any case not violent, dynamic, and vital. His point is that the sports essay object is only violent and disturbing as a painting , but dull, stark, and so forth as a guernica , hence the thought experiment is supposed to prompt us to agree that aesthetic properties are dependent on (or relative to) the art-historical categories under which the observer subsumes the research on water object in question. Through this example Walton argues that we do not simply judge that an prompts artwork is dynamic and a painting. The only sense in which it is appropriate to claim that Guernica is dynamic is in claiming that it is beall smith essays, dynamic as a painting , or for people who see it as a painting. This analysis has been variously accepted in the literature; it is particularly interesting, therefore, to recognise Zangwill’s initial suspicion of Walton’s account. He notes that a plausible block to this intuition comes in the observation that it becomes very difficult to make aesthetic judgements about whole categories or comparisons of items across categories. Zangwill stipulates that Walton might respond with the sports claim that we simply widen the categories utilised in our judgements. For example, when we say that Minoan art is (in general) more dynamic than Mycenean art, what we are saying is that this is how it is when we consider both sorts of works as belonging to the class of “prehistoric Greek art”.
He continues: But why should we believe this story? It does not describe a psychological process that we are aware of paper analysis when we make cross-category judgements. The insistence that we are subconsciously operating with some more embracing category, even though we are not aware of it, seems to be an artefact of the essay prompts anti-formalist theory that there is no independent reason to believe. If aesthetic judgements are category-dependent, we would expect speakers and thinkers to be aware of it. Common 2013? But phenomenological reflection does not support the sports category-dependent view. (2001, pp. 92-3) In these cases, according to beall, Zangwill, support does not appear to be sourced either from phenomenology or from our inferential behaviour.
Instead he argues that we can offer an alternative account of what is going on sports essay when we say something is “elegant for a C ” or “an elegant C ”. This involves the essay hell claim that questions of goodness and elegance are matters of degree. We often make ascriptions that refer to sports essay prompts, a comparison class because this is app essay prompts 2013, a quicker and essay prompts easier way of communicating questions of degree. Essay Hell? But the formalist will say that the precise degree of some C -thing’s elegance does not involve the elegance of other existing C -things. And being a matter of degree is quite different from being category-dependent. So Zangwill’s claim is that it is pragmatically convenient, but far from essential, that one make reference to a category-class in offering an aesthetic judgement. We are able to make category-neutral aesthetic judgements, and sports prompts crucially for Zangwill, such judgements are fundamental: category-dependent judgements are only possible because of category-neutral ones. The formalist will hold that without the extended ability to make category-neutral judgements we would have no basis for comparisons; Walton has not shown that this is not the case.
In this way Zangwill asserts that we can understand that it is appropriate to say that the flat guernica is sports essay prompts, “lifeless” because it is essays, less lively than most guernicas— but this selection of objects is a particularly lively one. Picasso’s Guernica is appropriately thought of as “vital” because it is more so than most paintings; considered as a class these are not particularly lively. But in fact the sports essay prompts painting and the guernica might be equally lively, indeed equivalent in respect of essay hell their other aesthetic properties—they only appear to differ in respect of the comparative judgements in which they have been embedded. It is for this reason that Zangwill concludes that we can refuse to have our intuitions “pumped” in the direction Walton intends. We can stubbornly maintain that the two narrowly indistinguishable things are aesthetically indistinguishable.
We can insist that a non-question-begging argument has not been provided. On this view, one can allow that reference to art-historical categories is a convenient way of sports essay classifying art, artists, and art movements, but the fact that this convenience has been widely utilised need not be telling against alternative accounts of aesthetic value. Zangwill’s own distinction between formal and non-formal properties is derived (broadly) from Immanuel Kant’s distinction between free and paper analysis dependent beauty. Essay Prompts? Indeed, Zangwill has asserted that “Kant was also a moderate formalist, who opposed extreme formalism when he distinguished free and dependent beauty in §16 of the Critique of Judgement ” (2005, p.186). In the section in question Kant writes: There are two kinds of beauty; free beauty ( pulchritudo vaga ) , or beauty which is merely dependent ( pulchritudo adhaerens ). The first presupposes no concept of common 2013 what the object should be; the sports second does presuppose such a concept and, with it, an answering perfection of the object. On the side of free beauty Kant lists primarily natural objects such as flowers, some birds, and app essay crustacea, but adds wallpaper patterns and musical fantasias; examples of dependent beauties include the beauty of a building such as a church, palace, or summer-house. Zangwill maintains that dependent beauty holds the essay prompts key to understanding the non-formal aesthetic properties of art—without this notion it will be impossible to understand the history aesthetic importance of sports essay pictorial representation, or indeed any of the art-forms he analyses. A work that is intended to be a representation of a certain sort—if that intention is successfully realised—will fulfil the representational function the artist intended, and essay hell may (it is claimed) do so beautifully . In other words, some works have non-formal aesthetic properties because of (or in virtue of) the way they embody some historically given non-aesthetic function. By contrast, Kant’s account of free beauty has been interpreted in essay, line with formal aesthetic value.
At §16 and §17, Kant appears to place constraints on the kinds of objects that can exemplify pure (that is, formal) beauty, suggesting that nature, rather than art, provides the proper objects of (pure) aesthetic judgement and that to the extent that artworks can be (pure) objects of tastes they must be abstract, non-representational, works. If this is a consequence of Kant’s account, the strong Formalist position derived from judgements of pure beauty would presumably have to be restricted in application to judgements of abstract art and, perhaps in quotidian cases, the research analysis objects of prompts nature. However, several commentators (for example, Crawford (1974) and common fall Guyer (1997)) have maintained that Kant’s distinction between free and dependent beauty does not entail the classification of art (even representational art) as merely dependently beautiful. Crawford, for sports, example, takes the distinction between free and common app essay prompts 2013 dependent beauty to turn on the power of the judger to abstract towards a disinterested position; this is because he takes Kant’s distinction to be between kinds of judgement and not between kinds of sports object. This is not the place for a detailed exegesis of Kant’s aesthetics, but it is pertinent to at least note the suggestion that it is nature (rather than art) that provides the paradigm objects of formal aesthetic judgement. Help? In the next part of this presentation we will explore this possibility, further considering Zangwill’s moderate, and more extreme Formalist conclusions in the domain of sports essay prompts nature appreciation. 4. From Art to the Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature.
Allen Carlson is well known for his contribution to the area broadly known as “environmental aesthetics”, perhaps most notably for his discussion of the aesthetic appreciation of nature (2000). Where discussing the value of art Carlson seems to adopt a recognisably moderate formalist position, acknowledging both that where formalists like Bell went wrong was in presupposing formalism to be the common fall only valid way to appreciate visual artworks ( pace Part 2), but also suggesting that a “proper perspective” on the application of formalism should have revealed it to be one among many “orientations” deserving recognition in art appreciation ( pace Part 3). However, when turning to the appreciation of the natural environment Carlson adopts and defends a strongly anti-formalist position , occupying a stance that has been referred to as “cognitive naturalism”. This part of the presentation briefly discusses Carlson’s rejection of sports essay prompts formalism before presenting some moderate, and stronger formalist replies in this domain. Carlson has characterised contemporary debates in essay hell, the aesthetics of nature as attempting to distance nature appreciation from theories of the appreciation of art.
Contemporary discussion introduces different models for the appreciation of nature in place of the sports essay inadequate attempts to apply artistic norms to an environmental domain. Paper Analysis? For example, in his influential “Appreciation and the Natural Environment” (1979) he had disputed both “object” and “landscape” models of essay nature appreciation (which might be thought attractive to the Moderate Formalist), favouring the “natural environmental” model (which stands in opposition to the other two). Carlson acknowledged that the “object” model has some utility in the art-world regarding the appreciation of non-representational sculpture (he takes Brancusi’s Bird in paper, Space (1919) as an example). Such sculpture can have significant (formal) aesthetic properties yet no representational connections to the rest of reality or relational connections with its immediate surroundings. Indeed, he acknowledges that the formalist intuitions discussed earlier have remained prevalent in the domain of essay nature appreciation, meeting significant and sustained opposition only in the domain of art criticism.
When it comes to introduction, nature-appreciation, formalism has remained relatively uncontested and popular, emerging as an assumption in many theoretical discussions. Sports Prompts? However, Carlson’s conclusion on help writing the “object” and “landscape” models is that the former rips natural objects from their larger environments while the latter frames and flattens them into scenery. In focussing mainly on essay formal properties, both models neglect much of essay hell our normal experience and understanding of nature. The “object” model is inappropriate as it cannot recognise the essay organic unity between natural objects and their environment of creation or display, such environments are—Carlson believes—aesthetically relevant. This model thus imposes limitations on our appreciation of natural objects as a result of the removal of the object from its surroundings (which this model requires in order to address the questions of what and how to appreciate). For Carlson, the natural environment cannot be broken down into discrete parts, divorced from their former environmental relations any more than it can be reduced to a static, two-dimensional scene (as in the “landscape” model).
Instead he holds that the natural environment must be appreciated for what it is, both nature and an environment . On this view natural objects possess an organic unity with their environment of creation: they are a part of and have developed out of the elements of their environments by means of the smith forces at essay, work within those environments. Thus some understanding of the environments of extended history creation is sports prompts, relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of natural objects. The assumption implicit in the above rejection of Formalism is familiar from the objections (specifically regarding Walton) from Part 3. It is the suggestion that the paper analysis appropriate way to appreciate some target object is via recourse to the kind of thing it is; taking the target for something it is not does not constitute appropriate aesthetic appreciation of that thing. Sports Prompts? Nature is extended essays, natural so cannot be treated as “readymade” art. Carlson holds that the target for the appreciation of nature is also an environment, entailing that the appropriate mode of appreciation is active, involved appreciation. Sports Essay? It is the writing appreciation of a judge who is in the environment, being part of and sports essay prompts reacting to dustin smith, it, rather than merely being an external onlooker upon a two-dimensional scene. Essay Prompts? It is writing thesis, this view that leads to his strong anti-formalist suggestion that the essay natural environment as such does not possess formal qualities. For example, responding to the “landscape” model Carlson suggests that the fall 2013 natural environment itself only appears to have formal qualities when a person somehow imposes a frame upon it and thus formally composes the resultant view.
In such a case it is the framed view that has the sports qualities, but these will vary depending upon writing, the frame and the viewer’s position. As a consequence Carlson takes the formal features of nature, such as they are, to be (nearly) infinitely realisable; insofar as the natural environment has formal qualities, they have an indeterminateness, making them both difficult to appreciate, and of little significance in sports prompts, the appreciation of nature. Put simply, the natural environment is beall smith, not an object, nor is it a static two-dimensional “picture”, thus it cannot be appreciated in ways satisfactory for objects or pictures; furthermore, the rival models discussed do not reveal significant or sufficiently determinate appreciative features. In rejecting these views Carlson has been concerned with the questions of what and how we should appreciate; his answer involves the sports prompts necessary acknowledgement that we are appreciating x qua x, where some further conditions will be specifiable in relation to the nature of the essay hell x in question. It is in relation to this point that Carlson’s anti-formalist “cognitive naturalism” presents itself. In this respect his stance on nature appreciation differs from Walton’s, who did not extend his philosophical claims to aesthetic judgements about nature (Walton lists clouds, mountains, sunsets), believing that these judgements, unlike judgements of art, are best understood in sports essay prompts, terms of a category-relative interpretation. By contrast, Carlson can be understood as attempting to extend Walton’s category dependent account of art-appreciation to the appreciation of nature.
On this view we do not need to treat nature as we treat those artworks about whose origins we know nothing because it is not the case that we know nothing of nature: In general we do not produce, but rather discover, natural objects and aspects of nature. Why should we therefore not discover the essays correct categories for their perception? We discover whales and later discover that, in spite of sports somewhat misleading perceptual properties, they are in fact mammals and not fish. (Carlson, 2000, p.64) By discovering the correct categories to which objects or environments belong, we can know which is the correct judgement to make (the whale is not a lumbering and dustin beall essays inelegant fish).
It is in virtue of this that Carlson claims our judgements of the aesthetic appreciation of nature sustain responsible criticism in the way Walton characterises the appreciation of art. Sports Essay Prompts? It is for this reason that Carlson concludes that for the aesthetic appreciation of nature, something like the knowledge and experience of the naturalist or ecologist is essential. Research Paper On Water Analysis? This knowledge gives us the appropriate foci of aesthetic significance and the appropriate boundaries of the setting so that our experience becomes one of aesthetic appreciation. He concludes that the absence of such knowledge, or any failure to perceive nature under the correct categories, leads to aesthetic omission and, indeed, deception. We have already encountered some potential responses to this strong anti-formalism. The moderate formalist may attempt to sports prompts, deploy a version of the analysis aesthetic/non-aesthetic distinction such as to essay, deny that the naturalist and essays ecologist are any better equipped than the rest of us to aesthetically appreciate nature. They are, of course, better equipped to understand nature, and to evaluate (in what we might call a “non-aesthetic” sense) the objects and environments therein.
This type of prompts response claims that the ecologist can judge (say) the perfectly self-contained and undisturbed ecosystem, can indeed respond favourably to her knowledge of the rarity of such a find. Such things are valuable in that they are of natural-historical interest. Such things are of interest and significance to natural-historians, no doubt. The naturalist will know that the whale is not “lumbering” compared to most fish (and will not draw this comparison), and will see it as “whale-like”, “graceful”, perhaps particularly “sprightly” compared to most whales. One need not deny that such comparative, cognitive judgements can feel a particular way, or that such judgements are a significant part of the appreciation of nature; but it may be possible to deny that these (or only these) judgements deserve to be called aesthetic. However, Carlson’s objection is not to the existence of formal value, but to the appropriateness of consideration of writing such value.
Our knowledge of an environment is essay, supposed to allow us to select certain foci of dustin beall essays aesthetic significance and abstract from, or exclude, others such as to essay, characterise different kinds of appropriate experience: …we must survey a prairie environment, looking at the subtle contours of the land, feeling the persuasive essays wind blowing across the open space, and smelling the mix of prairie grasses and flowers. Sports? But such an act of aspection has little place in a dense forest environment. Here we must examine and scrutinise, inspecting the detail of the forest floor, listening carefully for the sounds of dustin beall smith birds and smelling carefully for the scent of spruce and pine. (Carlson, 2000, p.64) Clearly knowledge of the terrain and environment that is targeted in each of these cases might lead the prompts subject to be particularly attentive to signs of certain expected elements; however, there are two concerns that are worth highlighting in closing. Firstly, it is essay hell, unclear why one should, for sports prompts, all one’s knowledge of the expected richness or desolation of some particular landscape, be in a position to essay hell, assume of sports prompts (say) the prairie environment that no detailed local scrutiny should yield the 2013 kind of interest or appreciation (both formal and non-formal) that might be found in other environments. It is sports essay, unclear whether Carlson could allow that such acts might yield appreciation but must maintain that they would not yield instances of aesthetic appreciation of that environment , or whether he is writing, denying the availability of such unpredicted values—in either case the sports essay point seems questionable. Perhaps the suspicion is one that comes from proportioning one’s expectation to one’s analysis of the proposed target. The first concern is thus that knowledge (even accurate knowledge) can be as potentially blinding as it is potentially enlightening. The second concern is related to smith, the first, but poses more of a direct problem for Carlson. His objection to the “object” and sports “landscape” models regards their propensity to limit the essay hell potentiality for aesthetic judgement by sports essay, taking the target to be something other than it truly is.
Part of the on water analysis problem described above relates to worries regarding the reduction of environments to general categories like prairie landscape , dense forest , pastoral environment such that one enlists expectations of those attentions that will and sports will not be rewarded, and limits one’s interaction accordingly. While it might be true that some understanding of the kind of environment we are approaching will suggest certain values to expect as well as indicating the act of aspection appropriate for delivering just these, the worry is that this account may be unduly limiting because levels of appreciation are unlikely to exceed the estimations of the theory and the acts of writing introduction engagement and interaction these provoke. Sports? In nature more than anywhere else this seems to fail to do justice to those intuitions that the essays target really is essay, (amongst other things) a rich, unconstrained sensory manifold. Essays? To briefly illustrate the point with a final example, Zangwill (2001, pp.116-8) considers such cases (which he doesn’t think Carlson can account for) as the unexpected or incongruous beauty of the polar bear swimming underwater. Not only is sports essay, this “the last thing we expected”, but our surprise shows that. …it is persuasive, not a beauty that we took to prompts, be dependent in essays on technology, some way upon our grasp of sports prompts its polar-bearness. We didn’t find it elegant as a polar bear. It is a category-free beauty. The underwater polar bear is a beautiful thing in beautiful motion… The suggestion here is that to “do justice to” and thus fully appreciate the target one must be receptive not simply to smith essays, the fact that it is nature, or that it is an environment, but that it is, first and foremost, the individual environment that it (and not our understanding of it) reveals itself to be. This may involve consideration of its various observable features, at different levels of observation, including perhaps those cognitively rich considerations Carlson discusses; but it will not be solely a matter of these judgements.
According to the (Moderate) Formalist, the “true reality” of things is more than Carlson’s account seems capable of capturing, for while a natural environment is not in fact a static two-dimensional scene, it may well in fact possess (amongst other things) a particular appearance for us, and that appearance may be aesthetically valuable. The Moderate Formalist can accommodate that value without thereby omitting acknowledgement of other kinds of essay prompts values, including those Carlson defends. Finally, it should be noted that when it comes to history, inorganic nature , Zangwill has argued for a stronger formalist position (much closer to Bell’s view about visual art). The basic argument for this conclusion is that even if a case can be made for claiming that much of organic nature should be understood and appreciated via reference to some kind of “history of production” (typically in terms of sports essay biological functions, usually thought to depend on evolutionary history), inorganic or non-biological nature (rivers, rocks, sunsets, the rings of on technology Saturn) does not have functions and therefore cannot have aesthetic properties that depend on functions. Prompts? Nor should we aesthetically appreciate inorganic things in the light of functions they do not have. In relation to both art and nature we have seen that anti-formalists argue that aesthetic appreciation involves a kind of connoisseurship rather than a kind of childlike wonder. Bell’s extreme (artistic) formalism appeared to recommend a rather restricted conception of the art-connoisseur. Walton’s and research paper on water analysis Carlson’s anti-formalism (in relation to art and nature respectively) both called for essay, the expertise and knowledge base required to identify and apply the “correct” category under which an item of 2013 appreciation must be subsumed. Yet the essay prompts plausibility of challenges to these stances (both the strong formalism of Bell and the strong anti-formalism of Walton and Carlson) appears to be grounded in more moderate , tolerant proposals. Zangwill, for example, defends his moderate formalism as “a plea for open-mindedness” under the auspices of attempts to recover some of our aesthetic innocence . This presentation began with an historical overview intended to help situate (though not necessarily motivate or defend) the intuition that there is some important sense in which aesthetic qualities pertain to the appearance of 50 excellent essays things . Prompts? Anti-formalists point out dustin beall smith essays, that beauty, ugliness, and sports essay prompts other aesthetic qualities often (or always) pertain to appearances as informed by our beliefs and understanding about the reality of things. Contemporary Formalists such as Zangwill will insist that such aesthetic qualities also—often and legitimately—pertain to mere appearances , which are not so informed.
On this more moderate approach, the aesthetic responses of the connoisseur, the paper on water art-historian, the ecologist can be acknowledged while nonetheless insisting that the sophisticated aesthetic sensibility has humble roots and we should not forget them. Formal aesthetic appreciation may be more “raw, na i ve, and uncultivated” (Zangwill, 2005, p.186), but arguably it has its place.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on prompts lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for persuasive essays on technology, the last five years for European clients in Paris. Sports Essay Prompts. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and common app essay fall 2013 a B.A. in sports, government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from dustin smith, Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the sports, International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in app essay prompts fall, Madrid, Spain. Essay. She is a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in research paper analysis, French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to sports essay, assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries.
Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. App Essay Prompts Fall 2013. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and sports essay reading only what he can in dustin smith, the time it takes to walk back to prompts, his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Research Paper On Water. Use bold. Sports Essay. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way.
2. Essay Hell. Be concise and make every word count. This is related to sports, Tip #1. Beall Essays. You want the sports essay prompts, most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in common fall, the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Sports Essay Prompts. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and essay hell some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening.
4. Essay. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the persuasive essays, underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project?
6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the sports essay prompts, proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of common app essay, your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of prompts, today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. Smith. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies). Essay Prompts. Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. Persuasive. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and sports essay prompts memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about dustin beall smith essays your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in sports, raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in extended essays history, your chair and confess that you are on essay prompts the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to common app essay 2013, attend a meeting?
8. Education first or work experience first? This is sports essay prompts, a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the research paper analysis, page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and prompts squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text?
Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on on water a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and essay then follow your instincts. 50 Excellent Extended. 10. Proofread your resume carefully. Essay Prompts. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again.
Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Help Writing Thesis. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. Essay. You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in your bikini?
Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at fall your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing.
Oh, and essay prompts one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. Paper On Water. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. Sports Essay. But there are wrong ways. Essays. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of prompts, your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right.
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How Consultants Recommend Cutting Legal Bills. Senior Attorney Fired For Cruel Commentary On Las Vegas Shooting. Law Firm Partners Face 20+ Years In Prison On Bribery, Wire Fraud And Other Charges. Help Introduction Thesis. The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. Prompts. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. How Do Criminal Defense Attorneys Sleep At Night After Getting Killers Out Of Jail? Lawyers Aren#8217;t Necessarily Good Managers#8230; So Why Do We Let Them Manage Firms?
What’s Up With All The New York Mid-Market Lateral Moves? What Were You Thinking? Equifax GC Probed For Executive Stock Sales Before Public Learned Of Breach. Law firms blow a lot of rhetorical hot air affirming their commitment to common app essay prompts, achieving gender diversity in the workplace. Yet, despite some isolated efforts to hire and retain more female attorneys and promote more women into partnership, little tangible progress has been made to improve the position of essay, women in the profession… Location: Any Stoel Rives LLP , United States. posted by Stoel Rives LLP Jr. Emerging Companies Corporate Associate. Location: San Francisco, California. posted by Kinney Recruiting LLC Legal and Compliance Associate.
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Ethics and Social Responsibility ETH 316 ENTIRE CLASS. Write a 350- to 700-word essay comparing the essay prompts similarities and differences between virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics. Include the following in your essay: A description of the differences in how each theory addresses ethics and morality A personal experience to explain the relationship between virtue, values, and moral concepts as they relate to help writing one of the three theories. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Submit your assignment to the Assignment Files tab. Critical Thinking Scenario ETH 316 WEEK 2.
Select a provided ethical scenario or choose one from section IV of Thinking Critically . Analyze your chosen scenario from essay, a critical thinking perspective. What is the app essay fall moral responsibility of all participants? What are the stakeholders’ moral failings? What ideals or obligations are in conflict? What is the best outcome, given the consequences? Write a brief reflection of your analysis by describing the relationship between critical thinking and ethics. Note. Remember that this should be based on critical thinking, not on sports essay prompts your personal opinion. Please note that the video “Blood Money” contains graphic content which might be disturbing to some viewers. Submit your assignment to the Assignment Files tab.
Critical Thinking Scenario ETH 316 WEEK 2. Critical Thinking and Ethics ETH 316 WEEK 2. Write a 200- to 50 excellent extended 350- word explanation of the relationship between critical thinking and ethics. Are the principles and rules of critical thinking applicable to ethical reasoning? Why? If everyone followed the rules and essay, guidelines of logic, would there be a need for essays ethical decision making? Why? Use examples from the essay scenarios provided this week to support your answer. Submit your assignment to the Assignment Files tab. Critical Thinking and Ethics ETH 316 WEEK 2. Organizational Ethics ETH 316 WEEK 3.
Select an organization you work for or one in your chosen field. Conduct online research on the ethics of your organization and the industry it belongs to. Write a 750- to 1,050-word paper describing how ethical principles can address organizational issues. Include the organization you selected and discuss the following with regards to that organization and its industry: What role do external social pressures have in influencing organizational ethics? How might these issues be relevant to organizational and personal decisions? What is the relationship between legal and ethical issues? Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Submit your assignment to the Assignment Files tab. Organizational Ethics ETH 316 WEEK 3. Corporate Social Responsibility ETH 316 WEEK 4.
Research , individually, a corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy at a large organization. Prepare to discuss the benefits and dustin beall essays, disadvantages of the policy with your team. Imagine your team represents the executive committee at an imaginary organization tasked with drafting a CSR policy. Each person must represent a different stakeholder in the company. Document your committee’s views on the essential components of a CSR policy. Include the following: What role does your organization play in sports essay prompts, the community? What factors in essay hell, your organization influence the social responsibility strategies? What is essay prompts one social initiative your organization will champion? What is your organization’s responsibility to the community?
Explain. What are the introduction thesis main components of an sports essay prompts effective CSR policy? What are the app essay prompts fall potential consequences of sports essay prompts, your chosen social initiative and policy? Prepare a 15- to 20-slide Microsoft ® PowerPoint ® presentation, including speaker notes, presenting your CSR policy to essays history key stakeholders in your organization. Format your presentation consistent with APA guidelines. Submit your assignment to the Assignment Files tab. Corporate Social Responsibility ETH 316 WEEK 4. Cross-Cultural Perspectives ETH 316 WEEK 5. Identify a global organization with a multinational presence. Identify and research a cultural issue that affects this organization’s interactions outside the United States.
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