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business plan cdc Although contingency planning sometimes is thought of as an Operations and Maintenance Phase activity, contingency measures should be identified and integrated at all phases of the project life cycle. NIST defines a seven-step contingency planning process to developing and maintaining a viable contingency planning program. These seven progressive steps are designed to be integrated throughout a project's life cycle and help guide stakeholders in the planning, development, implementation, key success factors, and maintenance of contingency plans. Identify any specific regulatory requirements related to research paper on marketing to children contingency planning. Develop a formal contingency planning policy statement that provides stakeholders the authority and cowardice essay guidance necessary to develop an effective contingency plan. Obtain executive approval, and publish policies such policies. Conduct a business impact analysis (BIA) to identify and prioritize critical systems, business processes, and components.
Include impact of events, allowable outage durations, and recovery priorities. Identify and implement preventive controls and measures to reduce the effects of disruptions, increase availability, and research reduce contingency costs. Develop recovery strategies ensuring critical systems, business processes, infrastructure, etc can be recovered quickly and effectively following a disruption. Integrate them into essays history system architecture. Develop contingency plans containing detailed guidance and procedures to research paper to children recover from disruptions. Plan testing, training, and exercises to reinforce, validate, and test contingency plans to identify gaps and to prepare recovery personnel for unforeseen events. Document lessons learned and incorporate them into updates to contingency plans. Nuclear! Maintain contingency plans as living documents. Update them regularly to reflect changes in any influencing factors. Contingency plan development is a critical component in the process of developing and on marketing implementing a comprehensive emergency preparedness program. In general, as defined by NIST, there are five main components of a project contingency plan: Concept of operations Notification and activation Recovery of operations Reconstitution of normal operations Supporting information as part of the plan's appendices.
For contingency planning to be successful, stakeholders must continuously reexamine areas of operational importance with a focus on things such as business processes, systems, and alternatives analysis; recovery strategies, maintenance, training, and plan execution. These activities occur at both an about my dad, organization and on marketing to children project level. Information gained is used to develop plans addressing specific areas of a research paper, importance. Types of paper on marketing, contingency plans that should be considered may include: Business Continuity Plan part of the Certification and Accreditation process, focuses on sustaining business functions during and after a disruption. May address all key business processes or be developed for a specific business process. Business Recovery Plan focuses on nowadays, restoring business processes after an emergency. Continuity of Operations Plan mandated by research paper on marketing to children Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 67, Enduring Constitutional Government and Continuity of Government Operations, focuses on essays on teenagers nowadays, restoring essential functions at paper on marketing, an alternate location and performing them for some time before returning to normal operations.
Continuity of Support Plan required by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-130, Appendix III, focuses on the capability of continuing support and service provided by major applications. Crisis Communications Plan focuses on defining structures and methods focused on public outreach including procedures for collecting, screening, formatting, and disseminating information. Cyber Incident Response Plan focuses on defining procedures to address cyber attacks. Disaster Recovery Plan focuses on defining procedures to recover from catastrophic events that deny access to normal operations for an extended period of time. Essays Nowadays! Occupant Emergency Plan focuses on providing response procedures for occupants of a facility in the event of a potential threat to the health and/or safety of research paper, personnel, environment, or property. The image above shows how NIST relates the various types of contingency plans. Contingency plans are developed to facilitate responses to anything that may impact normal operations. These plans should contain information and strategies designed to guide stakeholders in the restoration of normal operations and 50 excellent essays describe strategies for to children, ensuring the recovery of business products and operations in accordance with defined objectives and timeframes.
The actual type(s) of plan(s) created, the information they contain, and the defined response(s) are dependant upon factors such as: Risk that a particular type of disruption may occur Resource availability to respond to different types of disruptions Organizational response capabilities Readiness to deal with any type of 50 excellent extended essays history, disruption. For projects, the development of a strong contingency plan must begin early in a project's life with the on marketing to children identification of items such as related organizational and the yellow wallpaper introduction operational policies and research on marketing to children procedures, project requirements, and on teenagers nowadays availability requirements of the paper on marketing project's product or service Planning activities should continue throughout the project's life as concepts evolve into designs and cowardice essay solutions are incorporated throughout the product's development, testing, and implementation. For example, NIST identifies that: During requirements gathering, identification of research paper, very high system availability requirements may dictate that redundancy, real-time monitoring, and fail-over capabilities be built into the project's product. During product development it's feasible that redundant communication paths, power management systems, load balancing, data mirroring, and replication may need to be considered. During implementation contingency/disaster recovery strategies and pros cons procedures must be considered and incorporated into product testing activities. During operations and maintenance contingency/disaster recover plans should be maintained and to children updated to reflect changes in influencing factors. Training programs should be developed and implemented to a hero educate stakeholders on recovery procedures and to keep them abreast of changes. NIST identifies three high-level phases that should be considered when planning how post disruption/disaster activities should be executed. Notification/Activation Phase includes the process of beginning the recovery process through the notification of recovery personnel and stakeholders, performing damage assessments, etc Recovery Phase includes the actions performed by the recovery teams to repair and/or restore operations in accordance with defined contingency/disaster recovery plans Reconstitution Phase includes actions necessary to restore normal operating conditions.
What actions are taken, details of those actions, processes for research paper, executing them, and response activities associated with these three phases should be detailed within the the yellow appropriate contingency plan(s). It is then the responsibility of the System Owner to ensure that copies of such plans are distributed and research to children details of which are communicated to the appropriate stakeholders which may include, but is not limited to: Business Steward The Office of the Chief Information Security Officer (OCISO). Additional information on contingency planning can be found in the NIST Contingency Planning Guide for information Technology Systems. Cowardice Essay! Information on risk management can be found in the CDC Unified Process Risk Management Practices Guide and paper on marketing the NIST Special Publication 800-30, Risk Management Guide to essays history Information Technology Systems.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The word “argument” can be used to designate a dispute or a fight, or it can be used more technically. Research To Children. The focus of this article is on understanding an argument as a collection of essay about truth-bearers (that is, the things that bear truth and falsity, or are true and false) some of which are offered as reasons for one of them, the conclusion. This article takes propositions rather than sentences or statements or utterances to be the research primary truth bearers. Cowardice Essay. The reasons offered within the argument are called “premises”, and the proposition that the premises are offered for is called the “conclusion”. This sense of “argument” diverges not only from the above sense of a dispute or fight but also from the formal logician’s sense according to paper on marketing which an argument is merely a list of statements, one of which is designated as the conclusion and the rest of which are designated as premises regardless of whether the premises are offered as reasons for believing the conclusion. Arguments, as understood in this article, are the subject of study in critical thinking and informal logic courses in the yellow which students usually learn, among other things, how to identify, reconstruct, and evaluate arguments given outside the classroom. Arguments, in this sense, are typically distinguished from both implications and inferences. In asserting that a proposition P implies proposition Q, one does not thereby offer P as a reason for Q. The proposition frogs are mammals implies that frogs are not reptiles , but it is problematic to offer the former as a reason for believing the latter.
If an arguer offers an to children, argument in order to nuclear pros cons persuade an audience that the conclusion is true, then it is plausible to think that the on marketing arguer is inviting the audience to make an wallpaper essay introduction, inference from the on marketing to children argument’s premises to its conclusion. Essays. However, an inference is a form of reasoning, and as such it is research, distinct from an argument in the sense of a collection of the yellow wallpaper introduction propositions (some of which are offered as reasons for the conclusion). One might plausibly think that a person S infers Q from P just in case S comes to believe Q because S believes that P is paper on marketing to children, true and 50 excellent extended, because S believes that the truth of P justifies belief that Q. But this movement of mind from P to Q is something different from the argument composed of just P and Q. The characterization of argument in the first paragraph requires development since there are forms of reasoning such as explanations which are not typically regarded as arguments even though (explanatory) reasons are offered for a proposition. Research Paper On Marketing. Two principal approaches to 50 excellent essays fine-tuning this first-step characterization of arguments are what may be called the structural and pragmatic approaches. The pragmatic approach is motivated by the view that the nature of an argument cannot be completely captured in research to children terms of nuclear pros cons its structure. Research On Marketing To Children. In what follows, each approach is described, and criticism is 50 excellent extended essays history, briefly entertained. Along the way, distinctive features of arguments are highlighted that seemingly must be accounted for by any plausible characterization. The classification of arguments as deductive, inductive, and conductive is discussed in section 3.
1. The Structural Approach to Characterizing Arguments. Not any group of propositions qualifies as an argument. The starting point for to children, structural approaches is the thesis that the premises of an argument are reasons offered in support of essay my dad its conclusion (for example, Govier 2010, p.1, Bassham, G., W. Irwin, H. Nardone, J. Wallace 2005, p.30, Copi and Cohen 2005, p.7; for discussion, see Johnson 2000, p.146ff ). Accordingly, a collection of research paper propositions lacks the structure of an argument unless there is a reasoner who puts forward some as reasons in support of one of pros essay them. Research Paper On Marketing. Letting P 1 , P 2 , P 3 , …, and C range over propositions and R over reasoners, a structural characterization of the yellow argument takes the following form. A collection of propositions, P 1 , …, P n , C, is an argument if and only if there is a reasoner R who puts forward the P i as reasons in support of paper to children C. The structure of an argument is not a function of the the yellow wallpaper syntactic and semantic features of the propositions that compose it. Rather, it is research paper on marketing, imposed on these propositions by the intentions of a reasoner to use some as support for one of the yellow wallpaper essay them. Typically in presenting an argument, a reasoner will use expressions to flag the intended structural components of her argument. Typical premise indicators include: “because”, “since”, “for”, and “as”; typical conclusion indicators include “therefore”, “thus”, “hence”, and “so”.
Note well: these expressions do not always function in these ways, and so their mere use does not necessitate the presence of an research paper on marketing, argument. Different accounts of the nature of the intended support offered by the premises for the conclusion in an argument generate different structural characterizations of arguments (for discussion see Hitchcock 2007). Plausibly, if a reasoner R puts forward premises in support of a conclusion C, then (i)-(iii) obtain. (i) The premises represent R’s reasons for steps a research paper, believing that the conclusion is true and on marketing, R thinks that her belief in the truth of the premises is justified. (ii) R believes that the premises make C more probable than not. (iii) (a) R believes that the premises are independent of C ( that is, R thinks that her reasons for the premises do not include belief that C is true), and (b) R believes that the premises are relevant to establishing that C is true. If we judge that a reasoner R presents an argument as defined above, then by the lights of nuclear energy pros (i)-(iii) we believe that R believes that the to children premises justify belief in the truth of the conclusion. In what immediately follows, examples are given to explicate (i)-(iii). A: John is an only child. B: John is not an only child; he said that Mary is his sister. If B presents an cowardice essay, argument, then the following obtain. Research Paper On Marketing To Children. (i) B believes that the premise ( that is, Mary is John’s sister ) is true, B thinks this belief is justified, and the premise is B’s reason for maintaining the conclusion. (ii) B believes that John said that Mary is extended, his sister makes it more likely than not that John is not an to children, only child , and (iii) B thinks that that John said that Mary is his sister is both independent of the proposition that Mary is John’s sister and relevant to confirming it. A: The Democrats and Republicans don’t seem willing to compromise.
B: If the Democrats and Republicans are not willing to compromise, then the U.S. will go over the fiscal cliff. B’s assertion of cons essay a conditional does not require that B believe either the antecedent or consequent. Therefore, it is unlikely that B puts forward the Democrats and Republicans are not willing to compromise as a reason in support of the U.S. On Marketing To Children. will go over the fiscal cliff , because it is unlikely that B believes either proposition. Hence, it is unlikely that B’s response to A has the structure of an argument, because (i) is not satisfied. A: Doctor B, what is the reason for my uncle’s muscular weakness? B: The results of the test are in.
Even though few syphilis patients get paresis, we suspect that the a hero essay my dad reason for your uncle’s paresis is the syphilis he suffered from 10 years ago. Dr. B offers reasons that explain why A’s uncle has paresis. It is unreasonable to think that B believes that the uncle’s being a syphilis victim makes it more likely than not that he has paresis, since B admits that having syphilis does not make it more likely than not that someone has (or will have) paresis. On Marketing. So, B’s response does not contain an argument, because (ii) is not satisfied. A: I don’t think that Bill will be at the party tonight. B: Bill will be at on teenagers the party, because Bill will be at the party. Suppose that B believes that Bill will be at the party. Trivially, the truth of this proposition makes it more likely than not that he will be at the party.
Nevertheless, B is not presenting an argument. Paper To Children. B’s response does not have the 50 excellent history structure of an argument, because (iiia) is not satisfied. Clearly, B does not offer a reason for Bill will be at the party that is independent of this. Perhaps, B’s response is intended to communicate her confidence that Bill will be at the party. By (iiia), a reasoner R puts forward  Sasha Obama has a sibling in support of  Sasha is not an only child only if R’s reasons for paper, believing  do not include R’s belief that  is true. If R puts forward  in support of  and, say, erroneously believes that the essay former is independent of the latter, then R’s argument would be defective by virtue of being circular. Paper On Marketing To Children. Regarding (iiib), that Obama is U.S. President entails that the earth is the third planet from the sun or it isn’t , but it is plausible to suppose that the former does not support the latter because it is irrelevant to showing that the earth is the third planet from the sun or it isn’t is true. Premises offered in cowardice essay support of a conclusion are either linked or convergent. This difference marks a structural distinction between arguments.
 Tom is happy only paper to children, if he is playing guitar.  Tom is nuclear energy essay, not playing guitar. Suppose that a reasoner R offers  and  as reasons in support of . The argument is presented in what is called standard form ; the premises are listed first and a solid line separates them from the conclusion, which is prefaced by “ ? ”. This symbol means “therefore”. Premises  and  are linked because they do not support the conclusion independently of one another, that is, they support the conclusion jointly.
It is research, unreasonable to think that R offers  and essay my dad,  individually, as opposed to collectively, as reasons for . Paper To Children. The following representation of the argument depicts the linkage of the premises. Combining  and  with the plus sign and underscoring them indicates that they are linked . On Teenagers. The arrow indicates that they are offered in support of . To see a display of convergent premises, consider the following.  Tom said that he didn’t go to Samantha’s party.
 No one at Samantha’s party saw Tom there. ?  Tom did not attend Samantha’s party. These premises are con vergent , because each is a reason that supports  independently of the other. The below diagram represents this. An extended argument is an argument with at least one premise that a reasoner attempts to support explicitly. Research Paper. Extended arguments are more structurally complex than ones that are not extended. Consider the a hero about my dad following. The keys are either in the kitchen or the bedroom. The keys are not in paper on marketing to children the kitchen. I did not find the 50 excellent essays history keys in the kitchen.
So, the keys must be in the bedroom. Let’s look there! The argument in paper to children standard form may be portrayed as follows:  I just searched the kitchen and energy pros, I did not find the keys. ?  The keys are not in to children the kitchen.  The keys are either in the kitchen or the bedroom. ?  The keys are in nuclear cons essay the bedroom. Note that although the keys being in the bedroom is a reason for the imperative, “Let’s look there!” (given the desirability of finding the keys), this proposition is not “truth apt” and so is not a component of the argument. An enthymeme is an argument which is presented with at to children least one component that is suppressed. A: I don’t know what to believe regarding the cowardice essay morality of abortion. B: You should believe that abortion is immoral.
You’re a Catholic. That B puts forward  A is a Catholic in support of  A should believe that abortion is research paper to children, immoral suggests that B implicitly puts forward  all Catholics should believe that abortion is immoral in support of . Proposition  may plausibly be regarded as a suppressed premise of B’s argument. Note that  and  are linked. A premise that is suppressed is never a reason for a conclusion independent of another explicitly offered for that conclusion. There are two main criticisms of structural characterizations of arguments. Extended History. One criticism is that they are too weak because they turn non-arguments such as explanations into arguments.
A: Why did this metal expand? B: It was heated and all metals expand when heated. B offers explanatory reasons for the explanandum (what is explained): this metal expanded . It is plausible to see B offering these explanatory reasons in support of the explanandum. The reasons B offers jointly support the truth of the explanandum, and thereby show that the expansion of the metal was to be expected. It is in this way that B’s reasons enable A to understand why the metal expanded. The second criticism is that structural characterizations are too strong. They rule out research paper on marketing as arguments what intuitively seem to wallpaper essay be arguments. A: Kelly maintains that no explanation is an argument. I don’t know what to believe.
B: Neither do I. One reason for her view may be that the primary function of arguments, unlike explanations, is persuasion. But I am not sure that this is the primary function of arguments. We should investigate this further. B offers a reason,  the primary function of arguments, unlike explanations, is persuasion , for the thesis  no explanation is an research on marketing, argument . Since B asserts neither  nor , B does not put forward  in 50 excellent history support of . Hence, by the above account, B’s reasoning does not qualify as an argument. A contrary view is that arguments can be used in ways other than showing that their conclusions are true. For example, arguments can be constructed for purposes of inquiry and as such can be used to investigate a hypothesis by seeing what reasons might be given to support a given proposition (see Meiland 1989 and Johnson and Blair 2006, p.10). Such arguments are sometimes referred to as exploratory arguments. Research On Marketing. On this approach, it is plausible to think that B constructs an exploratory argument [exercise for the reader: identify B’s suppressed premise]. Briefly, in defense of the structuralist account of arguments one response to the first criticism is to bite the bullet and follow those who think that at least some explanations qualify as arguments (see Thomas 1986 who argues that all explanations are arguments).
Given that there are exploratory arguments, the second criticism motivates either liberalizing the essays history concept of support that premises may provide for a conclusion (so that, for example, B may be understood as offering  in research support of ) or dropping the notion of support all together in the structural characterization of arguments (for example, a collection of propositions is an argument if and only if a reasoner offers some as reasons for 50 excellent extended essays, one of them. See Sinnott-Armstrong and to children, Fogelin 2010, p.3). 2. The Pragmatic Approach to Characterizing Arguments. The pragmatic approach is motivated by the view that the a hero about nature of an argument cannot be completely captured in terms of its structure. In contrast to structural definitions of arguments, pragmatic definitions appeal to the function of arguments. Different accounts of the purposes arguments serve generate different pragmatic definitions of arguments. The following pragmatic definition appeals to research to children the use of arguments as tools of rational persuasion (for definitions of argument that make such an appeal, see Johnson 2000, p. 168; Walton 1996, p. Extended. 18ff; Hitchcock 2007, p.105ff) A collection of propositions is an argument if and only if there is research paper on marketing to children, a reasoner R who puts forward some of them (the premises) as reasons in support of one of them (the conclusion) in order to wallpaper essay introduction rationally persuade an audience of the truth of the conclusion. One advantage of this definition over the previously given structural one is that it offers an explanation why arguments have the structure they do. In order to rationally persuade an audience of the truth of a proposition, one must offer reasons in support of that proposition. The appeal to rational persuasion is necessary to distinguish arguments from other forms of persuasion such as threats.
One question that arises is: What obligations does a reasoner incur by virtue of offering supporting reasons for a conclusion in order to rationally persuade an research to children, audience of the conclusion? One might think that such a reasoner should be open to criticisms and obligated to 50 excellent extended history respond to them persuasively (See Johnson 2000 p.144 et al , for development of this idea). By appealing to the aims that arguments serve, pragmatic definitions highlight the research on marketing acts of presenting an argument in addition to the arguments themselves. The field of argumentation, an interdisciplinary field that includes rhetoric, informal logic, psychology, and cognitive science, highlights acts of nuclear cons essay presenting arguments and their contexts as topics for investigation that inform our understanding of arguments (see Houtlosser 2001 for discussion of the different perspectives of argument offered by different fields). For example, the acts of paper to children explaining and arguing—in sense highlighted here—have different aims.
Whereas the act of explaining is designed to increase the audience’s comprehension, the my dad act of arguing is aimed at on marketing enhancing the acceptability of a standpoint. This difference in aim makes sense of the fact that in presenting an argument the essay about reasoner believes that her standpoint is not yet acceptable to her audience, but in presenting an explanation the paper to children reasoner knows or believes that the explanandum is already accepted by extended history her audience (See van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992, p.29, and Snoeck Henkemans 2001, p.232). Research On Marketing To Children. These observations about the acts of essay explaining and arguing motivate the above pragmatic definition of an argument and suggest that arguments and explanations are distinct things. It is generally accepted that the same line of reasoning can function as an research paper on marketing to children, explanation in one dialogical context and as an argument in another (see Groarke and Tindale 2004, p. 23ff for an example and on teenagers, discussion). Eemeren van, Grootendorst, and Snoeck Henkemans 2002 delivers a substantive account of how the evaluation of various types of arguments turns on to children, considerations pertaining to the dialogical contexts within which they are presented and discussed. Note that, since the pragmatic definition appeals to the structure of propositions in characterizing arguments, it inherits the criticisms of structural definitions. In addition, the question arises whether it captures the cons variety of purposes arguments may serve. It has been urged that arguments can aim at engendering any one of a full range of attitudes towards their conclusions (for example, Pinto 1991). For example, a reasoner can offer premises for on marketing, a conclusion C in order to nuclear pros cons get her audience to withhold assent from C, suspect that C is true, believe that is merely possible that C is true, or to be afraid that C is paper to children, true. The thought here is that these are alternatives to convincing an audience of the truth of C. A proponent of a pragmatic definition of argument may grant that there are uses of arguments not accounted for by her definition, and propose that the a research definition is stipulative.
But then a case needs to be made why theorizing about arguments from a pragmatic approach should be anchored to such a definition when it does not reflect all legitimate uses of arguments. Another line of criticism of the pragmatic approach is paper on marketing, its rejecting that arguments themselves have a function (Goodwin 2007) and arguing that the function of persuasion should be assigned to the dialogical contexts in which arguments take place (Doury 2011). 3. Deductive, Inductive, and essays, Conductive Arguments. Arguments are commonly classified as deductive or inductive (for example, Copi, I. and C. Research Paper On Marketing. Cohen 2005, Sinnott-Armstrong and Fogelin 2010). A deductive argument is an argument that an arguer puts forward as valid. For a valid argument, it is not possible for the premises to steps to writting a research be true with the conclusion false. That is, necessarily if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true.
Thus we may say that the truth of the premises in a valid argument guarantees that the conclusion is also true. The following is an example of a valid argument: Tom is happy only if the Tigers win , the Tigers lost; therefore, Tom is definitely not happy. A step-by-step derivation of the conclusion of a valid argument from research on marketing to children, its premises is called a proof . In the context of a proof, the essays on teenagers given premises of an argument may be viewed as initial premises. To Children. The propositions produced at 50 excellent history the steps leading to the conclusion are called derived premises. Each step in the derivation is justified by a principle of inference. Whether the derived premises are components of a valid argument is a difficult question that is beyond the scope of this article.
An inductive argument is an argument that an arguer puts forward as inductively strong . In an inductive argument, the premises are intended only to be so strong that, if they were true, then it would be unlikely , although possible, that the conclusion is false. If the truth of the premises makes it unlikely (but not impossible) that the on marketing conclusion is false, then we may say that the argument is inductively strong. The following is an example of an inductively strong argument: 97% of the nowadays Republicans in town Z voted for McX, Jones is a Republican in town Z; therefore, Jones voted for McX . In an to children, argument like this, an arguer often will conclude Jones probably voted for McX instead of Jones voted for McX, because they are signaling with the word probably that they intend to present an argument that is inductively strong but not valid. In order to evaluate an argument it is important to determine whether or not it is deductive or inductive. It is essays on teenagers, inappropriate to criticize an research on marketing to children, inductively strong argument for being invalid. Based on the above characterizations, whether an argument is deductive or inductive turns on whether the arguer intends the argument to be valid or merely inductively strong, respectively. Sometimes the presence of cowardice essay certain expressions such as ‘ definitely ’ and ‘ probably ’ in research paper on marketing the above two arguments indicate the relevant intensions of the arguer. Charity dictates that an invalid argument which is inductively strong be evaluated as an inductive argument unless there is clear evidence to the contrary. Conductive arguments have been put forward as a third category of arguments (for example, Govier 2010). A conductive argument is an argument whose premises are convergent; the premises count separately in support of the conclusion. If one or more premises were removed from the argument, the degree of support offered by a hero essay about my dad the remaining premises would stay the same.
The previously given example of an argument with convergent premises is a conductive argument. The following is another example of a conductive argument. It most likely won’t rain tomorrow. Research Paper On Marketing. The sky is red tonight. Also, the weather channel reported a 30% chance of to writting rain for paper to children, tomorrow. The primary rationale for distinguishing conductive arguments from about, deductive and inductive ones is as follows. First, the premises of conductive arguments are always convergent, but the premises of deductive and inductive arguments are never convergent. Second, the evaluation of arguments with convergent premises requires not only that each premise be evaluated individually as support for the conclusion, but also the degree to which the premises support the conclusion collectively must be determined. This second consideration mitigates against treating conductive arguments merely as a collection of subarguments, each of research on marketing to children which is deductive or inductive. Essay Introduction. The basic idea is that the research paper to children support that the cowardice essay convergent premises taken together provide the conclusion must be considered in the evaluation of a conductive argument. With respect to the above conductive argument, the sky is red tonight and research, the weather channel reported a 30% chance of rain for tomorrow are offered together as (convergent) reasons for It most likely won’t rain tomorrow . Perhaps, collectively, but not individually, these reasons would persuade an addressee that it most likely won’t rain tomorrow.
A group of propositions constitutes an argument only if some are offered as reasons for one of them. Two approaches to identifying the definitive characteristics of arguments are the structural and pragmatic approaches. On both approaches, whether an wallpaper essay, act of research offering reasons for a proposition P yields an argument depends on what the reasoner believes regarding both the truth of the reasons and the relationship between the reasons and nuclear pros cons, P. A typical use of an argument is to rationally persuade its audience of the truth of the conclusion. Paper To Children. To be effective in realizing this aim, the cowardice essay reasoner must think that there is real potential in the relevant context for her audience to be rationally persuaded of the conclusion by means of the offered premises. Paper On Marketing. What, exactly, this presupposes about the audience depends on what the argument is and the context in which it is given.
An argument may be classified as deductive, inductive, or conductive. Its classification into one of these categories is a prerequisite for its proper evaluation.
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What font should I choose for my thesis? This post is by DrJanene Carey, a freelance writer and editor based in Armidale NSW. She occasionally teaches academic writing at the University of New England and often edits academic theses, articles and reports. Her website is research paper on marketing, http://www.janenecarey.com. Arguably, this question is a hero my dad, a classic time waster and paper, the student who poses it should be told to just get on with writing up their research. Cowardice Essay! But as someone who edits theses for a living, I think a bit of time spent on fonts is part of the process of buffing and on marketing to children, polishing what is, after all, one of the most important documents you will ever produce. Just bear in mind that there is about, no need to research paper on marketing, immerse yourself so deeply in the topic that you start quibbling about whether it’s a font or a typeface that you are choosing. Times New Roman is the standard choice for energy essay, academic documents, and the thesis preparation guidelines of research paper some universities stipulate its use. Wallpaper Introduction! For many years, it was the default body text for Microsoft Word. With the release of Office 2007, the default became a sans serif typeface called Calibri.
Lacking the research on marketing to children, little projecting bits (serifs) at the end of steps a research paper characters makes Calibri and paper on marketing, its many friends, such as Arial, Helvetica and Verdana, look smoother and clearer on a screen, but generally makes them less readable than a serif typeface when used for printed text. The other problem with choosing a sans serif for your body text is that if you want passages in italics (for example, lengthy participant quotes) often this will be displayed as slanted letters, rather than as a true italic font. You would like your examiners to feel as comfortable as possible while their eyes are traversing the many, many pages of wallpaper your thesis, so maximising legibility and readability is paper, a good idea. Times New Roman is ubiquitous and familiar, which means it is probably the a hero about my dad, safest option, but it does have a couple of drawbacks. Originally designed for The Times in London, its characters are slightly narrowed, so that more of them can be squished into a newspaper column. Secondly, some people intensely dislike TNR because they think it has been overused, and regard it as the font you choose when you are not choosing a font. If you do have the luxury of choice (your university doesn’t insist you use Times New Roman, and you have defined document styles that are easy to modify, and there’s enough time left before the submission deadline) then I think it is worth considering what other typefaces might work well with your thesis. To Children! I’m not a typographical expert, but I have the essays, following suggestions. Don’t use Calibri, or any other sans serif font, for paper on marketing, your body text, though it is fine for cowardice essay, headings.
Most people agree that dense chunks of printed text are easier to read if the font is serif, and examiners are likely to research on marketing to children, expect a typeface that doesn’t stray too far from the standard. Extended! To my eye, Calibri looks a little too casual for the body of a thesis. Typefaces like Garamond, Palatino, Century Schoolbook, Georgia, Minion Pro, Cambria and Constantia are all perfectly acceptable, and they come with Microsoft Word. However, some of them (Georgia and research on marketing to children, Constantia, for example) feature non-lining numerals, which means that instead of extended essays all sitting neatly on the base line, some will stand higher or lower than others, just like letters do. This looks nice when they are integrated with the research paper to children, text, but it is probably not what you want for on teenagers nowadays, a tabular display.
Consider using a different typeface for your headings. It will make them more prominent, which enhances overall readability because the eye scanning the paper on marketing to children, pages can quickly take in the hierarchy of ideas. The easiest way to get a good contrast with your serif body text is to have sans serif headings. Popular combinations are Garamond/Helvetica; Minion Pro/Myriad Pro; Times New Roman/Arial Narrow. But don’t create a dog’s breakfast by having more than two typefaces in your thesis – use point sizes, bold and italics for variety.
Of late, I’ve become quite fond of Constantia. It’s an attractive serif typeface that came out cowardice essay, with Office 2007 at the same time as Calibri, and was specifically designed to look good in print and on screen. Increasingly, theses will be read in PDF rather than book format, so screen readability is an important consideration. Asked to review Microsoft’s six new ClearType fonts prior to paper on marketing to children, their release, typographer Raph Levien said Constantia was likely to be everyone’s favourite, because ‘Even though it’s a highly readable Roman font departing only essays on teenagers slightly from the to children, classical model, it still manages to be fresh and new.’ By default, Constantia has non-lining numerals, but from Word 2010 onwards you can set them to be lining via the advanced font/number forms option, either throughout your document or in on teenagers nowadays, specific sections, such as within tables. Here is an excerpt from a thesis, shown twice with different typefaces. Research To Children! The first excerpt features Calibri headings with Constantia body text, and the second has that old favourite, Times New Roman. Nuclear Essay! As these examples have been rendered as screenshots, you will get a better idea of on marketing how the cowardice essay, fonts actually look if you try them on to children your own computer and printer.
Times New Roman. I fully agree that spending some time to consider how we want our publications to look is important (when we have that level of control, such as in a Thesis or Dissertation). Attractive layout and easy-to-read print will help the Reader engage with the on teenagers nowadays, text. Research Paper On Marketing! However, KISS (keep it simple, stupid) is perhaps our greatest friend here; we over-embellish at our peril. Lastly, if Word’s styles (or LaTeX’s if we are so inclined) are set up properly, then amending an entire document is quite straightforward and needn’t cause much stress for the writer. Oh, and I agree in relation to setting up of styles. Haven’t used Constantia but have just submitted my thesis using Calibri. To Writting A Research! I certainly don’t see it as too casual. That would be Comic Sans or similar. Paper On Marketing To Children! I see it as peaceful and calm. Essays On Teenagers! I wonder whether the font affects assessors unduly?
If so, is paper on marketing to children, there a difference in impact linked with academic discipline. Thanks for these great suggestions. Just one minor correction: Minion Pro and Myriad Pro are not included in MS Office. They are bundled with Adobe software. Thanks, yes, you are right. I do have them in some Office 2010 Word documents I created some time ago, but now I am on Office 2013 I see they are not available. Perhaps even with my older versions of Word I got Minion and Myriad Pro because I had some Adobe program.
They are actually included in nuclear energy pros cons essay, MS office 2016 for Mac 2016 #128578; Times New Roman has a complete range for mathematical symbols and to children, is best for studies containing mathematical equations. Very good point! Although it covers the 2200-22ff block, Times New Roman doesn’t have anywhere near a complete range for mathematical symbols. In particular, it comes up very short for arrow symbols. Some fonts don’t have the required character sets (or at least, there are only cut-down versions of those sets included in MSOffice) and so not all the 50 excellent history, diacritics are available. My university’s template is based on Garamond for body text but I have changed to Palatino in paper on marketing, order to write one (prominent) author’s name correctly with a diacritic over the Z. The alternative was to have every instance of the author’s name in TNR in the middle of Garamond text (no way!), or to omit the diacritic, which is effectively spelling it incorrectly. One of the many things in which Zizek ruins everything #128539; Janene was my thesis editor – fabulous advice! If you are writing up – Janene is essays, a wealth of support for research paper on marketing to children, ensuring that the cowardice essay, finished thesis will look and read beautifully….
Great to see her advice in this blog.. #128578; Given my experience in printing and setting type, I’d agree with many of the research paper on marketing, comments here, especially about Times Roman! I chose Bookman Old Style, which has a large x-height and on teenagers, is designed for children’s books. Anything that makes it easier for the examiners. Remember that readability is different to legibility! #128578; My readability vs legibility link is on marketing, broken – a pity as it explained the distinction nicely – will try to find another and ask Inger to update it. This is a love letter to Caslon, but also clearly defines legibility and readability, in a way that doesn’t imply readability is only about having an appealing document layout while legibility only relates to ease of energy essay character recognition … Full agreed Dr John. Here in India, Bookman Old Style is a preference, though some universities still insist TNR.
It has become a ‘convention’ to just go by the default font in Word Processors. Research Paper On Marketing! Janene’s post enlightens on font selection, which is crucial to ensure readability and legibility. Energy! It’s just about ‘nuances’ #128578; I am considering Sitka Heading or Sitka Subheading. Does anyone have any views on these fonts? A thought provoking post, but… what is the evidence for readability in fonts, other than “most people agree?”
Certainly in people with language or visual problems, sans serif have been shown to be more readable in a couple of paper on marketing small studies (http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12206, https://www.islandscholar.ca/fedora/repository/ir%3A13069). It’s not my area, so I don’t know if there is a systematic review of these issues somewhere? Personally, I would much prefer sans serif in long texts (though Contantia looks great, thanks!), but this demonstrates the subjectiveness of the matter. A thought provoking post, but… what is the evidence for readability in steps a research paper, fonts, other than “most people agree?” Certainly in people with language or visual problems, sans serif have been shown to be more readable in a couple of small studies. It’s not my area, so I don’t know if there is a systematic review of these issues somewhere? Personally, I would much prefer sans serif in to children, long texts (though Contantia looks great, thanks!), but this demonstrates the subjectiveness of the nowadays, matter. I’m a very big fan of to children Baskerville. I remember reading a paper on font choice a few years back, which argued there was a correlation between serif fonts and higher marks.
Gave Baskerville a whirl, and sure enough, good marks. #128578; Thanks for this post, Janene. Essays Nowadays! I think every PhD student goes through the font-procrastination phase, but for me this was an important moment of – as you say – polishing, and paper, also of valuing the nowadays, look and feel of my thesis document. I wrote about my font choice of Garamond here – https://theeduflaneuse.wordpress.com/2016/03/31/bound-phd-thesis/ – as well as my choice of paper for the final bound copies. Paper! For me Garamond was a more beautiful serif option than the ubiquitous and squishy TNR. It also made sense for the narrative approach of my thesis, as it was reminiscent of storybooks. It’s lovely that you took so much care. Thank you, Janene. I don’t expect everyone would be as book- and font- obsessed as me, but it helped me connect with my text and feel ownership over the look and feel of the final product. I started pondering then figured I should probably look at the university policies.
Alas, I’m restricted to the following: “7.2 Formatting should be: line spacing 1.5, Times New Roman or Arial 12 pt font, all four margins 20mm, A4 size. In that case, I’d choose TNR. I’d hope the binding margin could be more than 2 cm, though. There is some good advice here, but also a few prejudices receiving confirmation. To begin with, “Most people agree that dense chunks of a hero essay printed text are easier to paper on marketing to children, read if the font is serif”.
No one has been able to demonstrate a definitive relation between reading speeds and serifs – in general. In principle it is an aesthetic question, but of course we don’t approach this question unbiased. My private theory is that the omnipresence of nowadays sans serif body texts in research paper on marketing, many (dull) academic textbooks, has prejudiced us against the yellow introduction, their use. It isn’t that serifs are easier to to children, read, it’s just that we approach sans serif texts from a more negative angle to begin with. One needs to essays, be practical, however.
Most academics in my experience have a conservative attitude to type (this post is a good example), so why irritate them by setting your thesis in Comic Sans? There is a typographer’s motto which says that when the typography is the first thing that you think about (be it negative *or* positive) when opening a book, you’ve done something wrong. It should support the text, be subservient to it, not jump out. Because when reading texts, type is far less important than *typography*, and the choice for serif or sans serif in general is less important than the choice for research paper to children, a *good* serif or sans serif font. Something like Fira Sans will always be a better choice than Bookman because it is a better designed and more versatile font – but you could easily defend serifs with two different choices. Steps To Writting A Research Paper! Also, adapt your layout (if you have that option) to the type you’ve chosen. If you insist on using Bookman, make sure to research on marketing to children, use enough whitespace so it doesn’t end up as a nightmare of mingling strokes. But most importantly: suit your typeface to the task it is supposed to perform. Constantia is a fine choice in principle, but not so much if you have a lot of alternating italic and regular text, because the steps a research, contrast between regular and paper to children, italic is essay introduction, insufficient in research paper to children, that case. And it’s OK to extended history, alternate serifs for headers and research to children, sans serif for text, so long as your text contains longish passages of body text. Essay About! If you have a new header (or several) on each page, you may want to used variations (Bold, caps, etc.) of the same typeface throughout your text to research paper on marketing, bring some peace to the page.
I used Segoe UI because of extended its good legibility on screen and in print. Has anyone else used it? Note that you used a sans serif font for this post #128578; Please explain. This is not my website and paper to children, I do not have any control over 50 excellent essays history the font used here. To Children! It is probably whatever came with the particular WordPress theme Inger chose when she first began the Thesis Whisperer site. Furthermore, the post is on essays a website, not on research paper to children a printed page. San serif is cowardice essay, very commonly used for text display on screens due to research paper on marketing, the fact that screens have much lower resolution than print.
Lower resolution means the little serifs are less clear, making the cowardice essay, font less legible. Had hoped for humourous response. But since we are being serious, any printed book or ebook you pick up is always in a sans serif font. As far as legibility is concerned, in the days before typewritten school/ uni assignments were submitted in handwriting, I was always instructed to paper to children, submit in printed form, ergo, sans serif, not in ‘running writing’. The font question needs to be resolved by the examining institutions whom should stipulate their preferred font and the yellow introduction, negate this confusion for students. yep, I take full responsibility for paper to children, the fonts here! Thanks for this article – the timing is a hero, perfect for me as I am writing my 5th chapter and realised too late that I should have had a set template before I started writing! I like the suggestion re Constantia and have just started using it, including adjusting the numerals to be lining (thank you Google).
I am now cobbling together my style template but would really welcome suggestions for research paper on marketing to children, a MS Word template for a humanities PhD thesis that actually looks clean and has all the functionality needed. I find there are some templates with the functionality (albeit science-based, but I can alter them) but they look very busy. Grateful for some advice. If you’ve already started cobbling, I would go with what you have. You can keep it quite simple, just defining Heading 1, 2, 3 and maybe 4, a paragraph style, a style for indented quotes, a reference style.
If you are comfortable with section breaks, headers and footers, setting up the front matter with the page numbers appearing correctly is cowardice essay, not difficult. Different universities often stipulate a different ordering for the front matter, so it may have to be tweaked anyway. The Table of Contents and Lists of Figures and Tables can all be automatically generated by Word. I am still 18 months away from submission but this is a question that has crossed my mind more than once. I am glad to research, realise I am not the essays, only one who spends time deliberating these things and whilst to some extent it can be seen as procrastination it is important to paper on marketing, remember that examiners are only a research human and research paper, whatever I can do to on teenagers nowadays, make the reading of my thesis more enjoyable surely has to be a good thing right? I think that’s the thesis of on marketing to children my original post! Thank you for the great information on dissertation fonts. At least I am now knowledgeable due to information provided in this article. We provide dissertation writing help at http://www.cutewriters.com/finest-quality-phd-dissertation-writing-service-uk-usa/. I prefer using Times New Roman and font size 12 for all academic papers. I struck a new and unexpected problem late yesterday when converting my thesis Word document into a PDF – font rendering in cowardice essay, PDFs.
For context, my uni requires thesis to be uploaded as PDFs, they are not printed and bound. My thesis was in Word, and used Times New Roman font. Research On Marketing! However any text in bold italics rendered very differently depending on how I created the wallpaper introduction, PDF, i.e. save as PDF, expert to PDF, print to PDF using CutePDF, print to PDF using Microsoft print to PDF, or another converter. A related problems is that fonts are not embedded in research paper to children, PDFs, they are embedded in the pdf reader. If you choose a font that is on teenagers, proprietary or not widely available, a PDF reader will substitute with another font. So you beautifully prepared thesis may not look the to children, same depending on the PDF reader!!
I’m now wondering if this is the reason a few uni’s limit font choices to Arial and Times New Roman… I think that to avoid this problem, you should embed the fonts used in your document first. Within Word, choose File/Options/Save and tick ‘Embed Fonts in a hero essay my dad, the File’. Alternatively, when you do Save As in Word 2013 there is a Tools button next to the Save button that lets you access the same menu. This makes your document’s file size much larger but it is research to children, a good thing to extended essays history, do just before creating your PDF. Also when you Export to PDF, tick the PDF/A compliance box because that embeds the fonts in the PDF.
Thank for paper, this great post! I was wondering if you could advise me please. I have written up my thesis in Calibri and I’m now hoping to change the cowardice essay, font of the main text. I however cannot change the paper on marketing, font of a hero about diagrams and tables, as there are quite a few and research paper on marketing to children, I’ve already formatted them to fit. So I was wondering, would it be OK if my main text was say in cowardice essay, Garamond and the headings, tables and figures were in Calibri? I actually like Calibri in tables. I think it looks crisp and research, clean and you can set it at a slightly smaller size than the main text (11 or 10 pt) and it remains legible. I am about to finish my thesis and my font is Cambria for essays history, both heading and body with size 12. Paper To Children! I have to submit a hard copy so do you think it would look good ? I use Cambria. It’s smooth and the yellow wallpaper essay, stylish without sticking out. Paper On Marketing! And it fits neatly with math symbols and formulas.
Thank you for paper, this – really helpful. I’m going with Constantia for main text. I thought I would go with Arial for headings: bold anf larger in paper on marketing to children, main headings and italic in subheadings. But as someone who saw my draft pointed out the subheadings don’t look so good because Arial doesn’t have a real italic but an oblique. What’s your opinion on 50 excellent extended history this? I’ve been looking for a sans serif with real italics. Research On Marketing! Calibri has it but I’m not cracy about a hero essay about my dad Calibri. The Thesis Whisperer is paper, dedicated to helping research students everywhere. It is essay about my dad, edited by Dr Inger Mewburn, director of research training at The Australian National University. The Thesis Whisperer has contributors from around the research on marketing to children, world. Read our about page if you are interested in writing for us.
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exhibition essay Throughout the 1980s Hazel Hawke's voice struck a chord in the public ear. What she represented and the manner of her delivery was respected and accepted by bipartisan audiences. This has been sustained beyond her Lodge years and by 1995 one broadcaster, Neil Mitchell, flippantly though warmly, closed an interview with: 'You're a very popular person. Why don't we make you Governor General.'  When Hazel Hawke entered the paper on marketing to children Lodge in 1983 she resisted 'an engineered view'  of the role. She claims to have had few expectations and was open-minded about what would be presented to her. From the beginning she did recognise it as a job, however, and looked toward where she felt she could make a difference and by implication where she felt her attitudes and values could be most relevant.  It was widely regarded that Hawke embraced a significantly heavy workload.  Throughout her years in essay the Lodge she undertook some 60 Patronages.  Her profile became so prevalent and so regarded, that she was asked regularly by journalists and broadcasters as to her own political aspirations.
Hawke's speeches and writings reveal that she did not see things as naturally polarised, or black or white. She recognised that no one solution or answer was usually sufficient. Understanding came from probing and to children progressive thinking. Cause, effect and panacea of social ills and issues were all considered accumulatively. Yet while this may have defined her approach to cowardice essay life and learning it did not preclude her from research being prepared to nowadays speak out, to share opinion and to take a position in a declarative manner. She was ever mindful to paper on marketing not directly address government policy, though she was prepared to offer thoughts and ideas regarding certain matters of social justice with relation to women, indigenous Australia, immigration, the environment and the broad spectrum of the 50 excellent extended essays disadvantaged. All of which were in some way on the government agenda in paper the 1980s. Much that she espoused was underlined by a hero essay the principles of a sense of research to children, fair mindedness and equivalence in society and the importance of having choice: ' Let us look forward to a future where there is real equal opportunity for women, where women may realistically choose - and I emphasise choose, not 'feel obliged' - to participate together with men in all walks of life, contributing talents for energy pros the benefit of all Australian society.'  And, on another occasion: 'I have no doubts about our responsibility. The quality of our whole society is enhanced if all its parts are healthy and viable, so we could even choose to look at it in terms of self-interest that we work towards and contribute to a better life for everyone.'  'No society functions properly unless everyone is able to live his or her life without constant fear, frustration or trauma.' 
Fair mindedness had been fundamental in Hawke's upbringing and, if it had needed re-energising, this would have occurred during her time with the Brotherhood of research on marketing to children, St Laurence followed by cowardice essay her formal studies in Welfare.  Furthermore, she was a product of her own life's experiences as a wife and mother re-evaluating her worth and existence against research on marketing to children a backdrop of burgeoning feminism in the 1970s. All of this had helped hone Hazel's values and a hero essay about my dad opinions, which in on marketing to children turn helped her shape the the yellow introduction position of 'Prime Ministerial Wife'. The women's movement had many guises in Australia in the 1970s. Though not a member Hazel Hawke welcomed the impact of the Women's Electoral Lobby  and the resources to be found in paper to children self initiated 'sisterhoods or boilerhood as she referred to them. For many in Australia the impact of community networks proved critical not only for women but for varied groups trying to mobilise change or recognition. The parallel rise of political poster collectives in Australia in essays nowadays the 1970s played a critical role in illustrating the voices calling for change and research paper on marketing recognition. Cowardice Essay? Posters provided a means that helped to ignite and shape conscience and ideals. Some emanated from disaffected artists wanting to make visible their stand, while clients for research paper on marketing national campaigns or community advertising commissioned others. Hawke's informed interest in the humanist and social themes of wallpaper, life, and her willingness or desire to make these central to her role in research on marketing the Lodge meant that through her voice she can be seen to have had something in common with the bold and impassioned messages and imagery emblazoned on art posters across the country. In an exhibition tracing the history of poster art in Australia Roger Butler wrote: 'Artists (or art workers) active since the 1960s also have the belief that art has a social purpose….Through their posters they seek to communicate knowledge about contemporary society and its structure, and to suggest ways in which it might be improved.'  And former Collective Member and researcher Julia Church observed: 'Community-based organisations have carried new ideas across Australia, introducing concepts like disarmament, human rights, aboriginal land rights, feminism and gay rights into the vernacular.
Cooperative presses have acted as a mouth-piece for these issues and they have been vital to the development of Australian literature and art, publishing the work of experimental writers and artists when commercial printers and publishing houses refused to do so. The presses have championed the cowardice essay right of people to shape their world.'  The poster medium and the some times covert nature of research on marketing to children, its production afforded the artists greater freedoms in their use of language, imagery and ideology. By their very nature posters were designed and produced to startle. The predominant use of fluorescent colour or the red, black and yellow derived from the Aboriginal flag, was combined with provocative and sometimes witty annotations or cartoon style imagery. The posters in this exhibition have been selected in part for artistic inventiveness, stridency of cowardice essay, their commentary or for their relevance to research matters of public debate. The rise of Hazel Hawke's public voice and her relationship with the media. When Hazel Hawke joined Bob Hawke on the dais upon a hero about the election of the Australian Labor Party on research, the 5 March 1983, there had been only minor indication that she would become a media savvy and pros essay influential advocate for paper on marketing critical issues facing Australia in 50 excellent essays history the ensuing decade. Previously, it had been her shunning of the media that had been well documented, which on occasion, given the absence of her public voice seemed to be confused with an paper inability to have a public voice. As Bob Hawke's profile strengthened during the tumultuous years at the ACTU in the late 1970s, the decision as to whether he would stand for to writting a research the Federal Seat of Wills was analysed in the media.
Hazel Hawke was repeatedly referred to research paper to children as intelligent and media-shy. Cowardice Essay? She had herself written to the Melbourne Age in 1977 seeking respect for the privacy of the families of politicians and public figures, which in action, despite its plea does not suggest someone shy of media. It was not surprising that when Bob Hawke did decide to run for research to children the Federal Seat of Wills in 1979 and the press 'leap frogged' him into essay introduction the Prime Ministership, the paper focus on Hazel was how she would publicly handle this role. The question was asked of Bob before it was asked of Hazel. 'It's clear that Hazel - how shall I put it? doesn't have social pretensions. She derives her pleasures in very normal sort of way. But if that position ever arose I'm sure she'd discharge whatever responsibilities went with it. And she'd do it in history a very, very unostentatious way.'  At times journalist seemed bemused in their speculations: 'She wears earrings proclaiming No Dams counts feminist activists amongst her closest friends, meditates - and research on marketing eats brown rice. The Yellow Introduction? On some subjects her views are more radical than those held by women half her age.' 
With regard to any misconceptions about her ability versus her will in the public role, Hazel herself made telling remarks some five years later in 1987 in an interview with ABC journalist Geraldine Doogue. Common to many assessments of to children, Hazel by that time Doogue began by on teenagers nowadays commenting on Hazel's 'growth' in the job. She responded, 'I assiduously avoided being a public figure but I didn't feel overawed.'  Her occasional frosty handling of the research on marketing media was respected. 'She answers the first two questions but then asks if the interview is about her or her husband. Her disdain shows that timidity will not be tolerated.'  Her stoicism in the face of drug use within her own family and her choice to confront it publicly through the media was widely praised. 'Although the pressure must have been tremendous, Mrs Hazel Hawke made the disclosure with dignity and composure, proving again, if proof were needed, that she is one of the heroic survivors of our time.'  As the decade progressed she became what would now be termed a media darling. Hawke was invited and accepted to guest host the the yellow wallpaper essay popular commercial program, The Midday Show, guest host the Michael Schulberger radio broadcast in Melbourne and write her own column for the Sydney Telegraph newspaper. Media engagements that would have been unprecedented from residents of the Lodge.
However, the earliest and most critical turning point in how she grasped the job and how she was received in it came with her formidable presentation to the National Press Club on the occasion of Australia Day 1984. It was this occasion (another first for research paper to children a wife of essay, a Prime Minister) that made many take note and in research paper on marketing which she set the agenda for the issues that she was to address repeatedly and unwaveringly during her term in the Lodge in the yellow essay introduction Canberra.  A turning point: The National Press Club Address, Australia Day 1984. In response to a brief, the 1984 National Press Club speech is roaming in nature, moving between observations of life at the Lodge, revelations about her own her personal negotiations of research on marketing, being a wife and mother, and her view of cons, politics and society. Critically, she singled out research to children, three issues on which she expanded; Welfare, Women, Aboriginal Women. She outlined 'the four powers' of relationship, resources, information and decision-making as being crucial for positive and to writting paper creative living, so defined by the Action and Resource Centre at the Brotherhood. Powers from which she considered 'as a group women have in varying degrees been excluded'.
In the Press Club Address Hawke's comments on welfare are in research essence didactic, perhaps as a residue of her recent academic studies, but there is cowardice essay, no question to research paper to children the conviction of her words: 'From the process of rehabilitation or learning to cope with and improve one's position of cowardice essay, disadvantage, whether its physical or psychological or material, one must feel a participant and not that it is being done to one or for one by others. On Marketing To Children? This gives a positive feeling of some power and control in ones own life.'  In an earlier speech on The Spirit of Volunteerism  the seeds of this had been evident. She spoke of the confidence building virtue of volunteer work and its contribution to self-esteem. In her own experience voluntary work with the Brotherhood of St Laurence had led her to paid work and to higher study. She returned to these ideas in numerous subsequent speeches. She advocated welfare as a global responsibility and linked it with the inestimable value of self-esteem, seeing this as the key to the improvement of one's position of disadvantage. Essay? From this premise Hawke frequently extrapolated to speeches on women, children, Aborigines and migrants. In 1983 at the launch of a Seminar on Children's' Week Hawke stated: 'You will grow into added responsibility if your commitment and self- esteem are intact.
Self esteem is important … there's nothing more debilitating for children than a mother who folds up or who becomes a martyr in the business of mothering.'  In the Press Club Address she welcomed the paper Sex Discrimination Bill of 1984 while suggesting that in the longer term it would be preferable if such legislation weren't necessary. 'Of course there's been much progress since grandma's day, it seems to me though that real flexibility and choice will only come when the whole of society is comfortable with the the yellow attitudinal change which is necessary, and until that occurs, some battles are won and some are lost, but the war continues.'  In 1988 on the day after the fourth anniversary of the Sex Discrimination Act, Hawke in an interview with Jane Singleton reiterated the sentiment of that day, 'Can't change attitudes with legislation but can give them a kick along.'  Hazel Hawke was never fearful of an paper on marketing to children opportunity to address the status of women. 50 Excellent Essays? Although she was later to describe it as 'entering the lion's den' in 1985 she addressed in Melbourne the research to children Column Club on Women and nuclear pros essay Advertising. She was present for on marketing to children the launch of Fair Exposure, the Government Publication from the 50 excellent extended essays newly formed Office of the Status of Women and she spoke of women and paper to children employment at the launch of From Margin to Mainstream Conference Speech.
Interestingly in energy essay this speech Hazel Hawke quoted Charlotte Pekins Gilman who in 1923 had written; 'Work is human. It is not feminine, though women began it. It is not masculine though men have taken it. But because men have kept women out of it for on marketing so long it has shared in the disadvantage of excessive masculinity.' On Aboriginal Australia Hazel Hawke was arguably at her most impassioned and energy unrelenting. Paper To Children? She did not mince words or beliefs with regard to the impoverished status of many in my dad Aboriginal society and the impending conundrum of the Bicentennial in Australia. In the Press Club Australia Day speech: 'Today we celebrate the coming of non-aborigines to Australia - invaders is I suppose the stringent word.'  Earlier she spoke at greater length: 'Its tragic to see the ramifications of the overlay of our white law. This includes of course the way we have legislated one of the most significant elements in their lives, the land in which they live away from their use.
And therefore threatened their material survival and their spiritual fulfilment.'  And, 'I hope very much that by 1988 when we celebrate the 200th anniversary of white occupancy of Australia, we relative newcomers will have developed a greater understanding of the research paper on marketing historical process which has interfered with a viable, strong culture and therefore have a more sensitive and nuclear pros cons essay informed set of attitudes instead of a knee jerk emotional reaction to a dilemma in on marketing the too hard basket.'  Community Initiative and the Poster Collectives in Australia. On many occasions Hazel Hawke spoke of the community as a 'very nourishing thing'. She saw and valued the way groups could tackle life's day to day issues and make a difference. Poster art in essays on teenagers the 1970s and into the 1980s was borne of similar imperatives and idealism. Members of cooperatives and collectives banded together, practically to share resources and conceptually to share ideologies.
The poster as an art form in this period owed a debt to the 1960s where 'technological advances made mass communications more accessible. People now had the paper on marketing to children means to spread news, ideas and information that the to writting paper commercial media would not broadcast or print.'  Throughout the 1970s this created an environment for change. Community newspapers, broadcasting stations, cartoons and research paper to children posters cooperatives flourished. The cooperative model for presses and steps to writting a research paper print workshops emerged not only for resource reasons but also as a means to promote skills to others. Paper? It was predominantly art school graduates who gravitated to the yellow wallpaper essay introduction the presses. 'Co-operative presses became focal points for the exchange of not only the printed matter but of technical, organisational and social skills.' It was democratically conceived and intentionally non-hierarchical although Julia Church has reflected: 'Our expectations were very high, assuming we all showed an paper on marketing to children equal level of assertiveness, competence and honesty.
And sometimes our youth and the yellow wallpaper introduction inexperience caused us to sacrifice individual sensitivities for what was seen to be the greater need of the collective, the community or the funding body.  The evolution of poster collectives was organic. There was cross fertilisation of artists and presses. A number of individuals moved between or helped establish different workshops in and across the states. The early established Earthworks Collective of Sydney greatly influenced a number of presses in Victoria and the Progressive Art Movement of South Australia has been linked to the establishment of Canberra's Megalo and ACME Print through the transfer of individuals. Paper On Marketing? The collectives were not confined only to major cities. Many regional centres such as Wollongong and Warnambool proved productive and influential. Essays On Teenagers? In Fremantle Praxis seeded the Poster Workshop and hosted several political poster exhibitions some of which were on a touring circuit of alternative art spaces.  The Earthworks Collective became increasingly more political and specific in on marketing to children their agendas - Aboriginal land rights, gay and 50 excellent essays history lesbian rights, the women's movement, anti-nuclear stance, the environment and unemployment. Earthworks Poster Collective 'reflected social concerns of the time ' and paper to children their posters are often inscribed with slogans such as 'Earthworks for the Good of the Community' and 'Another Social Reality by Earthworks Poster Collective'.
Roger Butler further outlines the 50 excellent extended imperative and immediacy that often drove the production of posters underlining their social and political intent describing the frequently underground nature of the activity: 'Pasted up at night around Sydney, these posters helped politicise a generation.'  The poster collective pervasion was a product of a period and mobilised by social and political circumstance. By the Bi-Cententary in research paper to children 1988 Julie Ewington in an essay for the significant Adelaide Festival exhibition Right Here, Right Now Australia 1988 was able to essays on teenagers nowadays evaluate the importance of the activity of research on marketing to children, collectives and poster art in the previous fifteen years: 'Works in this exhibition contribute to the increasingly rich stocks of divergent imageries in contemporary Australian life, using both older and more recent cultural stocks in Australia, whether iconographic, emotional or political. But there is a special history which brought printmakers to on teenagers nowadays their current degree of sophistication, which, as it were, prepared them for on marketing to children the demands of this Bicentennial year.'  The scope and profile of introduction, poster art diminished as the to children 1980s progressed although some dedicated artists maintain their preferred print medium in energy pros cons their practice. Campaigns and artist driven messages are still abundant in the free post cards found in cafes across the country and sometimes on on marketing to children, billboards. Others have claimed that a subliminal artistic influence has occurred in graphic design, film, videos and books as previous poster artists take up roles in art direction and production management. With the benefit of hindsight it is possible to consider poster art as quite a raw and coarse form of political art, although this does not necessarily dilute its effectiveness, purpose or artistic worth and what it may have spurned.
It is also possible to reflect that Hazel Hawke's relationship with the media and her attitude to her role was similarly formative, beginning tentatively and flourishing in a way that the Labor Party itself realised it exceeded expectations or understanding. A different benchmark was set. When asked in 1994 about what might be a successful life or how would a successful life be measured Hawke claimed that she 'couldn't make a statement about that ' considering it too complex and then in nuclear pros cons her customary way scrolled through apparent opposites- positives, sadness's, difficulties, opportunities for research to children growth. She claimed the worst thing is to be 'stuck' . A Hero About? Her sentiments that the most modest shift can bring change was reiterated. Ten years earlier after the delivery of her 1984 National Press Club address when asked whether she saw herself as a family woman or career woman, she answered to considerable applause 'I don't classify myself'.  This is why one of the research to children most profound effects Hazel Hawke had as a persona in the 1980s was that she led by example and essay my dad offered a seemingly successful model for paper on marketing women who had previously felt alienated or denied by the women's movement.
She was not an extremist but a person of the yellow wallpaper essay introduction, substantial open views while managing to maintain and celebrate her status as a mother, wife, grandmother. On a personal level it could be suggested that the role in the Lodge came to Hazel Hawke at an optimum time for her to be able to embrace it and bring to bear upon it an energy and hitherto unrealised potential. There was a coincidental synergy with the research paper spirit of the times. A Research? There was a bearing of the soul of Australia itself as it came to terms with a hollow celebration and a maturing of its place on the world stage. Whilst being undeniably giving in the role Hawke often acknowledged that she would not be so keen were it forever…she welcomed it as a phase only. Most revealing is the extent that issues discussed and which fuelled and were pictorialised by the poster makers then, remain relevant today, though the dialogue of today is research paper on marketing to children, possibly more controlled, cautious and cowardice essay classified for and by the media. Without Classification enables us to reflect upon this and to revisit the impact of Hazel Hawke as a significant voice of the 1980s and as a representative in the Lodge who refused to be 'engineered or classified'. Research Paper To Children? The extent of wallpaper introduction, her impact is yet to be fully measured and perhaps can only be in paper the context of cowardice essay, consideration of many residents of the Lodge and research paper to children comparative times in a research paper Australian history. Perhaps this is immeasurable, something that is research to children, implausible to quantify. Empirically, there seems a pattern of a hero essay about, individuals for certain times and Hazel Hawke coincided with a time of considerable social growth in Australia. Notably she was cognisant of this and up to research paper on marketing to children it.
From almost diametrically opposite points in the social spectrum of Australia - Hazel Hawke in the Lodge and to writting a research paper the Poster Collectives dotted around the country in makeshift or recycled premises - each mediated distinct rites of passage in the freedom of speech and to children expansion of ideas for a generation of Australians.