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art critical essay ART CRITICISM AND FORMAL ANALYSIS OUTLINE. Defining Art Criticism. · Art criticism is responding to, interpreting meaning, and making critical judgments about specific works of art. · Art critics help viewers perceive, interpret, and judge artworks. · Critics tend to focus more on modern and contemporary art from cultures close to their own. · Art historians tend to study works made in cultures that are more distant in time and space. · When initially introduced to creative writing courses, art criticism, many people associate negative connotations with the word criticism. Essay On D-day. A professional art critic may be. · a newspaper reporter assigned to the art beat, · a scholar writing for professional journals or texts, or. · an artist writing about other artists. Online Writing Uk. · Written for the general public, includes reviews of art exhibitions in galleries and museums. · (Suggestions that journalistic criticism deals with art mainly to the extent that it is newsworthy.) Scholarly art criticism. · Written for a more specialized art audience and appears in art journals. · Scholar-critics may be college and university professors or museum curators, often with particular knowledge about australian scholarships foundation, a style, period, medium, or artist. -Four levels of formal analysis, which you can use to explain a work of art: 1. Description = pure description of the online writing courses uk, object without value judgments, analysis, or interpretation. · It answers the question, What do you see? · The various elements that constitute a description include: a. Form of art whether architecture, sculpture, painting or one of the minor arts. b. Ucla Part. Medium of work whether clay, stone, steel, paint, etc., and technique (tools used) c. Writing Courses. Size and of movies, scale of work (relationship to person and/or frame and/or context) d. Elements or general shapes (architectural structural system) within the composition, including building of post-lintel construction or painting with several figures lined up in a row; identification of objects. Online Creative. e. Description of axis whether vertical, diagonal, horizontal, etc. f. Description of line, including contour as soft, planar, jagged, etc. g. Description of how line describes shape and space (volume); distinguish between lines of objects and lines of composition, e.g., thick, thin, variable, irregular, intermittent, indistinct, etc. h. Relationships between shapes, e.g., large and small, overlapping, etc.

i. Essay. Description of color and color scheme = palette. j. Creative Courses. Texture of pmr surface or other comments about execution of work. k. Context of object: original location and date. 2. Analysis = determining what the features suggest and deciding why the artist used such features to convey specific ideas. · It answers the question, How did the artist do it? · The various elements that constitute analysis include: a. Determination of subject matter through naming iconographic elements, e.g., historical event, allegory, mythology, etc. b. Creative Writing Uk. Selection of most distinctive features or characteristics whether line, shape, color, texture, etc. c. Analysis of the principles of design or composition, e.g., stable, repetitious, rhythmic, unified, symmetrical, harmonious, geometric, varied, chaotic, horizontal or vertically oriented, etc. d. Discussion of how elements or structural system contribute to appearance of image or function. e. Analysis of use of part time mba essays light and role of creative courses uk color, e.g., contrasty, shadowy, illogical, warm, cool, symbolic, etc. f. Treatment of space and landscape, both real and illusionary (including use of perspective), e.g., compact, deep, shallow, naturalistic, random. g. Portrayal of movement and how it is achieved. h. Effect of particular medium(s) used. i. Your perceptions of balance, proportion and scale (relationships of each part of the composition to the whole and to each other part) and your emotional. j. Reaction to object or monument. 3. Interpretation = establishing the broader context for experiences this type of art. · It answers the online creative writing courses, question, Why did the artist create it and what does it mean. · The various elements that constitute interpretation include: a. Simple English Pmr. Main idea, overall meaning of the work. b. Interpretive Statement: Can I express what I think the artwork is about in one sentence? c. Evidence: What evidence inside or outside the creative writing uk, artwork supports my interpretation? 4. Judgment: Judging a piece of work means giving it rank in relation to other works and of course considering a very important aspect of the visual arts; its originality. · Is it a good artwork? · Criteria: What criteria do I think are most appropriate for judging the artwork? · Evidence: What evidence inside or outside the reviews of movies, artwork relates to each criterion? · Judgment: Based on the criteria and evidence, what is my judgment about the quality of the artwork? Barrett's Principles of Interpretation. 1. Artworks have aboutness and demand interpretation.

2. Interpretations are persuasive arguments. 3. Courses Uk. Some interpretations are better than others. 4. Essay On D-day. Good interpretations of art tell more about the artwork than they tell about the critic. 5. Feelings are guides to interpretations. 6. There can be different, competing, and contradictory interpretations of the same artwork.

7. Interpretations are often based on online creative writing uk, a worldview. 8. Interpretations are not so much absolutely right, but more or less reasonable, convincing, enlightening, and informative. 9. Interpretations can be judged by coherence, correspondence, and inclusiveness. 10. An artwork is not necessarily about what the artist wanted it to be about. 11. A critic ought not to be the spokesperson for simple the artist. 12. Interpretations ought to present the work in its best rather than its weakest light. 13.

The objects of interpretation are artworks, not artists. 14. All art is in part about the online, world in which it emerged. 15. All art is in part about other art. 16. No single interpretation is english essay grade exhaustive of the meaning of an artwork. Writing Courses. 17. Australian Scholarship. The meanings of an artwork may be different from online creative writing courses uk, its significance to the viewer.

Interpretation is ultimately a communal endeavor, and the community is ultimately self- corrective. 18. Good interpretations invite us to see for ourselves and to continue on our own. Essays On Reading. Barrett, Terry. Creative Courses. (1994) Criticizing Art: Understanding the Contemporary. Essay On D-day. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Company.

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How to online Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to english essay keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is online creative courses uk, not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at australian scholarships foundation equity the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there.

Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Creative Writing Uk! Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Essay On D-day! Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in online creative writing uk a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in ucla mba essays sufficient detail to be identified. Online Uk! If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.

Click here to see a selection of australian scholarships coursework equity Common Abbreviations used in creative writing documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in essay on d-day parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002.

Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001.

Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. Online Creative Writing Courses! The Family: A Novel . Completed by scholarships foundation equity, Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of online writing courses Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and essay on d-day, the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the writing uk White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004.

If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and australian foundation coursework equity, each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Online Creative Writing Courses Uk! Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of experiences Vol.

2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. Online Creative Writing Uk! The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol.

4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Writing 10! Book with two authors or editors:

Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and writing uk, International. Environment of australian foundation postgraduate coursework equity Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. Online Courses! ed. English Essay Writing! San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal.

Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. Creative Writing! The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed.

Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. Australian Scholarships Postgraduate! The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Creative Writing Courses! Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors:

Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . Writing 10! New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of online creative uk Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go:

Germany 1998 . Experiences! New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors:

You have a choice of creative writing courses listing all of the on reading authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the writing Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the essay writing grade 10 first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and online uk, Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and australian scholarships foundation coursework, Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.

Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL.

Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Writing Uk! Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of english Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994.

O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and creative writing, Sean O’Reilly, comps. and reviews, eds. Writing! Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by.

6. Simple English Pmr! Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Online Courses! Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004.

7. Part Time! Book with one author, translated by online writing courses uk, another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998.

8. Work in simple english pmr an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Online Creative Writing Uk! Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001.

306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. Essay On D-day! “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22.

9. Article in courses uk an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed. 10. Ucla Time Mba Essays! Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is online writing courses uk, well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to experiences indicate the volume and page numbers.

If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Online Writing Courses! Ed. Simple English! D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. Writing! 2001: 70-75.

“Celestica to essay Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in online creative Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov. 2004: A18.

“Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is simple essay pmr, not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to online creative writing the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March.

If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the on reading experiences months are not abbreviated. Online Creative Uk! If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Essay On D-day! Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265.

The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the writing uk article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb.

2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for simple essay pmr, Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2.

Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and uk, Free Press Metro ed.

12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud,

Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”

Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”

Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Essay On D-day! Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear.

Advertisement. Online Creative! 7 Feb. 2005 GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . Experiences! 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Writing Courses! Advertisement.

Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16.

Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. Australian Foundation Postgraduate Coursework Equity Scholarship! (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. Online Writing Courses Uk! American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.

Dillon, Brenda. Part Time Mba Essays! “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. Online Creative Uk! “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and essay on d-day, Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of online creative The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain.

Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of australian foundation coursework scholarship Injured Brains of online courses uk Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed.

Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. English Grade 10! 1998: Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir.

Julie Taymor. Online Creative Writing! National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. Coursework! 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of online writing courses Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Essay On D-day! Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by.

Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. Online Writing Courses! 2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on essays, VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir.

George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Creative Writing Courses! Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003.

LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. Simple Essay! 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998.

CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Online Creative Writing Courses! Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. Ucla Part Time! 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.

“Mug.” Def. 2. Writing Courses! The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of experiences the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by).

A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of online uk release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. Ucla Part! If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and online courses, the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl.

Perf. Johnny Depp. Australian Coursework! Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Creative Writing Courses! Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl.

Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ.

Christianna. Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod.

Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Reviews Of Movies! Robin Williams. Online Writing Courses Uk! Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth.

Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Time Mba Essays! Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.

Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability.

Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the online writing Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in english essay 10 Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and online writing courses, underline the term, skip all the details and simple, indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . Online Creative! PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong.

Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site.

8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. Essay On D-day! if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and courses uk, begin your citation with the writing grade title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at creative the end of the citation.

Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and pmr, URL. If the creative writing uk URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and of movies, end with a period such as geocities . Creative Writing! Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by essay on d-day, some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for creative writing, an advertisement: IBM. Part! Advertisement.

23 Mar. 2003 TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. Creative! 10 Oct. 2005

Clifford, Erin. English Writing! “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. Online Creative Courses! 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004.

10 Oct. 2005 Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips.

Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. Scholarships Foundation Postgraduate Coursework Equity Scholarship! 10 Oct. 2005 If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Online Creative Courses! Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004.

Note: 8 May 2002 = date of essay publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of online access. Foundation Coursework Equity Scholarship! Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out online courses uk page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan.

2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . Reviews Of Movies! 12 Jan.

2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. Creative Courses! “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005.

Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. Australian Scholarships Postgraduate Coursework Equity Scholarship! 2003. 10 Oct.

2005 e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and writing courses, Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. English Pmr! 7 June 2003 Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000.

7 June 2003 Lee , Lawrence. Interview. . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. . 25 Apr.

2004 “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 g. Courses! Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer.

E-mail to essay on d-day E. Creative Courses! Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to” E-mail to I. Australian Scholarships Foundation Postgraduate Coursework! Lee. 10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is online creative courses uk, Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith.

h. Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. Australian Postgraduate! 10 Oct. 2005 United States.

National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. Writing Uk! 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. Experiences! 2005.

Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the creative uk Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. Part Time! 10 Oct. 2005. Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005 j. Internet citation for an online project, an online creative writing uk information database, a personal or professional Web site:

The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002.

U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and ucla, Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006 Savill, R. Richard. Online! “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct.

2000. 12 Apr. 2006 Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. English Essay 10! Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?”

Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 k. Online! Internet citation for a software download:

It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. On Reading Experiences! 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004.

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an online creative courses uk editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. On Reading! The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Creative Courses Uk! Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct.

2005 m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and foundation postgraduate coursework equity, ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct.

2005 Blair, Tony. Interview. Online Creative Courses Uk! Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. Reviews! 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.

State name of speaker, title of online creative uk lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. Ucla Part Mba Essays! “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. Online Writing! “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter.

Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the english essay grade 10 Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.

Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to online writing courses uk Charles L. Webster. On Reading! 18 Mar. 1885.

Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Online Creative! Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003.

“Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Grade 10! Traumerei , op. 9, no.

4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication.

Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. Creative Writing Courses! 1 . Of Movies! New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65 . Online Courses! 1819.

London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. Simple Essay! 2) Title of artwork, underlined.

3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909.

Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC]. Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Creative! Odalisque . Essay Writing! 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11.

Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of online creative writing courses uk artwork. Mba Essays! 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. Online Creative Writing Courses Uk! 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is 10, house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.

6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of online creative book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. Ucla! figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al.

Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. Creative Writing! 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude.

The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and foundation postgraduate, Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c.

1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari.

Trans. Gaston Du C. Courses! de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of on reading Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme. Creative Writing Uk! Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. English Essay! Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel.

London: Hamlyn, 1992. Online Creative Writing Courses! 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998.

118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the coursework scholarship photograph. 3) Date photograph taken. War in online creative uk Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Reviews Of Movies! Personal photograph by creative courses, author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China.

Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and essay on d-day, patent number. 4) Date patent was issued.

Arbter, Klaus, and writing, Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. Reviews! July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091.

31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by courses, Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of foundation Wales Theatre,

Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Online Writing Courses Uk! Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.

Chor. and Libretto by James. Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. Reviews! National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999. Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart.

Dir. Harold Prince. Based on creative writing courses uk, novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar.

2005. Components: 1) Title of english essay grade 10 episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of creative writing courses uk series. 4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of writing grade 10 local station or channel.

6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. Creative Writing! CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY.

16 Oct. 2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo. “New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner.

The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002. “U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape:

1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version.

6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by. The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC.

Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and reviews of movies, prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Creative Courses! Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD.

Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Scholarships Postgraduate Equity Scholarship! Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.”

McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Engineered and creative courses, mixed by of movies, R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette. Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette.

tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Solid Ground. Courses! Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Essay! Vancouver: Harry Potter and online writing courses, the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel.

by J.K. Rowling. Essay On D-day! Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and online creative uk, Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996.

Kicking Screaming . Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005. The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis.

Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect,

The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley,

Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999. State author, title of essays unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. Creative Courses! or MA thesis, name of university, and year. Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA. thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and 10, Use.” Diss.

Columbia U, 1962.

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Creative writing courses have their uses – but pick one carefully

Scrutinizing Third Person, Present Tense POV. When I first started telling stories almost all third-person fiction (and first-person for that matter) was written in the past tense: Carlos went into the dealership and looked around. He knew the online writing uk, salespeople would descend on him soon, and it was all he could do to stand his ground. Past tense means the events happened some time ago, and you’re writing about them as such. The story already happened, and you’re telling it to someone at a later time.

For fifty years prior to my own apprenticeship, everyone who had any interest in telling stories also secretly aspired to writing the Great American Novel. Ucla Time. You weren’t a real writer if you didn’t have an unfinished novel in your desk. At about the same time that I was learning my craft, however, something was happening in writing courses, Hollywood that would change all that. Essays On Reading Experiences. Directors like Coppola and Spielberg and Lucas were breaking out of the classic Hollywood production pipeline and bringing wildly entertaining and successful movies to the screen. The documents they worked from — the scripts — were also becoming literary properties in themselves. Online Creative Writing Courses. Writers were starting to essay pmr, sell scripts outright, and some of writing uk, those scripts were selling for what anybody would call a chunk of money. Almost overnight — by which I mean the five year span between the early and late 1980’s — writers went from time mba essays having novels in their desks to having screenplays in their desks.

When Syd Field published a book called Screenplay the online creative writing courses, gold rush was on. Now, what’s interesting about screenplays is that they’re all written in third person, present tense, as if the action is happening right now: Carlos goes into the dealership. He looks around, spots a salesman. The salesman flashes a white-bright smile and simple essay pmr, steams over. Carlos looks for a place to hide. I don’t know if anyone has ever documented the creative writing courses, influence of simple, pop-culture screenwriting on the world of creative courses, fiction, but in the early 90’s I had the distinct impression that third-person, present-tense fiction was becoming more and more popular, while third-person fiction written in the past tense seemed to rapidly fall out of style.

And I don’t think that was a coincidence. One reason I make this point (whether it’s been made elsewhere or not) is because it reveals an ugly and scholarships coursework equity, constant truth about the world of fiction. Many (if not most) of the stories you read at any given time are written not in the pure service of online, craft, but at least partly in the service of trends. Some of these trends help break molds, of course, but others are simply cliquey conventions. The main reason I make this point, however, is to show how literary trends can work against authorial goals.

It may at first blush seems as if third-person, present-tense fiction is essay on d-day no different from third-person, past-tense fiction, but that’s not the online creative writing, case. Choosing one over the other is not simply a preference, it’s a craft choice, and the effects of each on the audience are different. Third-person, past-tense stories have the advantage of being more natural. From the on reading, time we’re children we learn to tell about the events of our lives in the past tense, because that’s quite literally the way in which such events plays out. We go to school, we get beat up, we go home, we tell about it in online uk, the past tense because it happened in the past. In fiction, this imitation of the natural, logical method of simple english essay pmr, telling about events that we all use in our own lives helps facilitate the reader’s suspension of writing, disbelief. English Writing. It takes little effort for the reader to believe that the past-tense fiction they’re reading is believable precisely because the point-of-view technique being used mimics the way in which they hear stories from all sources. For example: almost all newspaper reporting is in the past tense precisely because the events being reported have already transpired. Present-tense fiction does not have this advantage. Online Creative Courses Uk. Instead, present-tense fiction mortgages a bit of structural familiarity for english essay, a hoped-for increase in tension.

The goal is very much like the difference between a story printed in the newspaper the next day, and a live on-the-scene report of something that is happening in real time. Except…no reader thinks that what’s being told to them in online courses, present-tense fiction is actually happening at that moment. This in turn creates a disconnect: the reader is asked to believe that something is happening right now when it clearly isn’t — and the reader knows it isn’t because what they’re reading had to be printed at some earlier point. Yes, suspension of disbelief can solve this problem, but it’s a problem that past-tense stories simply do not have to essay on d-day, solve. To be sure, people are more comfortable reading present-tense fiction now precisely because it has become more common. Just as the jump cut in film used to elicit confusion in the theater, but can now be interpreted by almost anyone of any age, new techniques become part of the storytelling lexicon as mediums evolve. The takeaway here is not that you shouldn’t use third-person, present-tense point of creative courses uk, view. Rather, it’s that you shouldn’t use it simply because it’s what everyone else is doing. That’s not writing, that’s following the herd. (Admittedly this kind of herd instinct may make you more publishable at any given moment, in the same way that having the right buzzwords in your resume will mean you’re more likely to be hired.

But it’s a given on this blog that writers shouldn’t be interested in essay grade 10, how to suck up to people in power. They should be interested in telling the best stories they can tell.) When you set out to write your next piece of writing, fiction, whether it’s flash or a thousand-page epic, consider the craft choices available to you, then make the choices that are best for reviews, your story. Creative Courses. There are plenty of people out there eager to take the next open spot in the literary clique. There are no people out there who will say what you have to say in the way you would say it if you had complete freedom to do so. You have complete freedom to ucla part time, do so. Reading present tense is online writing courses uk one of scholarships foundation scholarship, those things that pulls me out of the story. I have to online writing uk, think about the essay on d-day, sentence and get lost.

Therefore I don’t write in present. I didn’t realize that there were a lot of stories being written in online writing uk, present tense. I (generally) feel the same way about present tense in fiction. Scholarships Foundation Postgraduate Equity Scholarship. The distraction fades as I read, but I’m never quite oblivious of it. Conversely, present tense in a script seems to make complete sense to writing courses, me. The script is a blueprint describing what the camera sees. Writing what the essays experiences, camera sees in past tense would make no sense. (Same goes for stage plays, which are also present tense.)

I don’t know what the percentage of present tense stories are these days, but it’s much more common than it used to creative writing courses, be, and particularly so in essay writing grade, literary works. (I don’t know if present-tense storytelling happens much in commercial fiction.) Great post. Interesting points on online creative writing, the relation between scripts and the third person, present tense style. One reason I make this point (whether it’s been made elsewhere or not) is because it reveals an ugly and constant truth about the world of fiction. Many (if not most) of the stories you read at writing 10, any given time are written not in the pure service of craft, but at least partly in the service of trends. Some of these trends help break molds, of course, but others are simply cliquey conventions. Valid point, Mark. And I would take that a step further by saying lots of fiction has been written in creative writing, direction opposition to essay writing 10, trends. I agree that each perspective and tense creates a different effect but I’m strongly of the opinion that a story will call for a certain point of view or tense. If somebody ignores this instinct and their story still works, good luck to them.

But I’ve had stories absolutely refuse to budge for me until I’ve switched narrative POV. Then, suddenly, liberation. On the subject of the online uk, suspension of essay on d-day, disbelief and online, narrative voice, I have heard of coursework, writers saying that writing fiction in third person is online creative courses uk illogical. I have also heard writers say that first person is easy… You’re right that people write against trends, too. The point, of course, would be to reviews, ignore trends and do what best suits each individual story — as you suggest in online creative writing courses uk, your next paragraph. I don’t think third person is necessarily illogical, because I could write a report about part, a car wreck that took the third person. I do understand that there’s some fantasy involved in omniscient third person, where the author knows what every character is thinking in online creative writing courses, intimate detail. It takes a leap of faith to enter a story written like that, but it’s usually so entertaining the reader doesn’t care about any dissonance with reality.

As to first person, it’s always come more easily to me, but I know some people who wrestle with it constantly. I’ve become more interested in part time mba essays, third person lately, simply because I have more opportunities to explore individual characters. I’m still on the fence as to whether this is a good thing, or something I really want to pursue. You say that you go to school, get beat up, go home, and tell the online courses uk, story in past tense because it happened in past tense, and for most of on reading, us, that’s mostly true. We begin to online creative writing courses, tell stories of our past in past tense. But if you listen closely to people relating the events of their lives to others, you will hear a majority of them slipping into present tense during the crucial parts of their stories. You’ll also hear a lot of second-person, especially when describing locations. “So, I go into the break room, right? And when you go into the break room, the table’s right in front of pmr, you, and the microwave’s on your left, right? So anyways, he’s like hiding there, and writing courses uk, he’s got this big knife…” In short fiction, I can mange to stick to this pattern, telling the story mostly in past tense, slipping into present tense for australian foundation postgraduate coursework equity scholarship, those crucial “here and now” scenes (usually without even noticing it until I read it). In my first novel, though, I found myself repeatedly having to writing courses uk, go back pages and pages and ucla time mba essays, convert from creative present into past.

Coupled with the awkwardness of past perfect for the story’s actual past, I found it simpler to just write in in present tense. The funny thing is that until I started doing it myself, present tense always threw me for english, the first few pages, but I truly believe it is a better way to replicate the stories we tell each other in real life. You’re right that tense changes in real life, and often fluidly. I wouldn’t dispute that at all. (Your example is excellent.) I once kept a diary about gardening and yard work for a solid eight months. I wrote almost all of it in present tense because it felt right. Each day I would work in writing uk, the garden or yard, then I would come inside and write the reviews of movies, highlights down. Later, when I went back to clean up the creative uk, inevitable carnage, I discovered that I couldn’t stand the present-tense point of view. (And I was surprised by the magnitude of my reaction.) On some level authorial preference clearly plays a part, as does appropriateness to the content.

My larger concern is on reading that I think some (perhaps many) writers don’t address either of these considerations on the way to adopting a point of writing, view. Rather, they simply mimic what they’re reading, or what’s popular/trendy. It is ludicrous to believe only the past tense, be it 1st, second or third person is the reviews, correct way to present a narrative; how often do you walk around and extract people’s thoughts from their heads? The answer is never!! What you do in fact is watch people’s actions and listen to them and to creative courses uk, present a story in way that focuses only on immediacy of action and time, dialogue is creative courses uk actually the australian foundation coursework, most realistic POV because this is courses uk precisely how humans interact in real life, not the way in which billions of ucla, authors have and continue to demonstrate through employing past tense; a story about who wants what from whom and why now, not about who wanted what from creative writing courses uk whom and simple english pmr, why they wanted it then?? Who gives a sh*t about online courses uk, back then, it is about now not then.

It’s always interested me that some aspects of suspension of disbelief in a given medium seem to be more or less acceptable to specific individuals on an intrinsic basis. For example, when watching old-school cartoons involving a lot of on reading experiences, gags and writing uk, character violence/plasticity, I’ve actually witnessed someone saying, “Aw, that could never happen!” Well, it’s a cartoon, and yes, in real life that could never happen. Yet despite the essays, obviousness of this, somehow a specific action or gag will break suspension of disbelief or plausibility for that viewer. I, on the other hand, tend to view the choice to work in the medium of animation as a desire to do things that could never happen in real life, so I don’t ever have that reaction. In the medium of writing, by which I mean anything that is delivered via text on a page, I tend to ‘see’ the medium as one which implies the past tense. If I want to write something in writing, the present tense I tend to look at other, more vital mediums, like the stage play or film, because I know those mediums excel at present tense — and at the immediacy you speak so eloquently of.

In no case, however, do I do what you seem to do when you confront past tense, and that’s discount the value of the foundation, story because it’s not being presented as immediate. I know other people who share that feeling, but again, it’s just one I’ve never had. I don’t need present tense in order to feel that something is relevant or meaningful. My point is not to say that anybody is right or wrong. And I certainly allow for generational changes in creative writing courses uk, audience expectation over time.

But in the end I think some people are just wired up to scholarships coursework equity, care about aspects of tense and point of view in an intrinsic way. If they don’t get what works for them they end up saying, “Aw, that could never happen.” Comment Policy: Ditchwalk is a wild place, but not without tending. On-topic comments are welcomed, appreciated and preserved. Off-topic or noxious comments are, like invasive species, weeded out.

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15 Quick Tips for a Winning Resume. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. As part of the celebration of Quintessential Careers#8217;s 15th anniversary, we#8217;re presenting lists of 15 tips on some of the online writing courses uk, most essential topics in college, job search, and career. Essay 10. Yikes! You find yourself in a position to online writing courses uk, craft a resume or update an essays, existing resume. So much resume advice floats around out there, making you wonder about the best approach. The tips we offer here capture the most important aspects of an creative uk, effective resume. You can scarcely go wrong if you incorporate these nuggets into your next resume. Here#8217;s our list of the 15 best tips for job-seekers in crafting a winning resume.

Your resume must be sharply focused and australian scholarships postgraduate equity target your desired career goal with precision. Job-seekers tend to forget that employers review resumes extremely quickly #8212; often in online creative writing uk just a few seconds. An employer taking such a quick glance should be able to immediately grasp what you want to do and grade gain a sense of the value you can contribute to the organization. The resume must focus on key strengths that position the candidate to meet a specific need and target specific jobs/employers. In other words, employers don#8217;t consider resumes that aren#8217;t focused on a job#8217;s specific requirements to online courses uk, be competitive. Employers and writing 10 recruiters expect your resume to be precisely tailored to the position you#8217;re applying for. The reader should be able to tell at a glance exactly what job you#8217;re targeting and courses what need you will fill. The reader should never have to guess or wade through copious text to determine what job you want and australian scholarships foundation postgraduate coursework equity scholarship what you#8217;d be good at. An unfocused resume is a time-waster for the employer.

Ways you can sharpen your focus include a headline atop your resume stating the type of job you seek, a branding statement that positions you for a specific job or type of job (headlines and creative uk branding statements are often used in combination), a Qualifications Summary or Professional Profile section, a section listing your Core Competencies/Proficiencies/Areas of Expertise, strategic organization of your resume to position you for essay on d-day the job you seek, and bullet points describing your experience in a way that is specifically tailored to creative uk, the position you seek. To ensure a sharp focus, you will likely need to create multiple versions of your resume, building a boilerplate version that you then customize to reviews, each specific positions. Today#8217;s resume must be keyword-rich. The majority of resumes submitted to uk, employers today are handled by Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS), which Wikipedia defines as software applications #8220;that enable the electronic handling of corporate recruitment needs.#8221; The systems store #8220;candidate data inside a database to allow effective searching, filtering, and simple routing of applications.#8221; Because applicant tracking software and online courses uk keyword-searchable databases dominate today#8217;s hiring process, successful resumes must feature cutting-edge industry jargon in essay on d-day the form of keywords. To read more about using keywords in resumes, see our article Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume#8217;s Effectiveness. When your resume is seen by uk the human eye, it needs to catch attention and of movies be simultaneously reader-friendly.

The print version of an effective resume must be sleek, distinctive, and clean yet eye-catching. Your resume should feature conservative, easy-to-read fonts, plenty of white space, a layout/design that goes beyond ordinary yet is creative, not so far out as to turn employers off, and ucla mba essays graphic elements that add interest, such as rule lines, boxes, shaded areas, and tables (for print version only, as these graphic elements will likely not hold up when entered into employers#8217; Applicant Tracking Systems.) Avoid instantly recognizable Microsoft Word resume templates. Employers have seen a million of them, so they don#8217;t stand out. Resumes, especially for career changers, need to portray skills as applicable and transferable to the position the job-seeker is targeting. You need to show the creative, employer that the skills you#8217;ve polished will contribute to the bottom line, even if you seek a job different from what you#8217;ve done in the past.

For more about transferable skills, read our article, Strategic Portrayal of Transferable Job Skills is essay on d-day, a Vital Job-Search Technique. Creative Courses Uk. Focus on accomplishments #8212; not duties and simple english pmr responsibilities #8212; that set you apart from other job candidates. In each job, what special things did you do to set yourself apart? How did you do the online writing courses uk, job better than anyone else or than anyone else could have done? What did you do to make it your own? What special things did you do to impress your boss so that you might be promoted?

What were the problems or challenges that you or the organization faced? What did you do to overcome the problems? What were the results of your efforts? How did the organization benefit from your performance? How did you leave your employers better off than before you worked for them? For more about how to identify your accomplishments, see our article For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and our Accomplishments Worksheet to reviews, help you brainstorm your accomplishments. Spotlight your best selling points up front. #8220;The Resume Ingredients Rule,#8221; set forth by Donald Asher, author of numerous resume books (see our QA with him), notes that information on a resume should be listed in order of importance to writing uk, the reader. Therefore, in listing your jobs, what#8217;s generally most important is essay on d-day, your title/position. So list in this preferred order: Title/position, name of creative writing courses, employer, city/state of employer, dates of employment. Also consider whether your education or your experience is your best selling point and essay on d-day which should therefore be listed first.

Generally, brand-new graduates list education first, while job-seekers with a few years of experience list experience first. Don#8217;t bury relevant skills, such as technical and foreign-language skills, at the bottom of your resume. If computer skills are relevant to your field, list them in a Summary or Profile section atop your resume. That way, they#8217;ll catch the reader#8217;s eye in creative the first third of the of movies, document. Similarly if language and international-business skills are important in the type of job you seek, list them prominently, not at the end of your resume. Communicate your personal brand in your resume. The branding expressed in creative writing uk your resume captures your career identity, authenticity, passion, essence, and image, as well as the promise of the australian foundation, value you bring to online creative uk, the employer. For a branded resume, integrate a distinctive appearance, a consistent branding message woven throughout the document supporting the branded message you intend to convey, as well as a branding statement that defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out. Learn more with our Personal Branding Career Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists. Australian Scholarships Postgraduate. Make your resume a sales pitch that conveys your distinctiveness, passion, and unique understanding of the business environment. It must answer the employer#8217;s question: Why you over any other candidate?

Clearly, uniqueness is closely related to online, both branding and focus. If your resume conveys a sharp focus, the reader can instantly visualize you in the position you seek. If your resume is australian foundation postgraduate scholarship, branded, it immediately communicates your promise of value. Writing Uk. The uniqueness factor takes your resume to the next level by portraying you as not only in the position but the simple, best person for online uk the position, even the simple english, only logical choice for the position. Online Writing. When you imbue your resume with your uniqueness, you show the mba essays, employer that you completely comprehend the challenges the organization faces and that you are overwhelmingly qualified to meet those challenges.

If you have adequately sold your uniqueness, the reader reviewing your resume should say, #8220;This person gets it.#8221; Eliminate clutter from creative writing uk, your resume. Among the elements can clutter up your resume and impede readability are unnecessary dates (such as dates of involvement in equity scholarship professional or civic organizations); parentheses (no need to creative courses uk, set off dates of employment with parentheses; just use commas), articles #8212; those little words, #8220;a,#8221; #8220;an,#8221; and #8220;the,#8221; most of which aren#8217;t needed; and english essay 10 the line #8220;References available upon request#8221; (unnecessary because it is a given that you will provide references upon request.) Structure your accomplishments as stories #8212; but tell them in reverse order. You#8217;ve probably heard of a story structure commonly suggested for online courses uk job-interview responses: Situation Action Result, sometimes expressed as Challenge Action Result or Problem Action Result. On Reading Experiences. Since a hiring decision-maker reads your resume so quickly, you need to tell the story backwards. Grab the online writing, reader#8217;s attention by giving away the ending first. So, instead of Situation Action Result, resume bullet points should be told as Result Action Situation. Quantify wherever possible.

Employers love to see numbers #8212; metrics that provide tangible evidence of results you#8217;ve achieved. Use metrics such as percentage by which you#8217;ve increased sales or cut costs. Ucla Part Mba Essays. Take steps to ensure your resume is online uk, free of misspellings, grammar flaws, and typos. Proofread it. Set it aside overnight, and then proof it again.

Then have a friend, family member, or colleague who is well-versed in proper language use proof it for you. Errors can kill your chances with many employers, so keep your resume error free. Keep your resume fresh and updated. Your resume should not be a static, stagnant document; change it as needed. If it#8217;s not working for english grade 10 you, have it critiqued by a professional to see what you can improve. Update it the writing uk, minute you start a new job. Track your accomplishments so you can add those to the document. Final Thoughts on part Creating a Successful Job-Search Resume. Resume-writing isn#8217;t easy, but it#8217;s not as overwhelming as it may seem.

Get a feel for an effective resume by looking at samples, and consult the courses, copious resume resources here on Quint Careers. If you still feel like you can#8217;t do it, there#8217;s no shame in consulting a professional resume writer. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and australian scholarships postgraduate coursework equity links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to online uk, our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about ucla mba essays storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for creative uk New Graduates and A Foot in english pmr the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot#8217;s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha).

Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at) Check out Dr. Hansen on online courses uk GooglePlus. Enhance your career! Take advantage of all of english essay, our expert free career development advice, tools, and more in our Career Resources Toolkit for Job-Seekers. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.

Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and uk our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is essay writing grade, founder of online creative uk, Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of He is also founder of and

He is publisher of part time mba essays, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in creative writing the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.

Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and essays associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an creative writing uk, educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an time mba essays, electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for creative writing courses New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Reviews Of Movies. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to online creative writing courses, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Writing 10. Visit her personal Website or reach her by online writing courses uk e-mail at Check out Dr.

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The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and creative writing more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. Australian Scholarships Postgraduate Coursework Scholarship. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and online writing courses uk employment centers on mba essays their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Online Writing Courses Uk. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.

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Essay: Agency theory – the Principal-Agent Model. 1.1 Behavioral Economics. Many of the assumptions on which economic models and creative writing courses, theories are based are often wrong when we critically look at time mba essays them from the perspective of social sciences. Thinking about yourself, do you always make fully rational choices that are only self-interested? Are your preferences time-consistent? Most of you will answer no to these questions or will act different from these assumptions when faced with a decision in real life. Economics traditionally views actors in an economic world as unemotional maximizers. Behavioral economics incorporates the facts, models and methods from online writing, neighboring sciences to provide a more realistic representation of human behavior into economics.

It studies the ucla part time findings about human behavior and social interaction of mainly psychology, but also sociology, anthropology and biology. Behavioral economics explores the implication that these findings from other sciences have for economic behavior. The idea of behavioral economics goes back to the 1950s when Hebert Simon tried to reunify economics and creative writing courses, psychology. Around 1970 cognitive psychologists started to scholarships coursework equity, look into economic decision-making. The main essence of behavioral economics is that increasing the realism of the online underlying assumption of economic models and theories will improve the field of essays on reading experiences economics. Rabin (2002) states, ‘Ceteris paribus, the creative writing courses uk more realistic our assumptions about economic actors, the better our economics. Essay On D-day? Hence, economists should aspire to make our assumptions about humans as psychological realistic as possible’. Behavioral economists investigate in which ways the behavior of individuals differs from the assumptions made in the standard model and then show why this deviating behavior matters for writing courses uk economic theory. The last decade, the efforts of reviews behavioral economists to incorporate more realistic notions of creative writing human nature into economics have increased remarkably. Most behavioral economists have retained the experiences basic frameworks of the courses uk neo-classical models, but supplemented them with more realistic assumptions. The main assumptions of standard economics that behavioral economics criticize are unbounded rationality, unbounded willpower and unbounded selfishness.

Unbounded selfishness, the assumption that people are fully self-interested, is one of the building blocks of writing 10 many economic theories and models. Behavioral economics, however, have found that self-interest is not all of human motivation. People tend to be altruistic, which implies that people care about others’ people well-being as well. Moreover, it turns out that people do not only care about other people, but they also care about the fairness and distribution of resources and even about the intentions and online courses uk, motives of other people’s behavior. One of the most classic theories in economics is the Expected Utility Theory. The Expected Utility Theory states that people value decisions by weighting the utility of an outcome by its probability. Behavioral economists have done a lot of research on this theory and found that this theory does not seem to hold in the real world. They developed Prospect Theory, which incorporates psychophysical features that Expected Utility theory misses.

Two main conclusions of Prospect Theory are that people are loss averse and that people do not weight probabilities linearly. In my thesis I will investigate how individuals weight probabilities and how we can incorporate a more realistic view of probability weighting into the Principal Agency Theory. It seems that behavioral economists have reasonable arguments why we should incorporate assumptions of social sciences into english writing, economics, however not all economists agree with behavioral economists. Camerer (1999), argues that most of the active resistance to behavioral economics is the fear that the alternatives of psychology to rationality are too fragmented and can therefore not suggest a coherent alternative. Other researchers argue that even though economics might not be perfect, psychology is neither. Levin (2009), argues that psychology is mainly focused on the behavior of individuals while economics is focused on the behavior of creative writing individuals in ucla part time mba essays, groups. He states that this is online writing courses uk a crucial difference, which should be considered before psychological findings are incorporated in economic theories. Moreover, Winter (2014) argues that behavioral economics take on a too negative view on essays, individual decision making. He believes that emotions do not lead us away from rational decision making, but that we need emotions to serve as a signaling mechanism to coordinate our actions and to arrive at an equilibrium. He claims that our emotional system and creative writing courses uk, our rational system are intertwined around each other and are therefore inseparable from ucla, each other.

However, most economist lately have agreed upon the main arguments of behavioral economists and believe that many of the assumptions on uk, which economic theories and models are based are not consistent with reality. 1.2 Agency Theory. In my thesis I will investigate the Principal-Agent Model and I will try to tweak one of the essay on d-day assumptions on which the model is based according to the principles of Behavioral Economics. The agency theory model was first formulated in the early 1970s, by the early 1990s it had become the dominant institutional logic of corporate governance. An agency relationship arises between two parties when one of the online creative writing parties, the of movies agent, acts for the other party, the principal. Online Creative? The principal-agent framework is thus a method that we use to investigate problems in which the principal hires an agent to perform a certain task for scholarships foundation postgraduate scholarship him/her. The problem that arises in this framework is moral hazard, since the agent might not have the same incentives as the principal. Moreover, in the classical model, the actions of the agent are not observable, leaving them with the incentive to shirk. To elaborate on this, the model assumes that an agent chooses an action that influences the outcome, but does not determine the outcome. Online Writing? The principal can thus observe the outcome, but cannot observe the action that the agent has undertaken; therefore we have a hidden action problem. Since the agent’s actions are unobservable, the principal cannot simply pay the agent for the actions he or she has undertaken.

To overcome the hidden action problem, the agent will try to bridge the informational asymmetries by installing information systems and by ucla part time monitoring the agent. The principal tries to align his incentives with the incentives of the writing agent and hopes thereby to positively influence the essays on reading experiences behavior of the agent. There are many tools that can align the interests of the principal and the agent, such as bonuses, piece rates, stock options, profit sharing etc. The problem with an writing incentive contract is that it will impose risk on of movies, the agent since the agent does not have full influence on the outcome. The main assumptions on writing courses, which agency theory is essay on d-day build, are widely discussed by behavioral economists. They state, for example, that agents are work averse and self-interested utility maximizers. Creative Uk? Behavioral economists, argue that these assumptions are not consistent with behavior of agents in real life. Perrow (1986) observes that in some organizational structures human beings are other-regarding and even altruistic.

He states that classical agency theory fails to recognize the cooperative aspect of social life. Sociologists believe that we need a more nuanced understanding of the incentives of principals, agents and organizations. If we could make the assumptions on which agency theory is based more realistic, we would get a more realistic theory that shows us a more realistic picture of the essay on d-day interaction between agent and principal. The principal agent theory is based on online creative courses uk, the expected utility theory, which states that people make decisions under uncertainty by multiply the outcome by the probability. Behavioral economists disagree with this theory and developed Prospect Theory. As I stated before, in reviews, my thesis I will try to uk, incorporate a more realistic view of australian scholarships foundation postgraduate coursework equity scholarship probability judgment, which is a part of prospect theory, into the model of agency theory. I will start by describing the classical model of agency theory. Then I will continue by discussing why we need a more realistic view of online creative probability judgment into the model. I will conclude with which change I believe should be made into the model and the impact that it has on the model. 2. Agency Theory ‘ The Model. 2.1 The standard model.

In the Principal-Agent model we have a principal whose payoff is on reading influenced by creative courses an outcome, which can be good or bad. The principal hires an scholarships foundation coursework equity agent who helps him to achieve this outcome. The agent has to decide how much effort he/she will put in. The amount of effort that the agent will put in, influences the outcome. However, effort is costly and it will not provide a certain outcome, we thus cope with uncertainty in the model. The principal cannot observe how much effort the agent puts in; he/she can only observe the outcome. The model tries to achieve a Pareto efficient outcome, which implies that no one can be made better off without making someone else worse off. Two things to consider for a Pareto optimal outcome is the optimal division of writing courses risk and the optimal division of the profits. Australian Scholarships Postgraduate Coursework? The Pareto optimal division is writing courses a solution of a constrained maximization problem. For the standard model we assume that the on reading experiences agent is uk risk averse and english grade 10, the principal is risk neutral. The agent does not need to choose effort in this version of the model.

We consider a model of binary uncertainty and assume that the outcome can either have a value high, H, or low, L, where HL. The principal will receive the creative profit, H or L, minus the wage paid to the agent, gH or gL. We will define the utility function of the principal as u(x) and the utility function of the agent as v(x). Where v'(x) 0 and v'(x) PL, meaning that the more effort put in reviews, the higher the chance that the high outcome occurs. Since effort is online writing not costless, the agent’s utility function will change and cost of effort will be subtracted from the utility gained from wage. We assume that the cost of low effort is zero. When the agent is risk averse and reviews, the principal is risk neutral, the agent will get a fixed wage. This fixed wage will be equal to U-1(U0+c) for high effort and U-1(U0) for low effort. Online Creative Courses Uk? The Pareto optimal outcome depends on ucla part time mba essays, which of the following is online writing uk higher E(V|eH)-U-1(U0+c) or E(V|eL)-U-1(U0). We call this outcome the first best outcome.

However, it can only be attained in two special cases. The first case is when effort is observable, since the principal can then set a wage according to essays, the effort the online creative agent has put in. The second case is essay on d-day when the agent is courses risk neutral, the principal can then transfer all risk towards the agent by giving himself a set wage. In this case the agent will choose the effort level that maximizes his expected utility and will thus only choose high effort when the increase in expected utility is larger then the costs of high effort. When effort is simple pmr unobservable and the agent is risk averse, the first best outcome cannot be achieved. Since the agent is risk averse optimal risk sharing would imply that the writing courses uk agent would receive a fixed wage. However, this will not incentivize the essay on d-day agent to put in more effort.

First I assume that E(V|eH)-U-1(U0+c) E(V|eL)-U-1(U0), meaning that high effort increases the value for the principal more than it costs the agent. For the agent to accept the contract and to choose high effort, two conditions must hold. The first condition is incentive compatibility, meaning that the agent will get a higher expected utility by creative choosing high effort than by choosing low effort. Australian Coursework Equity Scholarship? The IC condition can be written as, PHu(WG)+(1-PH)u(WB)-c’PLu(WG)+(1-PL)u(WB). The second condition is the courses uk individual rationality condition, implying that the agent will get a higher expected utility by choosing the contract and high effort then by declining the contract. This condition is written as PHu(WG)+(1-PH)u(WB)-c’U0. The principal needs to maximize E(V-W) subject two both constrains.

The second-best contract will yield lower expected utility for the principal than the first-best contract, this is because he/she needs to induce the agent to essay on d-day, exert high effort. 3. Decision Making Under Uncertainty. 3.1 Probability valuation. ‘Economists traditionally have assumed that, when faced with uncertainty, people correctly form their subjective probabilistic assessments according to the laws of probability. But researchers have documented many systematic departures from rationality in judgment under uncertainty’, (Rabin, 1998). Faced with decision under uncertainty, people depart from perfect rationality and seem to rely on online creative writing, some heuristic principles, which help them to make the complex task of assessing probabilities to a simpler judgmental operation. This can, however, lead to systematic errors.

Hence, it seems that people are not following the principles of probability theory when they judge the likelihood of uncertain events. ‘Some deviations of subjective from scholarships foundation equity scholarship, objective probability seem reliable, systematic and difficult to eliminate’ (Kahneman #038; Tversky, 1974). Online Creative Writing Courses? If Kahneman and Tversky are right that these biases are systematic, we could incorporate one or more of these deviations into our Principal-Agency model. Part Mba Essays? We would make the model more realistic from online creative writing, a psychological perspective. There are several biases in probability judgment and I will discuss a few. One of the biases is the Law of Small Numbers, it implies that people exaggerate the chance that a small probability will occur, contrary they undervalue the of movies probability that an creative courses event with a high probability will occur. People become less sensitive to australian postgraduate coursework equity scholarship, changes in creative writing, probabilities as they move away from a reference point. In probability distribution 0 and 1 can be seen as the reviews reference points, which implies that the weighting function can be pictured as an online writing uk inverse S-shape. This leads to the overvaluation of small probabilities and australian equity, the undervaluation of online writing courses uk higher probabilities. In section 4.2, I show by means of figure 1 what this bias graphically does with probability weighting.

Another bias in people’s judgment of probability is representativeness. Experiences? Representativeness implies that a person will evaluate the probability of an uncertain event by two degrees. First, the online creative writing courses uk degree to which it is essay similar to other known events and second the degree to which it reflects similar features of the process by which it is generated. People will attain a higher probability to the event that appears more representative to them. This causes people to online writing courses, make wrong judgments since an event that is more representative does not actually need to be more likely. Representativeness can for example lead to an excessive reaction to current information and too little weight on the prior odds. The representativeness heuristic is most of the time systematic in direction. In section 4.2, I also show on the hand of essays on reading figure 1 what the representativeness bias graphically does with probability weighting. Creative Writing Courses Uk? Moreover, we have the isolation effect, which explains that people tend to essay on d-day, often isolate consecutive probabilities instead of treating them together.

This leads to inconsistent preferences when the same choice is presented in online courses uk, different forms. There are many more biases, many of them probably not even known yet. In my thesis I will concentrate on the Law of Small Numbers and the representativeness bias. English Essay Grade? I will build decision weights that adapt the probabilities towards the judgments of individuals that are affect by these two biases. 3.2 Implication for the Principal Agent Model. The most important consequence of these findings is that people do not simply interpret a probability as a given number, but since they are not fully rational they value this number differently based on judgment. The beliefs and expectations of an individual about the probability of a certain event will differ from the actual probability of writing courses that event. They will therefore assign a different probability to the event than would be rational. Consequently, we need a different theory of choice under uncertainty; we need to of movies, replaced probabilities in the model by decision weights.

Decision weights take into account the beliefs and expectations that the individual has about the creative writing probability of a certain event. Since the likelihood of a certain event is an important part of making decisions under uncertainty, replacing probabilities with decision weights will make a model more realistic and would thus lead towards a more optimal outcome. I will build decision weights on the two biases I just discussed, the Law of Small Numbers and essay, representativeness, and incorporate them into the Principal Agent model. Important is to notice that since people hold different knowledge, different believes and have different manners to assess probabilities no single probability will be interpret the same. Therefore, the decision weights of the writing principal and essay on d-day, agent will differ from each other.

Moreover, we could argue that the principal has more information and on top of that might be able to make more rational judgments since there might be some systems in place for preventing him/her from making these kind of non-rational judgments. Online Creative Writing Courses Uk? The fact that people judge probabilities as decision weights can have many implications. The principal might be aware of this and reviews, can therefore manipulate the decision weight that the agent will assign to online creative writing courses uk, the outcome. If we take for example the representativeness bias, the principal might manipulate the representativeness of the english pmr outcome he prefers, making that outcome seem more salient to the agent will cause the agent to put a higher decision weight on the preferred outcome of the principal. However, there is also a possibility that the principal does not know that the agent does not make a rational judgment of the probabilities. The principal will then make a wrong assessment of the valuation process of the agent and this will then lead to courses, an outcome that is sub-optimal for one or both parties. As can be seen, substituting probabilities by decision weights can have many implications into the Principal Agent model, which I will discuss next. 4. The Adapted Model with Binary Uncertainty, without effort. 4.1. Adapting the standard Principal Agent Model. In its simplest version the Principal Agent model starts with 2 persons, a principal that hires an pmr agent.

The principal cannot observe effort, he/she can only uk, observe the outcome. The agent and principal thus have to writing grade, cope with a decision under uncertainty. Creative Courses? As I discussed in my introduction, classical economic theory uses Expected Utility Theory for decision-making under uncertainty. Agency theory is also based on Expected Utility Theory. Behavioral economists, however, invented Prospect Theory.

Prospect Theory introduces a more realistic view of decision making under uncertainty and on reading experiences, I will change the Principal-Agent model by incorporating some of the findings of this theory. To be more specific, I will substitute the probabilities in the model by decision weights. When we consider binary uncertainty, as discussed in section 2.1, we deal with risk and the suggestions of courses uk Prospect Theory will be of importance. One of the assumptions on which the binary model is build is the simple english essay pmr probability distribution P(H) = p and P(L) = 1 ‘ p. This assumption is one of the basics of the qualitative law of probability; it is called the conjunction rule. The conjunction rule states that the probability of creative writing courses uk a conjunction P(A#038;B), cannot exceed the probabilities off either P(A) or P(B), since it is an extension of these elements. Behavioral economists despite have found that judgments under uncertainty are not bounded by reviews of movies the conjunction rule, since they are often based on intuitive heuristics. A violation of the conjunction rule is online creative called the conjunction fallacy and often occurs because of the ucla representativeness bias. I argue that people rely on a natural assessment to produce an estimation or a prediction, which most of the time is not rational. Online Creative? To adapt a more realistic view on probability judgment to the Principal-Agent model, I will substitute the writing grade probabilities within the model with decision weights.

There are many biases in probability judgment and to uk, make decision weights as realistic as possible, all these biases would need to be incorporated. Reviews? This is too extensive for my thesis and probably not even possible, therefore I focus on two biases, the Law of Small Numbers and representativeness. Decision weights are a function of probabilities, in creative writing courses, which parameters represent the biases. The probabilities will, thus, be affected by the degree of these biases. 4.2 Implementing decision weights into the standard Principal Agent Model. Lattimore, Baker and Witte (1992) suggest that decision weights should be specified by foundation postgraduate coursework scholarship the following formula: The parameter ?? represents the Law of Small Numbers, it establishes whether ‘small’ probabilities will be under- or over-weighted. The parameter accomplishes this by specifying the online writing courses slope of the curve and it thereby measures the sensitivity towards changes in probability. ?? can take on values between 0 and 1, so 0”??1.

The smaller . the larger the deviation of the probability weighting function is from linear weighting. When ?? = 1, the individual does not overvalue small probabilities and undervalue large probabilities. The parameter ?? originally represents a degree of simple english essay pmr optimism, it can either shift the probability curve upward or downward. Originally it can take on online writing courses uk, values below or above 1, presenting an optimistic or pessimistic view on the probability of the outcome. I suggest using this parameter to represent the representativeness bias. If a certain outcome seems more representative to on reading, an individual he or she will attach a higher perceived probability to that outcome, consequently it will lead to an upward shift of the probability function. Since there is a positive relationship between probability judgment and online creative, representativeness, ?? can only english 10, take on the value 1 or higher, so ‘?? 1. If a certain outcome does not seem representative to the individual, ?? will be equal to 1. Moreover, if ?? = 1 the conjunction rule will hold. Writing Courses? If ??1, however, the parameter will provide more weight on the probability of the outcome.

Concluding, the decision weight given to each outcome is thus the function of the probability distribution as described above. Essay Writing Grade? When ??=??=1, Expected Utility Theory holds. Online Creative Writing? However, most individual behavior deviates from this situation. Figure 1, shows how the reviews parameters originally proposed changes the probability distribution. The left side of the figure shows the effect of changing the Law of Small Numbers has on the probability distribution. The lower, . the steeper the inverse S-shape becomes and thus the more low probabilities will be overvalued and high probabilities undervalued. The right side shows the online writing courses representativeness bias, keeping ?? constant. In my case, ?? would only lead to an upward shift of the probability distribution. Causing the point at which p = 0.5 to only shift above the linear line.

Figure 1, Decision weight originally proposed by Lattimore, Baker and Witte (1992). Notice that in my case ??1, and not below 1. Retained from Gonzalez, R., #038; Wu, G. Reviews Of Movies? (1999). On the writing courses uk shape of the probability weighting function. Cognitive psychology, 38(1), 129-166. The decision weights I will use are defined as follows. Where 0 ‘ ‘?? 1, ‘?? 1, i represents the discussed individual (A for australian agent and P for online writing courses uk principal) and H or L stands for time high or low. For example ??_(A,H) stands for the representativeness bias of the agent towards the high outcome.

Accordingly, I will substitute the probabilities in the principal-agent model by the decision weights as specified in equation 3. The weights that will be assigned to creative courses, the parameters will differ for scholarship each individual and for each situation. Some people might be very sensitive to the Law of Small probabilities and therefore will have a low value for courses ?? in there decision weight equation. Essay On D-day? The weight that is attached to . will depend entirely on the representativeness of the specific situation that the individual faces. In section 2.1 I showed the maximization problem that the principal faces, see equation 1. The maximization problem will change since I will incorporate the online creative courses uk decision weights in the model. In section 3.2, I discussed the different scenarios that could occur. Reviews? For now I will discuss the scenario in which the principal is courses rational and does not use decision weights, the agent however judges probabilities according to judgmental heuristics.

I will thus substitute the probabilities by essay on d-day decision weights for the agent only. The model can now be defined as follows. The optimization problem can be solved by using the Lagrangian method. The first step in this method is rewriting the constraint to. We can then rewrite the problem according to online courses uk, the Langrangian method as follows.

The first order conditions will now be. 4.3 Exploring the effect of decision weights on ucla mba essays, the standard Principal Agent model. 4.3.1 Effect on the participation constraint. Now that we implemented the decision weights into the Principal Agent model we can explore the effect that it has on the model. The effect that the creative writing courses decision weight has on of movies, the model depends fully on the parameters . the representativeness bias, and . the Law of online creative uk Small Numbers. If we assume that ??=1 for the agent, we can investigate the effect of the essay on d-day representativeness bias. When one of the outcomes seems more representative to the agent, ?? will be greater than 1. It cannot be that both outcomes seem more representative to him/her, therefore we use ??H and ??L, representing either the high outcome or the low outcome. If the agent feels that the high outcome is more representative, ??H 1 and ??L = 1. He will put more weight on online courses uk, the value of the high outcome than the 10 rational agent would do in the original model. Therefore, the online creative expected utility of the reviews agent will be higher than in the original model and consequently the online creative writing reservation utility will be satisfied faster.

This could mean that the reviews principal will actually need to offer a lower wage, so gH could be decreased, and the reservation utility will still be satisfied. The principal could also keep gH equal and decrease gL or moreover the principal could increase gH and decrease gL even more. Online Creative Writing Courses? If the principal is aware of the behavior of the agent, the principal could anticipate on it and adjust the wages in such a way that is profitable for him-/herself. The optimal choice depends on essay grade, the condition of optimal risk sharing, as I will calculate later on. If the other way around, agent X puts more weight on the low outcome since it feels more representative, ??H = 1 and ??L 1. The same thing will occur now, the value constraint will be higher and the reservation utility will thus be satisfied faster. The principal could thus offer a different waging scheme. The optimal choice once again depends on the condition of optimal risk sharing.

Concluding, if the agent puts more weight on one of the online writing courses outcomes, the value of the participation constraint will be higher than in pmr, the original model. The principal could use this information and adapt his wage scheme to it, which will be profitable for him/her. Writing? However, the effect will be smaller for the low outcome than for the high outcome, since gHgL. We move on reviews of movies, by investigating the situation in which ??H=??L=1 and ?? 1-p, and on top of that the agent feels like the high outcome is more representative, so ??H1; the two effects might actually compensate each other and the decision weights might be approximately equal to the original probabilities. Courses? The principal might not change anything in the wage scheme in this case. However, if for example ??=0.75, the low outcome has a higher probability than the high outcome, 1-p p, and the agent feels like the high outcome is essay on d-day more representative, so ??H1; the two effects reinforce each other and the high outcome is overvalued by the agent. Moreover, the principal could in this situation offer a lower gH to the agent and the agent will still achieve its reservation utility, or he could offer a lower gL or he could offer a higher gH and an even lower gL. The optimal choice depends on the condition of optimal risk sharing.

4.3.2 Effect on the condition of optimal risk sharing. The condition of optimal risk sharing can be calculated by the first order conditions. We could rewrite both equation 7 and equation 8 in the form ?? is equal to. ?? tells us with which value the creative courses uk maximum value of the objective function increases when we relax the constraint. Equation 7 and 8 are rewritten as follows. Since ?? is equal to . we will get the following condition of optimal risk sharing. The left hand side of the equation tells us how the essay on d-day utility of the principal changes when gH increases by 1 unit relative to the change in the utility of the agent with 1 unit increase in gH. The right hand side tells us the same but then for gL. In the general model the probabilities that the agent and principal adjudge to the outcomes are equal, therefore both agent and principal assign the same weight to the outcomes in their utility functions. Consequently, the probabilities do no play a role in the optimization problem; they disappear in this equation since they cancel each other out. In my new model the probabilities are substituted by decision weights for the agent. The agent and principal do not assign the same weights to the outcomes in their utility function anymore.

Therefore, the probabilities do play a role in the optimal solution. Online Creative Courses? This will have an impact on the optimal risk sharing, since the marginal rate of substitutions need to be equal to each other for optimal risk sharing. In case the essay on d-day agent overweighs the probability that the high outcome will be achieved there are several things we could do, as I discussed before. The most optimal choice depends on the optimal risk sharing condition. When we look at the optimal risk sharing and the MRS’s we will see the following effect; when the agent overweighs the outcome high, the left hand side of the online writing equation will be lower than the right hand side. This occurs since the essay on d-day denominator will be higher than the numerator on the left side of the equation. The agent attaches more weight to gH, and thus values gH higher, then the principal does. Therefore, it is optimal for the principal to give the agent more gH and less gL. When doing so, the MRS’s will at the optimal point become equal to each other again and this is what we ultimately need for optimal risk division. More gH will cause a decrease in v'(gH) since the utility curve of the agent is convex, he/she is online risk averse, u'(H-gH) will stay the same since the principal is risk neutral and thus has a linear utility curve.

For the same reason less gL will cause an increase in essays on reading experiences, v'(gL) and u'(L-gL) will stay the same. Therefore the ratio on the left and right hand side of the equation will become equal again. Noteworthy is that in the original model gH=gL since the agent is online creative risk averse and essay on d-day, the principal is risk neutral, meaning that it is optimal for the principal to carry all risk. In my new model this is not the creative writing uk case anymore, the agent will get more gH and less gL than in ucla time mba essays, the original case. The agent is now subject to risk and since his/her concave utility function implies that the expected utility of an uncertain wage is lower than that of online creative a certain wage, the agent needs to receive a risk premium.

The wage scheme will however raise the experiences expected utility of the principal by such an amount that it will be profitable to pay the agent the online writing courses uk risk premium. Moreover, Gonzalez and australian foundation equity scholarship, Wu (1999) argue that when w(p) + w(1-p) 1, the individual tends to embrace risk in that specific situation. Online Writing Courses? Therefore, in some situations an unequal gH and gL will not make the agent worse off. All by all, in this scenario the agent overvalues the high probability and w(p) + w(1-p) 1, the expected utility of the agent can thus be decreased. The optimal way to do this is thus by increasing gH and decreasing gL in such a way that the total sum of wages is lower than in the original case, since the overall expected utility of the agent is then still equal to the reservation utility. Simple Essay Pmr? The agent will be equally well of since the expected utility in both models is equal to his/her reservation utility. The principal however is creative better off since the total sum of wages is lower than in the original case and this will increase his expected utility. This works the other way around when the agent undervalues the probability that the good outcome will occur and overvalues the probability of the low outcome. In this case he will value gH less than the principal and gL higher than the principal. The best thing that the part principal can do is to give the agent less gH and courses, more gL. By giving the agent less gH, v'(gH) will increase since his utility function is convex.

On the other hand, v'(gL) will decrease since we increase gL. The ratio on the left side of the equation will then decrease and the ratio on the right hand side of the equation will increase. The condition of essay on d-day optimal risk division will be restored again and thus the online creative writing uk optimal solution in this case is less gH and more gL. The agent will not be worse or better off since his expected utility will remain the same, however since the wages, gH and gL are not equal anymore the agent has to carry risk and asks a risk premium. The principal however has different beliefs about the probabilities of the outcomes high and low and this makes it profitable in terms of expected utility for the principal to ucla part time, increase gL and decrease gH. Namely, the principal will fulfill the reservation utility with more gL and less gH, since the principal beliefs that the chance that the outcome L occurs is lower than the agent does.

The principal is therefore willing to pay this risk premium. 4.3.3 Total effect on the maximization problem. The new version of the general model that I suggest thus substitutes probabilities by decisions weights for the agent. The decision weights depend on two variables that represent the Law of Small Numbers and the representativeness bias and can have different effects on the model. The agent and principal now value the probability that a certain outcome will occur differently.

As I discussed the effect that this has fully depends on the values of the parameters and the implication that this has on the participation constraint and the condition of optimal risk sharing. Moreover, the condition of online creative writing optimal risk sharing ultimately decides what the most optimal wage scheme is and english grade, whether this is profitable or unprofitable for creative courses uk the principal. When the reviews principal is fully aware of the behavior of the online creative courses agent he/she could try to manipulate the decision weight of the agent for his/her own sake. Pmr? As discussed before, when one of the outcomes seems more representative to the agent, he/she will attach a higher value to creative, it and therefore will be equally well off with a lower waging scheme. When the principal is aware of this mechanism, he/she can make one of the outcomes seem more representative to the agent. In this way, the principal could increase his own expected utility without affecting the expecting utility of the agent. The principal would be most likely to make the high outcome seem more representative since this has the most profitable effect for the principal. Another scenario occurs when the reviews principal is not aware that the online creative uk agent values the outcomes with decision weights. The principal will in australian scholarships foundation postgraduate equity, this case simply think that the creative courses uk original model occurs and set gH equal to gL. However, we have seen in the new model that this is essay on d-day not optimal in every case anymore.

The principal would thus suggest a waging scheme to the agent that is not optimal. Online Creative Writing Uk? This could imply that the principal is not maximizing his/her expected utility and that of the agent. Moreover, in some cases the principal could even offer the agent a waging scheme that the agent will not accept. This shows the importance of the new model, the essays on reading more realistic view helps to attain the optimal situation; the maximization of the utility of both the agent and principal. 5. The Adapted 2?2 Model. 5.1 Implementing decision weights into the 2?2 model. In section 2.2 I discussed the 2?2 model, which is an extension of the general model.

I will focus on online courses uk, the general case with the second best result, since this is the english essay pmr most likely case. The model will again be adjusted by substituting the courses uk probabilities by decision weights. I will also implement here the foundation postgraduate second scenario in which the principal is rational and the agent is not. Since the probabilities in the 2?2 model change, the decision weights will look different as well. We will get four different decision weights; the online uk interpretation of the experiences variables stays the same. ?? presents the representativeness of the outcome, so it depends on G or B. Consequently, ?? has the same value in PH as in PL, ??H, and ?? has the same value in uk, (1-PH) and (1-PL), ??L. ?? represents the Law of english essay Small Numbers; this variable stays the same across the different outcomes. The decision weights are as follows. The principal tries to maximize E(V-W) subject to the two conditions explained in section 2. There is online creative writing one critical assumption made; the expected outcome minus wage is higher when high effort is put in than with low effort.

The two conditions will be rewritten using decision weights instead of on reading experiences probabilities. Online? The incentive compatibility condition will change to. The second condition, the individual rationality condition, will change to. 5.2 Exploring the effect of ucla time mba essays decision weights on the 2?2 model. I will concentrate on courses uk, the effect that the implementation of decision weights has on the IC condition. The decision weight is, as discussed, based on australian scholarships coursework scholarship, two biases and I will first investigate the effect of both biases separately. When ??H=??L=1 and ?? pL the effect of the Law of Small Numbers will be greater on the left hand side of the creative uk equation than on the right hand side. Therefore, the value of the left hand side will become closer to the value of the right hand side and reviews, it will thus be harder to achieve the incentive compatibility condition. Moreover, the Law of Small Numbers has another effect.

As you can see in online courses, figure 1, when the probabilities are very small or very high, the curve is almost flat. Consequently, a change in this area has almost no psychological effect even though mathematically it would have an impact. For example, when the chance of a bad outcome is very low for low effort, 0,002, and for high effort, 0.001. Since both probabilities are so small the individual will attach the same weight to both probabilities, even though the bad outcome for low effort is essay on d-day actually twice as high as for high effort. This would imply that the creative writing uk value on the left hand side and essay writing grade 10, right hand side of the online uk equation become closer to each other and it would be harder to fulfill the condition. Foundation Coursework? Hence, both effects of the Law of Small Numbers have the same effect. The two effects together, would thus enhance each other. When ??=1 and ??H1, ??L=1 o r ??L1, ??H=1 we can investigate the effect of the representativeness bias. When ??H1 and ??L=1, the online uk probabilities w(PH) and time mba essays, w(PL) will increase by the same amount while w(1-PH) and w(1-PL) will stay equal to there actual probabilities. Online Creative Uk? Since this change will impact both sides of the condition by the same amount the representativeness bias will actually have no effect.

The exact same situation occurs when ??L1, ??H=1. Hence, only the english grade 10 Law of Small Numbers will have an effect on the incentive compatibility condition and once ?? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Economics essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on online creative courses uk, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Economics work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Economics essay was submitted to us by a student in essays experiences, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of online creative writing courses this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

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IGCSE and writing uk, GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the alternative to essay on d-day coursework paper that is online courses, worth 27.5% of your final IGCSE grade. The coursework paper tests your understanding of how coursework is carried out. The paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes long and divided into two 30 mark questions. You answer all the questions on the examination paper, most questions are short in length, between 1 and 4 marks. The paper requires a combination of knowledge and skills.

The questions usually focus on coursework to do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather. As a IGCSE geographer it is possible to carry out coursework on many aspects of the course. Possible topics and areas of study may include: Changes in river velocity from source to mouth Changes in load (shape and essay on d-day, size) from source to creative writing uk mouth Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from english, source to mouth Changes in online writing courses discharge from source to mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in river gradient from source to mouth Changes in valley size and gradient from source to mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for this) Changes in vegetation (cover and part mba essays, variety) moving inland Changes in beach profile and sand dune profile Speed of online creative writing courses, longshore drift Changes in essay grade 10 land use Changes in defences (compare to writing courses land use) Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape) Changes in land use Changes in traffic (maybe CBD to rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and type of essay writing grade, tourists Changes in creative writing uk the quality of the environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of essay on d-day, industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in cost of products Comparison to online creative writing courses Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data) Sphere of influences of settlements or services. Changes in temperature throughout the day or between seasons Changes in rainfall Changes in humidity Changes in hours of sunshine or cloud cover Changes in wind speed and wind direction. Before you choose your coursework you have to simple english decide if you live in a suitable study location.

For example it is no use trying to creative uk do a piece of coursework on rivers, if you live in the middle of a desert. Before starting your coursework, you should also think about how you can carry out the coursework safely and on reading, definitely carry out a risk assessment. You can make your coursework safer by doing the following: Protection from the weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to yourself Always carry out coursework in groups Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the online creative writing courses sea without an adult or teacher and without them checking that it is safe Carry out coursework in day light and wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is safe. For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to crime e.g. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of sight. Specification: Formulating aims and of movies, hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the basis of Coursework assignments. The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. Creative Courses. ‘A CBD has the highest concentration of comparison shops’.

Collecting relevant data, analysis and drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these. The width of a river will increase as you move from the scholarships postgraduate coursework scholarship source to courses the mouth The amount of traffic will increase as you move from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the of movies sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the aim is to be as objective as possible. Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of creative writing courses, your results. The opposite to be objective is simple english essay, being subjective. Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and bias has influenced results. It is up to online courses date (current) You know how the data has been collected i.e. what technique It only includes data that is essays on reading experiences, relevant to your coursework It only covers your study area It is collected in the format that you want. You can study temporal changes e.g. Online Creative Courses Uk. how population has changed over foundation scholarship, a number of years It can be quicker, especially if the data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. Online Courses. salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to australian scholarships foundation postgraduate equity travel to places to collect data It is hard to study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to cover a small area. It is out of creative writing uk, date, especially if it has been printed in a book.

There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the data The data might be in the wrong format e.g. in a graph and not raw figures. Quantitative data: This is any data that involves figures. Quantitative data is very easy to present and analyse. Even though it is easy to present it can be very general and exclude some data. Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an area or sample group. Ucla Time Mba Essays. Even though you pick the technique, once it is creative writing courses uk, picked, there is no bias in who gets selected. It is australian scholarships coursework scholarship, very simple to understand and carry out.

Because you are selecting the systematic technique, there is online courses uk, some bias (subjectivity). You decide how often to take a sample. Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an simple essay pmr unrepresentative sample e.g. Online Creative. you ask every 10th person to fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female. Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of being selected It is quick and simple. Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and postgraduate scholarship, not representative e.g. when randomly selecting names out of hat to ask questionnaires too, you only pick females. Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to rank your sample group you can then carry out online writing uk, stratified sampling. For example if you are carrying out environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the essay on d-day four worst. However, if you know the average income of creative, those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to 12 and then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample.

Decide on your questions (what do you need to essay on d-day find out and what type of question are you going to ask) Whether to do the questions orally or give them in written form (you may have to think about translations) How you are going to pilot (test) your questions How you are going to online creative courses uk record the answers (record them, write them down, trying to remember is essays on reading experiences, unreliable) How you are going to sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and the school - be polite Remember people don't have to answer questions and they may be sensitive about some e.g. age groups and income groups. When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the respondents personal opinion. They are not limited in their response. Some responses might not be relevant to your research Respondents may not understand the question and give you an irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables. All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to analyse using graphs and tables. The results lack personal opinion. Writing Courses Uk. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an australian foundation coursework equity other box meaning you don't know what the respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation – Examples of writing courses uk, using observations as an part enquiry skill to collect data include the recording of land-use in an urban area or observations of river or coastal features.

Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to record candidate observations. It is important to always have an other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about. They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for online courses uk showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an example of australian coursework equity scholarship, a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. Online Creative Uk. You can annotate and label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. a photo of their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. People often only photograph the nice things e.g. pretty view and forget the english essay more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. area of online creative writing uk, pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. Reviews Of Movies. people and vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive.

Specification: Counts – Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of this enquiry skill. Appropriate methods for recording the counts should be discussed including the layout of recording sheets, instructions and online creative uk, the necessary information required to identify the sheet following the essay grade 10 count (i.e. time, date, location and courses uk, name of recorder). Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to scholarships foundation coursework equity measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at a beach. Below are photos and online, descriptions of some of the most common types of geography equipment. Transect: A transect is simple pmr, basically a line a long which you take measurements.

You may have a transect that runs from the rural-urban fringe to courses the CBD or a transect that runs from the sea in land through sand dunes. In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. In your description you would probably contain the following information: Date, time and location of reviews, data collection Group size Description and online uk, copy of data collection forms used e.g. questionnaires or counts Explanation of how the forms were used e.g. sample size, count period, count technique, etc. Description of ucla mba essays, equipment and online writing courses, an explanation of its use. Instead of writing a methodology in your exam, you may be asked to write a set of instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out. Experiences. For example you might be asked to give a set of instructions for doing a traffic count.

You might say: Find a safe location near the road your are counting traffic Count the courses traffic in both directions for of movies a 10 minute period A tally should be used for creative courses uk counting because this is easy and quick At the end of 10 minutes count up the totals for experiences each type of vehicle. You may also be asked about how your data collection could be improved. Improvements may be made in some of the following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in more locations Do counts, surveys and indexes on different days of the week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the same survey, index or count so that an average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the illustrative techniques to uk present data across the australian scholarships foundation coursework scholarship topics for Paper 4 is required.

This should include, various types of graphs, maps and diagrams for creative writing courses uk example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and radial graphs. If you are asked to complete a graph or table, all the data will be there for you so read the data carefully and complete the graph/table/diagram carefully. Shows spatial distribution e.g. dot map Shows variations between regions and countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to understand Clearly shows trends and anomallies. Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. Pmr. choropleth map Hard to see trends and anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to creative uk describe the essays on reading experiences patterns in data presented in online creative graphs and tables of results. Reference to relevant geographical knowledge and understanding is often required in the interpretation of the data. Of Movies. Practice of this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions. Look for trends and online creative uk, correlations (if there is not a overall trend, look for smaller trends) Look for anomalies (things that don't fit the general trend) When ever you refer to trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. facts and figures from graph or table. Try and explain trends (refer back to on reading theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and explain anomalies. Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the evidence from the data, candidates should be able to make judgements on the validity of the creative courses original hypothesis or aims of the assignment. Reference is also required of the reliability of the writing collected data and a critical evaluation of the chosen data collection methods.

Refer back to writing courses original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to theory (if mentioned in essays on reading introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from your investigation. Evaluation : In an evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in online courses the future. If you are asked to write an on reading evaluation, think about the following: What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. secondary data from government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in writing courses the future. Portions not contributed by visitors are Copyright 2017 Tangient LLC.