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Best Insead MBA application essay tips. Dissertation! INSEAD Essay Topics (please, verify all information with schools) Optional: If you are currently not working or if you plan to hughes essays leave your current employer more than 2 months before the programme starts, please explain your activities and fellowships dissertation occupations between leaving your job and the start of the mother to son by langston hughes essays programme. Fellowships Dissertation! Optional Motivation Essay: Is there anything else that was not covered in your application that you would like to share with the Admissions Committee? (approximately 300 words) INSEAD offers a great first essay set. Perhaps you should start with these essays because these are questions you would be prepared to answer for any school, in interviews if not essays. Overall, you will be writing over 2,000 words for INSEAD. This includes approximately 1,800 words total to Motivation essays (including the research paper optional essay). Plus, I would suggest roughly 100 words or less for each of the fellowships short answers = 400 to 500 words total. Let’s dig deeper (plesae note: I have paraphrased the questions for your, the sake of concision. The full question text is below) Below, you can find the tips that have helped my clients get admitted to fellowships INSEAD Please note that I am providing tips in the same order that I suggest you write INSEAD job description and motivation essays In short, I encourage you to write the easiest essays first Doing so helps build momentum, which you need to essay your years are the best tackle tricky questions about strengths and weaknesses, failure, and cultural diversity. What do they want?
First, let’s look at what they want. Fellowships Dissertation! Then, we will analyse why they want it. Below, I have compiled all written components of the mother to son by langston essays INSEAD application. Fellowships! Information is essay your are the, subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools.
Job Essay 1: What are your current responsibilities and results? (short answer) Job Essay 2: What would be your next career step (role, title) at current company? (short answer) Job Essay 3: What has been your career path, and why did you make those choices? (short answer) Job Essay 4: What are your short and long term career aspirations with or without an fellowships dissertation, INSEAD MBA? (short answer) Optional Job Essay: How have you used your career gap to step toward your post-MBA goals? (short answer) Motivation Essay 1: Personal characteristics / strengths and weaknesses and the main factors which have influenced your personal development (450-550 words) Motivation Essay 2: How did your proudest achievement plus one failure impact your relationships with others? (360-440 words) Motivation Essay 3: Positive or negative impact of cultural diversity (270-330 words) Motivation Essay 4: How are you enriched by your extra-professional activities? (270-330 words) Optional Motivation Essay: What else would you like to in the paper share with the dissertation Admissions Committee? (270-330 words) Motivation Essay 1: Personal characteristics / strengths and weaknesses and the main factors which have influenced your personal development (450-550 words) Motivation Essay 2: How did your proudest achievement plus one failure impact your relationships with others? (360-440 words) Motivation Essay 3: Positive or negative impact of cultural diversity (270-330 words) Motivation Essay 4: How are you enriched by your extra-professional activities? (270-330 words) Optional Motivation Essay: What else would you like to share with the essays Admissions Committee? (270-330 words) Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools. Fellowships Dissertation! In what order should you work on happy experience your essays and other application materials? I suggest grouping your essays into four stages, as below indicated Answer the easiest questions first Applying to fellowships INSEAD is like running a marathon, or climbing Mt. Fuji You need to inequality in the research build and fellowships maintain momentum Also, do not send me entire essays for initial review Instead, please me outlines or bullet points of possible answers before you write a full essay draft Reason - like admissions office readers, I want to happy childhood experience essay view your application holistically Most of dissertation all, I want to help you select the essays best possible mix of stories before you begin drafting full essays Therefore, please show me your overall application strategy before asking me to cut words from any single essay Please read my best outlining tips here and my best essay framing tips here to understand how my clients organise and dissertation share brainstorming ideas before writing full essay drafts. Best! Here is my suggested order for dissertation, completing an define literary term, INSEAD application: FIRST STAGE: CAREER ACHIEVEMENTS, FUTURE GOALS.
Job Description Essay 1 - current responsibilities and results. Job Description Essay 2 - next career step (expected role and title) if you remained at current job. Fellowships! Job Description Essay 3 - career path and reasons for each choice. Job Description Essay 4 - short and francis bacon essays atheism long term career aspirations with or without INSEAD MBA. Job Description Essay - explain your activities during any past or future career gaps of two or more months.
Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools. SECOND STAGE: PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS and fellowships lessons learned from PROUDEST ACHIEVEMENT and FAILURE. Motivation Essay 1 - personal strengths and in the workplace paper weaknesses and factors that influenced your development. Fellowships! Motivation Essay 2 - how one (proudest) achievement and hughes essays one failure impacted your relationships with others. Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools. THIRD STAGE: IMPACTS from dissertation CULTURAL DIVERSITY and EXTRA-PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES. Motivation Essay 3 - positive or negative impact of cultural diversity. Teenage! Motivation Essay 5 - how you have been enriched by significant involvement in clubs, sports, music, arts, politics, etc. Information is subject to change.
Please verify all data with the schools. FOURTH STAGE: ANYTHING ELSE? OPTIONAL ESSAY - what else would you like to share with the Admissions Committee? FOURTH STAGE: ANYTHING ELSE? OPTIONAL ESSAY - what else would you like to share with the Admissions Committee? INSEAD Admissions Criteria. Fellowships! 1. Leadership potential. Francis Bacon Essays! INSEAD is looking for applicants who can demonstrate their potential as leaders. We will consider your professional experience and past performance when assessing your application. Participants typically have an average of five years work experience (between two and dissertation ten).
More important than the length of your experience, is the quality of your accomplishments. Younger applicants who demonstrate exceptional maturity and outstanding leadership through their professional and gender in the paper personal experiences are encouraged to apply. 2. Fellowships Dissertation! Academic capacity. This section is evaluated on the basis of a sound academic foundation and the GMAT or GRE scores. Academic foundation: Bachelor’s degree or equivalent from a recognised college or university (although in mother exceptional circumstances, we may waive this requirement for outstanding candidates with substantial professional experience). Dissertation! Many of our applicants have advanced degrees but this is not compulsory.
To assess your academic background, we consider the competitiveness of the institution you attended and your academic performance. GMAT or GRE: all applicants are required to take either one of these tests as they provide us with a standardised way of evaluating candidates. While we do not have a minimum score required for admission, we advise candidates to aim for a score at or above the inequality in the workplace research paper 70-75th percentile for both the quantitative and verbal sections of the GMAT and fellowships a percentile of teenage years 75-80th or above for the quantitative and verbal sections of the fellowships dissertation GRE. Please keep in mind, however, that standardised tests are just one of several admission criteria. A high score does not guarantee admission, and a below average score does not eliminate a candidate. 3. International motivation. Define! The Admissions Committee looks for candidates with very strong international motivation who typically have perceptive insights into the complexities of business in an international setting. Dissertation! Most applicants to essays INSEAD have either worked or studied outside their home country; if they have not had such international experiences, they would have demonstrated in other tangible ways (working for a multinational company, learning foreign languages, traveling, etc.) that they are comfortable interacting in diverse communities and are committed to dissertation pursuing a global career.
Fluent English is a prerequisite at INSEAD. In order to start the programme you must also prove that you have at least a practical knowledge of another language. For more information about essay lady these requirements visit the fellowships dissertation Language Policy. 4. Ability to contribute to the INSEAD experience. We look for participants who can share the essay lady insights they have gained throughout their professional and personal experience. It is our belief that a substantial part of your INSEAD experience will be shaped by dissertation your interaction with your classmates and your active participation both inside and outside the classroom. As such, we welcome participants who are mature, energetic, highly motivated, well-rounded, and possess strong communication and term thesis interpersonal skills.
Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools. FIRST STAGE: CAREER ACHIEVEMENTS, FUTURE GOALS. Job Description Essay 1 - current job. Briefly summarise your current (or most recent) job, including the dissertation nature of work, major responsibilities, and where relevant, employees under your supervision, size of budget, clients/products and your years are the results achieved. (short asnwer without a specified word limit) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. Can you achieve objectives? Can you influence superiors and motivate subordinates? Do others seek your skills and expertise? Are you the first, youngest, only, or best? First - did you launch a new initiative, improve a business process, introduce cost cuts, increase collaboration?
Youngest - were you promoted ahead of dissertation schedule? are you younger than others who perform the same role? younger than your direct reports? Only - are you the only man in a team of women, or the only woman in a team of men? are you the only outsider (foreigner) in your team, division, or department? Best - have you received an award or honor that validates your performance from an external perspective? have you ever earned #1 sales or performance ranking? Job Description Essay 2 - career progress. What would be your next step in terms of years are the position if you were to remain in the same company? (short answer without a specified word limit) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. Dissertation! How soon do you expect to to son essays be promoted? What would be your next position, title, function? How would your responsibilities increase? For instance, would you have more employees under your supervision? Would you control a larger budget / serve more clients / manage additional products or service offerings? How old / how many years of experience would you have by fellowships dissertation the time you took on that new position / title?
What is the average / expected age for someone who takes such a role? Job Description Essay 3 - career summary and rationale. Please give a full description of your career since graduating from teenage years are the university. Fellowships Dissertation! Describe your career path with the rationale behind your choices. (short answer without a specified word limit) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION.
Can you demonstrate exceptional maturity and outstanding leadership through your professional experiences? Why did you choose your field, sector, role, specialisation? Have you pursued professional development opportunities? How have your responsibilities increased? When I started, I could only . Thesis! or When I started, I need to ask for help from fellowships A to define term thesis do B.
After two years, I was finally able to . Today, I am the dissertation only one who can . Discuss your short and long term career aspirations with or without an essay lady, MBA from INSEAD. (short answer without a specified word limit) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. Short term career goal. What job do you want post-MBA? My assumption: INSEAD Admissions Committee readers want to see a goal that is both realistic and ambitious. Are you trying to use MBA to change careers, or advance your current career? My assumption: Most short term goals fit into fellowships dissertation one or more of gender inequality in the paper these three categories. Fellowships! 1. Vertical move (advance current career) 2. Change career (horizontal move) Go into financial services. Go into consulting. Go into essay lady consumer goods / marketing. Go into technology. Dissertation! Go into media / entertainment.
Go into non-profit / social ventures. Essay Lady! 3. Join or launch start-up (entrepreneur) Long term career goal. What job do you want in fellowships five to ten years? My assumption: Most long term goals can be simplified to fit one of two paths. CEO (C-level executive role such as CEO, CFO, COO, CTO, CIO, etc.) lead an existing organization. join or create a new organization. My assumption: If you plan to happy experience lead a large organisation, you need to know how to. scale a business. hire the right people. drive growth to match market conditions.
In my view, the fellowships dissertation job of a CEO is to build the best team, secure resources, and communicate the mission. Essay Lady! How does an MBA best prepare you to transition from your short term goal to your C-level executive role? My assumption: A future CEO might be trying to fellowships dissertation use an MBA to help transition. Bacon Atheism! 1. Dissertation! From specialist to generalist. 2. From tactician to strategist. Your Teenage! 3. From problem solver to problem finder. The entrepreneur path. Dissertation! My assumption: if you plan to create a company, you should know how to. identify and to son by langston capture opportunities. create products and services that reflect market conditions and fellowships excite customers. Essay Lady! Whether you are trying to become CEO of an existing company or founder of a new company. Fellowships Dissertation! Show confidence: You WILL achieve this goal with or without business school. Still, earning your INSEAD MBA accelerates your progress and maximises your potential.
A good long term goal represents the next logical step after you achieve your short term goals. Define Literary Term! For instance, if you plan to spend a few years in fellowships dissertation management consulting, then it might make sense to move into a management role at a leading company in your coverage area. Doing so would allow you to utilise the expert knowledge and skills, as well as the professional relationships, that you established during your consulting career. Francis Bacon Atheism! Optional Job Description Essay - employment gap(s) If you are currently not working or if you plan to leave your current employer more than 2 months before the programme starts, please explain your activities and occupations between leaving your job and the start of the programme. short answer without a specified word limit) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. Why are you between jobs right now? Did you leave your previous job voluntarily, or due to restructuring? How are you using this time to prepare for fellowships dissertation, INSEAD? How do your current activities prepare you to achieve your post-MBA goals? SECOND STAGE: STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, ACCOMPLISHMENTS.
Give a candid description of yourself, stressing the personal characteristics you feel to be your strengths and weaknesses and essay lady the main factors, which have influenced your personal development, giving examples when necessary. Note: I recommend you start the recommendation letter process after confirming the strengths and weakness you plan to fellowships share with INSEAD Admissions Committee readers. Motivation Essay 1 - personal strengths and weaknesses. Years Are The! Give a candid description of yourself, stressing the personal characteristics you feel to be your strengths and fellowships weaknesses and the main factors, which have influenced your personal development, giving examples when necessary. (approximately 500 words) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. This is my favorite INSEAD essay because it allows you to demonstrate self-awareness and essays maturity Other schools have adopted this question, but it has been part of the fellowships dissertation INSEAD application for as long as I can remember Like Stanford#39;s What matters most to you, and inequality workplace why? question, INSEAD Essay One requires candidates analyse WHY they are they way they are For starters, I encourage you to read my (interview) tips for how to discuss your strengths and weaknesses My tips are written to fellowships dissertation prepare candidates for interviews, but the same methods work for gender inequality in the paper, essays, as well In addition, you might want to include some of the following details: Stories that describe life-changing events and fellowships dissertation how they’ve shaped your values and childhood experience beliefs Stories that reflect recurring patterns in fellowships your life/career and francis bacon atheism what those patterns mean A story that demonstrates the roots of your ethics and fellowships values Note: I recommend clients start the recommendation letter process after confirming the strengths and weakness that they plan to experience essay share with adcom readers.
Situational leadership model. Please fill out this Strengths (+) and Weaknesses (-) chart. Fellowships! Here is a list of 28 skills to get you started. Childhood Experience! Skills to forgive and fellowships forget. Persistence and Perseverance. Meeting management skills. Influence / persuasion skills. Skills in dealing with difficult personalities. Skills in dealing with difficult situations. Interpersonal relationship skills. Mentoring / coaching skills.
Savvy in francis handling office politics. Professional Example - Option 1. Accomplishment details (what you did, when you did it, how you did it, results and impact on you and fellowships others) Why it is substantial to me / others. Essay Lady! Why it is the MOST substantial personal accomplishment of fellowships my life. Pros of choosing this story (positive messages I could send to adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) Cons of choosing this story (negative messages I might be sending to adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) What story do you want to tell? Why do you want to tell it? Why is this accomplishment substantial? Did you deliver results (making money or saving money for your company and/or your client)? Did you impact others (motivate colleagues, inspire juniors, influence seniors, set a new standard for to son by langston, your team, division, company and/or industry?) What do you want your readers to fellowships dissertation know about you? How does this example demonstrate your technical skills, your analytical skills and/or your interpersonal skills?
How does this story demonstrate your ability to francis essays atheism contribute to dissertation class discussions, project teams, and alumni activities? Professional Example - Option 2. To Son! Accomplishment details (what you did, when you did it, how you did it, results and impact on you and others) Why it is fellowships, substantial to essay lady me / others. Dissertation! Why it is the MOST substantial personal accomplishment of my life. Pros of choosing this story (positive messages I could send to essay your years are the best adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) Cons of choosing this story (negative messages I might be sending to adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) Personal Example - Option 1. Accomplishment details (what you did, when you did it, how you did it, results and fellowships dissertation impact on you and others) Why it is substantial to me / others. Why it is the MOST substantial personal accomplishment of my life.
Pros of choosing this story (positive messages I could send to bacon essays atheism adcom readers who learn about dissertation this accomplishment) Cons of choosing this story (negative messages I might be sending to your years are the adcom readers who learn about fellowships dissertation this accomplishment) Personal Example - Option 2. Accomplishment details (what you did, when you did it, how you did it, results and impact on your teenage years are the you and others) Why it is fellowships, substantial to me / others. Why it is the essay your years are the best MOST substantial personal accomplishment of my life. Pros of dissertation choosing this story (positive messages I could send to adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) Cons of choosing this story (negative messages I might be sending to adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) What is failure? Too often, clients send me failure essays that I do not believe or care about. Do not play it safe. If you have not failed, you have not tried hard enough. Share a real failure, not a success story that required persistence.
Failure usually involves damage. What was lost? Did you lose time, money, trust, reputation, or all of the above? In discussing what you learned, you might want to share an gender inequality paper, example of how you have applied the hard-earned lessons that failure taught you. Fellowships Dissertation! Still, be sure to keep appropriate balance in your essay. If you get stuck, watch the essay lady original Rocky. (Spoiler alert!) Rocky loses the fight, but we like him anyway. His failure provides a perfect set up for dissertation, his comeback in essay lady Rocky II. In this case, save the fellowships dissertation sequel for years are the best, another essay. RULE #1: SHOW the dissertation DAMAGE. Did you lose money?
Did you lose time? Did you lose trust? Did you lose future business? ASK YOURSELF FIVE QUESTIONS. Why should anyone care? Was something damaged? (lost money, lost time, lost reputation, lost trust, lost business) 2. Inequality In The Workplace! WAS I TO BLAME? Did the failure occur because of you / was it your fault?
Some setbacks are not your fault. Something happened that was beyond your control, but still affected you deeply. Think 2008 financial crisis, or 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami. But a true failure, as asked by INSEAD and other schools, should be your fault. You made a mistake, but you learned from it. 3. DID I LEARN SOMETHING? What did you learn about yourself?
What did you learn about other people? 4. HAVE I CHANGED? Did you change your attitude? Did you develop new skills? Did you deepen your understanding of yourself.
Did you change your assumptions about your role in dissertation your organization? Did you find new ways to add value to your team? Can you prove that you learned your lesson? 5. CAN I PROVE IT? Can you show a brief example of literary a time you applied the lesson? Many good failure and setback stories involve personal transformation. Did you change your role (external change) and/or your attitude toward people or problems (internal change)? Did you become more aware of dissertation your self-limiting tendencies or bad habits that hold you back from achieving your full potential? Are you able to limit the essay lady negative impact of personal limitations that might otherwise lead to future mistakes or setbacks?
To show personal transformation, try adding details that display a clear before and after BEFORE - how you were. AFTER - how you changed. IMPACT - how does this accomplishment prepare to contribute to MBA life and fellowships dissertation achieve your career goals? NOTE: THIS STEP IS OPTIONAL.
You might not have space in essay lady the final essay to mention a different example of a time when you applied your learning, but thinking and fellowships dissertation writing about it for now will help me understand and happy essay evaluate your story. Need a sample failure story? Please watch this. Fellowships Dissertation! SAMPLE BEHAVIORAL INTERVIEW ANSWER. Q: Tell me about a time you managed a team that failed. Essay Lady! Information is subject to fellowships change. Please verify all data with the schools.
Tell us about an experience where you were significantly impacted by teenage years cultural diversity, in a positive or negative way (approximately 300 words) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. Describe all types of extra-professional activities in which you have been or are still involved for a significant amount of time (clubs, sports, music, arts, politics, etc). How are you enriched by these activities? (approximately 300 words) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools. Fellowships Dissertation! Is there anything that you have not mentioned in the above essays. that you would like the Admissions Committee to know? This essay is francis bacon essays, optional. QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION.
I advise all of my clients to use this opportunity to share another side of themselves. Here is a decent sample answer: Please tell the fellowships Admissions Committee whatever else you would like us to bacon essays atheism know. I would like the Admissions Committee to know how my international upbringing influenced my character. Fellowships! I attended a local elementary school when my family lived four years in Los Angeles. Coming back to Japan for middle and high school, I could integrate my easy-going California style to make changes within Japan’s traditional culture. When I was at college, my cultural flexibility allowed me to create a volunteer community even though I was a newcomer.
I started fishing in francis bacon college after my father bought a house near a favorite local fishing spot. I gradually started making friends with other fishermen. Listening to them tell old stories, I learned that the dissertation number of fish they catch is mother by langston, decreasing, partly from fellowships overfishing but mostly because of pollution and proposed that we form “Coastal Cleaning Crew” (CCC). To increase my impact, I convinced nearby fishing shops to support CCC. Some contributed work gloves, trash bags and mother by langston essays even fishing gear as prizes to attract volunteers. Fellowships! Shops put up CCC posters and I made a simple website to announce the next clean-up. We eventually gathered over 30 people. Local television programs and fishing magazines featured our actions. Now, the fishing spot is cleaner, shops enjoy the publicity, and fisherman know each other better. This experience gave me confidence to build and lead effective communities everywhere. At X, I hope to lead Net Impact.
You MUST write an optional essay if. Literary Term! Your GPA was significantly below 3.0. If your GPA does not show your academic potential, you might want to write something like this, “Here’s why my GPA was sub-par, and here’s what I’ve done to confirm my time management skills and academic competence. ” Do not make excuses or blame others. Hopefully, your GMAT and work experience compensate for fellowships dissertation, low grades. Also, remember that adcom members dig into your transcript to check if you took honors or advanced-level courses.
Ask your mentor or admissions consultant, but the following template might help you get started. Just remember, keep it brief. My 2.5 GPA at essay lady, X University does not adequately reflect my academic potential. During school, I had to balance my time. working multiple part-time jobs to support myself. leadership roles in extracurricular activities (students clubs, special events, conferences) health issues (had to take care of yourself or a family member) personal tragedy (death of a friend or family member) Since then, I have improved my time management skills. proven my academic ability by [add concrete examples] Ideally, you took some advanced courses since graduation and earned high grades. If not, can you show recent examples of how you have successfully managed multiple tasks?
At INSEAD, I will be able to manage my time more effectively. You MUST NOT write an optional essay if. . you are repeating yourself. Fellowships Dissertation! . you are telling the adcom something they do not want to essay lady hear. Please resist the urge to dissertation include an essay lady, essay you already wrote for some other school. If adcom members wanted to fellowships dissertation read another story about mother hughes essays your achievements, leadership or teamwork experiences, they would ask. Moreover, if they did not ask you to share a mistake or failure story, why would you want to dissertation tell them? Should I use the optional essay to write more reasons why I want to mother to son by langston hughes attend this MBA program? If you want to spend two years at dissertation, their school, shouldn#39;t you use this opportunity to gender inequality workplace research tell them so? No, you should not.
They asked that question. If your answer was not good enough, go back and make it better. Do not waste their time by writing more reasons here. The operative phrase in the following question is about you: Optional question: Is there anything else you think the fellowships dissertation Admissions Committee should know about essay lady you to evaluate your candidacy? Bottom line: Show them that you can follow instructions. Make this essay about you, or write nothing at fellowships, all. Please read my latest interview tips here The INSEAD Interview. Information is mother to son hughes essays, subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools.
Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools.
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o j simpson essay P entecostalism is dissertation, arguably the most important mass religious movement of the twentieth century. Childhood Essay? Today, this movement is the second largest sub-group of global Christianity. Fellowships? It has over 30 million American adherents and a worldwide following of 430 million. 1 Pentecostalism’s inauspicious beginnings at the turn of the century make the movement’s growth all the more surprising. Happy Experience? This essay will examine how historians have interpreted the origins of American Pentecostalism and will suggest some areas for further study. Before discussing the historiography, it will help to survey the fellowships dissertation movement’s early history. Pentecostalism grew out of the Holiness revival during the second half of the nineteenth century. This revival was an expression of both social and theological discontent among the nation’s lower and gender paper, middle-class groups.
Holiness advocates disapproved of the impiety in mainline denominations and were alienated by the growing wealth and elaborateness of their churches. Not content to remain in mainline churches, they formed new religious communities committed to the theological doctrine of perfectionism. 2 These former Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists believed they were experiencing a renewed outpouring of the dissertation Holy Spirit much like the early church experienced in the book of Acts. Define Term? The holiness revival spawned zeal for Spirit Baptism (a divine empowerment of believers) and for other gifts of the New Testament church such as healing and prophecy. Holiness leaders such as Charles Cullis, John Alexander Dowie, and fellowships, Albert B. Simpson established healing missions across the U.S. They, like other holiness advocates, believed a new, miraculous era of the spirit was occurring which would end in the second coming of Christ. Pentecostalism took Spirit Baptism and teenage years best, the restoration of New Testament gifts one step further. In January, 1901, holiness minister Charles Fox Parham asked the students at his Topeka Bible school to study the scriptures and determine what evidence might be given of Spirit baptism. Using the pentecost account in Acts chapter two, they concluded that speaking in tongues was the confirmation of Holy Spirit baptism. This first wave of Pentecostalism spread in the revival that followed, but remained regional, moving into Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Arkansas.
The 1906 revival at fellowships Azusa street, Los Angeles marks the second phase of the Pentecostals’ origins. William Seymour, who studied under Parham in Houston, Texas, carried the message of pentecost to Los Angeles where he began a revival in one of the poorer sections of the city. The Azusa street revival gathered the ethnic minority groups of essay lady Los Angeles, who discovered a sense of dignity and community denied them in fellowships the larger urban culture. 3. From Azusa street the revival spread throughout the U.S. Holiness leaders from the Church of God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee), the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), were present at Azusa, and carried its message back to their churches. Mother By Langston Hughes Essays? Diversity characterized their beliefs and fellowships, theology; Pentecostals ranged from Wesleyan-holiness, to happy experience, Reformed, and Unitarian.
4. The historiography of fellowships dissertation Pentecostalism is francis atheism, as multifaceted as the movement itself. Fellowships Dissertation? The initial historical works on Pentecostalism came from within the movement. Essay Lady? Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework and focused on the role of God rather than human and natural causation. These histories, as Grant Wacker indicates, were apologetic and largely ahistorical. They depicted the Pentecostal revival as dropping from fellowships dissertation heaven like a sacred meteor. This approach is evident in the titles of such early works as The Apostolic Faith Restored (1916), and in such account as Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God (1961). 5. Before 1970 few historians outside of Pentecostalism were interested in the movement. Academics’ unfamiliarity with the world of ecstatic religion might have been one reason for this oversight. But just as likely, scholars thought the conservative religion of Pentecostalism, like Fundamentalism, was regressive, crude, and not worthy of their interests.
In the late 1960s, the historian William G. McLoughlin argued that Pentecostalism did not constitute a dynamic new force in childhood essay American Religion. Fellowships? For McLoughlin, Pentecostalism, like other reactionary religious movements in American history, would fade away with time. 6 David Edwin Harrell argues that before the 1970s, scholars limited their study to articulate religious bodies and to groups that were pertinent to scholars’ own academic interests. 7. Since the 1970s, historians both outside of and within the movement have critically engaged Pentecostalism. The rapid expansion of Pentecostalism in the U. S. and abroad drew scholars’ interest. At the same time scholarship on Pentecostalism grew along with the increase in university and seminary-trained Pentecostal historians.
The establishment of the Society for childhood essay, Pentecostal Studies in the early 1970s evidenced this new historical enterprise. 8. As historians have analyzed Pentecostalism, they have developed several explanations for its origins and growth. Some scholars focus on the historical-theological roots of the movement and fellowships, emphasize the primacy of doctrine. They note the essay lady importance of dissertation Pentecostalism’s historical and theological predecessors and emphasize the define religious appeal of the fellowships movement to it adherents. A few historians look at mother to son by langston the movement’s interracial character to assess its origins and growth. In its initial stages, Pentecostalism was multi-ethnic and dissertation, often challenged racial norms.
Scholars looking at your teenage years the interracial aspect view the movement as a radical protest to segregation and as a dynamic force of social change. With the dissertation ascendence of the new social history in the early 1970s, scholars began to bacon essays atheism, analyze the demographics of Pentecostalism, assessing the movement’s adherents according to social status and class. But before the rise of historical enquiries, sociological studies used class analysis and theories of deprivation to understand the movement’s appeal. The theology of Pentecostalism was not of primary importance for these scholars. They reflected Richard Niebuhr’s class analysis of dissertation religion and bacon, posited that theology mirrored cultural and political conditions.
9 The prevailing view was that Pentecostalism flourished because it compensated for its adherent’s loss of social and political status. 10. David Edwin Harrell’s historical study of Pentecostalism followed this pattern. Fellowships Dissertation? Harrell found that the racial and social views of Pentecostals were conditioned by class values rather than theological presuppositions. Gender In The Workplace? 11 Robert Mapes Anderson also rooted the movement in its class status. In Vision of the Disinherited , Anderson studied the social class origins of Pentecostalism and discovered that extreme social strain among the fellowships nation’s poor and dispossessed was the source of Pentecostalism. Following Eric Hobsbawm and E. P. Thompson, Anderson located social tension (such as class conflict and class stratification) in industrialization. The shift from an agrarian to define thesis, an industrial society fed estrangement and those most at odds with this change suffered status anxiety and turned to Pentecostalism.
12 To explain how Pentecostals coped with status anxiety, Anderson looks at two major features of the movement: millennialism and speaking in tongues. Dissertation? Pentecostals’ belief in the immanent, apocalyptic return of Jesus, he contends, brought order to childhood essay, their chaotic lives and alleviated social strain. Similarly, speaking in tongues provided psychic escape through religious ecstacy. 13. Anderson concludes that Pentecostalism represented a dysfunctional and maladjusted reaction to dissertation, social pressures. Because of the Pentecostals’ negative appraisal of society and their pessimistic outlook for the future, they were an apolitical, conservative bulwark of the status quo. They channeled their social protest into the harmless backwaters of religious ideology. 14 For Anderson, the radical social impulse inherent in the vision of the francis bacon disinherited was squandered away in escapism and conservative conformity. As Grant Wacker notes, Anderson’s study is the most thorough monograph on the origins of Pentecostalism. The breadth of Anderson’s book and the amount of data he looked at makes it a monument in the field of Pentecostal history. At the same time Wacker is critical of some of Anderson’s basic arguments.
Wacker contends that Anderson assumes Pentecostals’ faith is irrelevant if it does not foment social and economic protest. Fellowships Dissertation? Wacker also criticizes him for judging religious rewards to be less satisfying than material ones. 15 For Wacker, and a number of other scholars, theology and doctrine, as much as social class, explains the bacon roots of the movement. Wacker dwells on the positive functions of faith in the origins and spread of Pentecostalism. Fellowships? He notes that the define term movement provided individuals with certitude about the fellowships dissertation reality of the supernatural.
Pentecostals coped with economic uncertainties, social ostracism, and racism by ordering their lives with a primitive faith. Seeing the world as morally degenerate, Pentecostals championed scriptural inerrancy, opposed scientific evolution and biblical criticism, and issued numerous cultural prohibitions. Pentecostalism, Wacker contends, was appealing because its doctrines were situated in a traditional, mythic system that protected believers from the encroachments of happy childhood modernity. 16. Scholars, including Grant Wacker, Edith Blumhofer, and D. Fellowships? William Faupel, have looked at the restorationist and gender research paper, millennial roots of the movement. Wacker describes the restorationist impulse as a yearning to return to a time before time, to a space outside of dissertation space, to a mythical realm that Alexander Campbell [founder of the Disciples of Christ] called the term ‘ancient order of things. This was not a nostalgic longing for frontier revivalism, but a desire to return to fellowships, first century Christianity.
17 Pentecostals linked the sprititual gifts they received, such as speaking in tongues, prophesying, and literary thesis, healing with those described in the book of Acts. Dissertation? Edith Blumhofer sees restorationism and essay lady, millennialism shaping the foundation of the fellowships Assemblies of God. Pentecostals, according to inequality, Blumhofer, asserted that the new era of the fellowships dissertation spirit, before Christ’s second coming, would bring about a return to primitive Christianity. The early Assemblies of God were caught up in this historylessness and sought a return to primitive ecclesiastical foundations. Church leaders advocated a strict congregational government and opposed creeds and define literary term thesis, the formulation of doctrine.
18. This millennial vision, according to James R. Goff Jr., led to increased missionary activity among Pentecostalis. Charles Fox Parham, for example, concluded that speaking in dissertation foreign tongues would allow Pentecostals to missionize the world before Christ’s second coming. Mother To Son By Langston Hughes Essays? 19 Goff indicates that this missionary impulse explains both the fellowships origins and rapid growth of Pentecostalism. Preaching Christ’s immanent return, Pentecostals won converts among their uneasy listeners. Pentecostalism spread, says Goff, because of its adherents’ millennial urgency. Scholars also have accounted for inequality, the origins of Pentecostalism by locating the movement within late nineteenth century religious currents. Donald Dayton suggests that the roots of Pentecostalism lie in the emergence of four theological doctrines during the second half of the nineteenth century: salvation, healing, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and fellowships dissertation, the second coming of Christ. 20 Dayton traces how these doctrines developed within the Holiness movement and were then taken up by Pentecostals. He stresses both the essay lady Wesleyan-holiness origins, which accented the fellowships perfectionist side of Spirit baptism, and the Keswick-Reformed origins, which emphasized Spirit baptism as a spiritual empowerment in essay lady the believer.
21 Like Dayton, Raymond J. Cunningham has studied the roots of Pentecostalism in the healing and faith cure movements of the fellowships late nineteenth century. By accentuating divine gifts, these groups often fed directly into Pentecostalism. 22. Vinson Synan’s The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition is a general survey which highlights the nineteenth century roots of the movement. Synan situates the your teenage years best origins of Pentecostalism in the Wesleyan-holiness doctrine of sanctification or the second blessing. For Methodists and pre-Pentecostals, sanctification perfected the fellowships believer after conversion. The Pentecostals, states Synan, made the second blessing synonymous with the francis bacon essays pentecost account in Acts. Thus, speaking in tongues became a sign of sanctification. 23. Scholars from the Reformed wing of fellowships dissertation Pentecostalism have argued that the Keswick-Reformed roots better address the gender inequality in the workplace movement’s origins.
These scholars contend that Pentecostals were not as influenced by Wesleyan-perfectionism as they were by Keswick theology. 24 Keswickians stressed the finished work of conversion and did not believe in a second work of grace as did Wesleyans. Fellowships? Edith Blumhofer’s 1977 Harvard dissertation challenged Synan’s thesis by accenting the theological contributions of Reformed and Fundamentalist leaders. 25 Blumhofer argues that these leaders provided the Pentecostals with an understanding of Spirit Baptism which little resembled the Wesleyan view. For them, Spirit baptism empowered the happy childhood experience believer to serve God, but was not a morally perfecting experience. Assemblies of God historian William Menzies also challenges Synan’s view. Fellowships? Menzies argues that the second-blessing advocates were less influential than Reformed, finished work Pentecostals. For most early Pentecostals, Menzies contends, speaking in tongues was associated with spiritual power and with an anointing to serve rather than spiritual perfection.
26. These internecine historiographic battles get at an important point: from the beginning Pentecostals experienced internal and external antagonisms that helped shape and transform them. Francis Bacon Essays Atheism? 27 Both Donald Dayton and Grant Wacker have written about these struggles and how they affected Pentecostalism. Wacker, writing on the anti-Pentecostal forces within radical evangelicalism, shows how doctrinal differences precipitated conflict. Contrary to fellowships dissertation, Anderson, Wacker contends that class variation did not cause conflict as much as doctrinal distinctions did. The reason non-Pentecostal Holiness leaders so vehemently opposed Pentecostals, says Wacker, was because Pentecostals demanded that all sanctified Christians must speak in tongues.
28 Doctrine also gave rise to paper, schisms within the movement. The Wesleyan factions (the Apostolic Faith Union and the Church of God) fought with the Reformed wing (Assemblies of God), and Reformed, Trinitarian Pentecostals waged war on Unitarian Pentecostals. Scholars have also focused on how Pentecostals reacted to the culture around them. Most agree that while Pentecostalism was largely apolitical, early Pentecostals’ opposition to America’s political and fellowships, social culture was politically charged. 29 Pentecostals were centered on soul-winning and perceived politics and essay lady, national events to be dangerous diversions. But early Pentecostals were also both prohibitionists and pacifists (many chose C. Dissertation? O. status during WW I). According to Mickey Crews, the predominately rural Church of God (Cleveland) often stood in literary term thesis opposition to the prevailing contemporary attitudes toward wealth, recreation, and dress. Dissertation? Likewise, during the Jim Crow era the Church of God was one of the more racially integrated churches in the South. The early years of this church were marked by racial cooperation.
Like Populism, Crews indicates, the Church of God offered women as well as blacks opportunities to serve in positions of leadership which they would not have had in traditional organizations. 30. A few historians of Pentecostalism trace the movement’s success to workplace, its racial progressiveness. Fellowships? Church of God in Christ historian Leonard Lovett contends that historians have not viewed black Pentecostalism in its proper historical context and your years are the, have failed to appreciate the movement’s black roots. Lovett stresses the fellowships dissertation prominence of the black leader William Seymour and the importance of Azusa’s interracial character. He also gives attention to essay lady, the Africanisms of the early revival. 31 Similarly, Iain MacRobert studies the black roots of Pentecostalism, emphasizing both the dissertation role of Seymour in experience essay the revival and the place of dissertation African concepts of community, spiritual power, spirit possession . . . equality, black personhood, dignity, and the desire for revolution.
MacRobert attributes schisms in the movement to white racism. He argues that the white leadership in the Apostolic Faith Union and the Assemblies of God turned their backs on their interracial heritage, segregating their churches according to race. 32 In a more recent work, Harvey Cox suggests that the inter-ethnic character of Azusa street was the movement’s sine qua non . 33. Edith Blumhofer and Joe Creech have countered that a myth of Azusa street prevails in these accounts. Early Pentecostalism, they contend, was not a homogenous movement but developed from a variety of sources. Blumhofer argues that Azusa street could not hold the allegiance of define literary term thesis its own enthusiasts, who broke away to form numerous rival congregations nearby, none of which was known to replicate the racial mix of the mother congregation. 34 Creech maintains that Azusa has remained important in the historiography because it provides historians with a racially progressive narrative of Pentecostalism and because it serves to unify and dissertation, homogenize a heterogeneous movement. 35.
Pentecostalism’s diverse heritage has drawn the define literary term thesis attention of fellowships historians who have sought an explanation for years, the movement’s origins. The rise of Pentecostalism at fellowships the turn of the century tells us how a number of America’s poor coped with the economic, social, and religious challenges of workplace research paper modernity. Like Fundamentalists, Pentecostals built their faith on doctrinal certitude and religious zeal. Dissertation? Pentecostals faced their disordered world by returning to primitive Christianity and a by re-instituting New Testament spiritual gifts. Convinced of Christ’s immanent return, their social outlook was often otherworldly. Although Pentecostals did not engage politics directly, their actions reveal political and social protests nonetheless. Early Pentecostals were often pacifists as well as prohibitionists.
Concurrently, in religious practice they stood in opposition to both racism and the denigration of women. Literary? 36. It is becoming more difficult for historians to dismiss Pentecostals as socially irrelevant. Pentecostal’s views on race, gender, and theology were complicated and deserve more scholarly attention. Since the dissertation 1970s the movement has been studied in greater detail. However, the fields of American history and American religious history would benefit from a broadening of the current scholarship. There are various areas of Pentecostal history that still have not been studied. Certain institutional and thesis, biographical histories need to be written. A scholarly history of the dissertation predominately black, six million member Church of mother God in Christ has yet to be undertaken.
Similarly, few scholars have studied the histories of the numerous Unitarian Pentecostals. There is still a paucity of biographies on some key leaders, including William J Seymour, A. J. Tomilson (Church of God Cleveland), Charles H. Mason (Church of God in Christ), and Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (Fire Baptized Holiness Church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Church of God, Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church). Historians of Pentecostalism have not taken advantage of the dissertation full range of extent sources. Many have relied on institutional records and sources from the movement’s leadership. The documents of Pentecostalism’s rank and file remain unstudied; personal records, diaries, and correspondences are virtually untouched. 37 Pentecostalism still needs to have histories written from the bottom up.
Such works might reveal how Pentecostalism differed among the lower levels of the movement. Did doctrinal controversies plague the laity as it did church leaders? Did the laity differ significantly from the clergy in social or economic status? 38 How did the laity accept gender and essays, racial norms within Pentecostalism? The role of women in the early movement in particular has received slight attention. Fellowships Dissertation? 39 Historians know that women often acted as worship leaders and evangelists in early Pentecostalism, but as of yet no one has critically assessed the role of gender inequality research women in the movement as a whole. Dissertation? Did women enjoy more opportunities within Pentecostal sects than they did in mainline churches?
If so, were women drawn to the movement who might otherwise have not joined Pentecostal churches? Did the roles of childhood experience essay women in Fundamentalist churches differ from those of women in Pentecostal ones? The confluence of fellowships race and gender is also an area that merits careful consideration. A church such as the Church of God in Christ did not ordain women, but still had the most powerful Women’s Department of any black denomination in the U. S. Were women’s roles in this church like those Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham describes in mother to son the National Baptist Convention? One Historian of Pentecostalism suggests that they were similar.
The Church of God in Christ, according to Cheryl Sanders, rejected the norms of white patriarchy and affirmed black female personhood by esteeming women leaders and educators. Sanders also suggests that it was not gender, but spiritual gifts that qualified individuals for fellowships, leadership in literary term the Holiness and Pentecostal churches. 40 Whether this was true in most Holiness and fellowships dissertation, Pentecostal churches is unlikely, but these sects often broke with racial and gender norms. Another area of promise for further research is the study of Pentecostalism and Populism as parallel social protests. Secular and religious historians have raised similar questions about both movements.
Both arose during a period of economic and social instability, in which America underwent drastic changes. Essay Years Are The? In this regard, both have been analyzed as protest movements of the dispossessed and marginalized. Scholars also have been concerned with whether the Holiness-Pentecostal and the Populist movements moved beyond racial and gender norms. 41 Scholars generally agree that both groups’ demographics are remarkably similar. Nonetheless, no one has published a work dealing with these groups as parallel movements. Dissertation? Such studies might reveal why some were attracted to Holiness-Pentecostalism and gender inequality paper, others to the Farmers’ Alliance and Populism. Fellowships Dissertation? Was affiliation arbitrary? Or, was it dictated by such factors as region, class, and religious world view? Could the success of Pentecostalism in the South and Midwest after 1900 and inequality in the workplace research, 1906 be accounted for by the failures of Populism in these same regions? Similarly, a major study of their congruities might shed light on how these movements differed as social protests. In the dissertation coming years scholars may be asking these and other questions in gender inequality research paper their search for the origins of Pentecostalism.
Before the 1970s the history of Pentecostalism was not a dot on the horizon of American historiography. The state of the field has grown significantly in the last thirty years and will continue to advance in dissertation the twenty first century. As of yet, however, the paper amount of scholarship is dissertation, not equal to the movement’s numeric strength. Pentecostalism’s mass appeal should challenge historians to look deeper into the movement’s distant past. 1. Grant Wacker, Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish: Primitivism Pragmatism and the Pentecostal Character, in bacon essays Religion and American Culture , David G. Hackett, ed. (New York and London: Routledge, 1995), 440. Grant Wacker, a prominent historian of Pentecostalism, defines Pentecostals as believing in a post-conversion experience known as baptism in the Holy Spirit. Fellowships? Pentecostals, he says, believe that a person who has been baptized in essay lady the Holy Spirit will manifest one or more of the nine spiritual gifts described in 1 Corinthians 12 and 14. Ibid., 441. 2. Fellowships? Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Layham, Maryland and London: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1996), 199-200.
Examples of these new sects include: the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, the by langston Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, and dissertation, the Apostolic Holiness Union. 3. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), 69. 4. Define Literary Term? The best surveys of early Pentecostal history in America are: Anderson, Vision of the fellowships dissertation Disinherited , Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Happy Childhood? Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1997), Edith Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 1-141, and Wacker, Pentecostalism in Encyclopedia of American Religious Experience, Vol. 7 , Charles H. Lippy and Peter Williams, eds. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988), 933-945. 5. Fellowships Dissertation? Wacker, Are the Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing? Reflections on History Writing among Early Pentecostals, Pneuma: The Journal for Pentecostal Studies (Fall 1986): 86.
For a discussion of the providential approach, see, Augustus Cerillo, Jr., Interpretive Approaches to the History of American Pentecostal Origins, Pnuema 19, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 31-36. 6. McLoughlin was responding to Henry P. Van Dusen’s Life magazine article which acknowledged the growing importance of bacon atheism American sects. Fellowships Dissertation? Van Dusen The Third Force’s Lesson for Others, Life (June 9, 1958):122-123. Define Term? McLoughlin, Is There a Third Force in Christendom? Religion In America, William G. McLoughlin and Robert N. Dissertation? Bellah, eds. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), 47, 52, 56. American historians have been slow to recognize the francis essays atheism movement’s importance. There is no mention of Pentecostalism in fellowships dissertation all the following: Arthur M. Mother By Langston Essays? Schlesiger Jr.’s The Almanac of American History (Greenwich, Connecticut: Brompton Books Corporation, 1993), Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, eds. The Readers Companion to American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), George Brown Tindall America: A Narrative History, Vol. II (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1988). 7. David Edwin Harrell, White Sects and Black Men (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971), 5, 6.
8. Cerrillo locates this change in Pentecostal denominations’ growing historical consciousness, the rising social status of Pentecostals, and a greater interest in higher education. The number of Pentecostals completing their Ph.D.s at major universities was rising in the 1960s and 1970s: Vinson Synan (University of Georgia), Grant Wacker (Harvard), Edith Blumhofer (Harvard), James Goff (University of Arkansas), Mickey Crews (Auburn), Leonard Lovett (Emory). The Origins of American Pentecostalism, Pnuema 15, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 78. 9. Fellowships Dissertation? H. Richard Niebuhr maintained that religion is so interwoven with social circumstances that the formulation of theology is necessarily conditioned by these.
The Social Sources of Denominationalism (Cleveland and francis bacon essays atheism, New York: The World Publishing Company, 1957), 17, 75-76. 10. In the 1940s, sociologists Liston Pope and fellowships, John Holt argued that Pentecostalism found most of happy childhood experience its adherents among society’s dispossessed, rural poor. For Holt and Pope, Pentecostalism’s response to social crisis was a natural byproduct of social disorganization. Holt posited that, migration and fellowships, concomitant urbanization of an intensely rural, and religiously fundamentalist population led to the creation of holiness sects which attempted to recapture their sense of security . . . Holiness Religion: Cultural Shock and Social Reorganization, American Sociological Review 5, issue 5 (Oct. 1940): 740-741. Pope, Millhands and Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1942), 84-91, 126-140. For sociologists like Charles Y. Glock and Howard Ellinson, religion served as an escape mechanism for the deprived and was unable to alter social status. Your Best? Glock, The Role of Deprivation in the Origin and Evolution of Religious Groups, in fellowships dissertation Religion and Social Conflict, Robert Lee and Martin E. Marty eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 27, 29.
Howard Elinson, The Implications of Pentecostal Religion for Intellectualism, Politics, and Race Relations, American Journal of Sociology 70 (1965): 403-415. For a counter view, see, Harry G. Lefever, Religion of the Poor: Escape or Creative Force? Journal for to son hughes essays, the Scientific Study of Religion 16, no. 3 (September 1977), 525-534. 11. Harrell, Black Sects and White Men , xvi, 130-131. Racial integration most often occurred, says Harrell, in the poorest sects like the Church of God (Cleveland) and the Church of God of fellowships Prophecy which were not vying for middle-class status.
12. Happy Essay? Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 113. Anderson compiled biographical data on forty-five leaders in the early Pentecostal movement and found that the group as a whole lay in a sort of limbo between working and middle-class. Neither quite one nor the other, they were marginal men and fellowships, women. ibid., 108, 136. In his study of the happy childhood Church of God Cleveland, Mickey Crews also emphasizes the class origins of Pentecostalism. Crews argues that the Populist movement and the Church of God arose among farmers in similar socio-economic circumstances. Church of God: A Social History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 1-18. 13. Ibid., 80, 113, 96.
14. Ibid., 239. R. Laurence Moore also notes that the otherworldliness of Pentecostals cut short social protests by diffusing class hostilities. Fellowships? Religious Outsiders and happy experience essay, the Making of Americans (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 140-142. 15. Wacker, Taking Another Look at the Vision of the Disinherited, Religious Studies Review 8, no. 1 (January, 1982): 18, 19, 20.
16. Wacker, The Functions of Faith in Primitive Pentecostalism, Harvard Theological Review 77, no. 3 (1984): 355, 356, 363. D. William Faupel, The Restoration Vision in Pentecostalism, The Christian Century 107, no. 29 (October 17, 1990): 938. On the fellowships importance of restorationism to Pentecostal eschatology, see Faupel’s, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of Eschatology in the Development of your years best Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 17. Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish, in fellowships dissertation Religion and American Culture: A Reader, David G. Hackett, ed. ( New York, London: Routledge, 1995), 442-444. Wacker, Functions of Faith, 361, 364. 18.
Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith , 4-5, 84, 116. 19. James R. Goff Jr. Essay Lady? Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and the Missionary Origins of Pentecostalism (Fayetville and London: The University of Arkansas Press, 1988), 15, 164. 20. Dayton, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1987), 11, 173-174. Pentecostals often speak of a four-square gospel, using these doctrines to identify themselves.
21. Ibid., 92-104, 104-106. Timothy Smith has written on dissertation the evolution of Wesleyan perfectionism into Pentecostalism in How John Fletcher Became the Theologian of Wesleyan Perfectionism, 1770-1776, Wesleyan Theological Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 67-86. On Sprit Baptism as an enduement of power, see: John Fea, Power from on High in an Age of Ecclesiastical Impotence: The ‘Enduement of the Holy Spirit’ in American Fundamentalist Thought, 1880-1936, Fides Et Historia 26, no. 6 (Summer 1994): 23-35. 22.
Raymond J. Cunningham, From Holiness to gender workplace research paper, Healing: The Faith Cure in dissertation America 1872-1892, Church History 43, no. 3 (September 1974): 507, 508. 23. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition , xi . Synan is a member of the Holiness-Pentecostal Church, which is your teenage, Wesleyan in orientation. 24. This name comes from the holiness conferences held in Keswick, England beginning in 1875. Leaders of the Keswick Convention, mostly evangelical Anglicans, held to the teachings of John Calvin, who taught that sin in the believer would not be eradicated until death.
William W. Fellowships Dissertation? Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, in Aspects of Pentecostal Charismatic Origins , Vinson Synan ed. (Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1975), 85-89. 25. Edith Waldvogel (Blumhofer), The ‘Overcoming Life’: A Study in the Reformed Evangelical Origins of Pentecostalism, (Ph.D. diss., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), 1-148. Blumhofer looks at such leaders as Reuben A. Torrey, Albert B. Bacon Essays Atheism? Simpson, Dwight L. Moody, and a number of British Keswick leaders. Allen L. Clayton argues that the prominence of the Reformed wing, which was Christocentric rather than pneumatocentric in orientation, gave rise to fellowships dissertation, the Oneness, Jesus only happy essay Pentecostals. By emphasizing the fellowships dissertation central role of Christ, Oneness Pentecostals began to baptize in Jesus’ name only. The Significance of William Durham for Pentecostal Historiography, Pnuema (Fall 1979): 38-39. 26.
William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the mother Pentecostal Movement, 93. 27. According to Wacker, the secondary literature on dissertation Pentecostalism is almost as contentious as the controversies it describes. Travail of a Broken Family: Evangelical Responses to Pentecostalism in America, 1906-1916, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47, no. 2 (July 1996): 509. 28. Ibid., 508, 526-527.
Dayton, The Limits of Evangelicalism: The Pentecostal Tradition, in The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Dayton and Robert K. Johnston, eds. (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1991), 49-51. Dayton gives insight on the recurrent battles between Holiness and Pentecostal Wesleyans to lay claim to the Wesleyan heritage, Wesleyan Tug-of-War on essay lady Pentecostal Link, Christianity Today 23 (December 15, 1978): 43. On the enmity between Pentecostals and Evangelicals, see Horace S. Dissertation? Ward Jr., The Anti-Pentecostal Argument, in Aspects , 102-107, and Wacker, Travail of a Broken Family. Others look at the communal and essay lady, societal opposition the movement experienced: Synan, Old Time Power: A Centennial History of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Spring, Georgia: LifeSprings Resources, 1998), 140-145, Crews, Church of God , 117-123, 74-78. Fellowships? Kurt O. Berends analyzes the communal antagonism Pentecostals spawned in Social Variables and Community Response in Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism , ed. Edith Blumhofer, Russell P. Essay Lady? Splitter, and Grant A. Wacker (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 68-89.
29. Both R. Laurence Moore, Religious Outsiders , 142, and Wacker, Early Pentecostals, 155, have made this point. 30. Crews, The Church of God , 17-18, 93-107. 31. Lovett, Black Origins of the Pentecostal Movement in dissertation Aspects , 127, 137-138. 32. Term? Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988), 36. 33. Harvey Cox, Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-First Century (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), 58-59.
34. Blumhofer, For Pentecostals, a Move Toward Racial Reconciliation, The Christian Century 3, no. 14 (April 27, 1994), 445. 35. Joe Creech, Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in fellowships dissertation Pentecostal History, Church History 65, no. 3 (1996): 408, 409, 410.
36. Define Literary Thesis? On the participation of women in the Holiness-Pentecostal tradition, see Cheryl J. Sanders’, Saints in Exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal Experience in African America Religion and Culture (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 32-34. Dissertation? According to Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, although the major black Pentecostal bodies denied women ordination, they nonetheless assumed powerful roles as exhorters, church mothers, missionaries, teachers, and deaconesses. ‘Together and in Harness’: Women’s Traditions in the Sanctified Church, Signs 10, no. 4 (Summer 1985): 683. 37. Essay Lady? David Bundy, The Historiography of the Wesleyan/Holiness Tradition, Wesleyan Theological Journal 30, no. Fellowships Dissertation? 1 (Spring 1995): 70. 38. Mickey Crews suggests that in the Church of God there was a difference: Although the overwhelming majority of Church of God members and ministers came from the lower socioeconomic classes, their principal spokesmen did not. The Church of God , 6. 39.
Two biographies exist on key women leaders of Pentecostalism, but nothing has been written on less notable women, Wayne E. Warner, The Women Evangelist: The Life and Times of inequality in the workplace Charismatic Evangelist Maria B. Woodworth-Etter (Metuchen, New Jersey and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1986). Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1993). Scholarship on gender and Fundamentalists may provide some clues to how similar studies on fellowships dissertation Pentecostals might look: Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, Fundamentalism and Gender, 1875 to the Present (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), Betty A. DeBerg, Ungodly Women: Gender and the First Wave of American Fundamentalism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990). 40. Sanders History of Women in the Pentecostal Movement, Cyberjournal for in the, Pentecostal/Charismatic Research [http:www.pctii.orgcybertab1.html] 2 (July, 1997): 5. 41. On Populism and dissertation, women see, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Women in the Southern Farmers Alliance: A Reconsideration of the Role and Status of Women in the Late Nineteenth-Century South, Feminist Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 72-91. Marion K. Barthelme, Women in the Texas Populist Movement: Letters to the Southern Mercury (Austin: Texas A. M. To Son By Langston? University Press, 1997), 3-76. Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of Women: Gender and Politics in Gilded Age Kansas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). On women in the Pentecostal-Holiness Movements see, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, ‘Together and in Harness’: Women's Traditions in fellowships dissertation the Sanctified Church, in Black Women in America: Social Science Perspectives , Micheline R. Malson, Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, Jean F. Literary Thesis? O'Barr and Mary Wyer, eds. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).
On Populism and Race see, Herbert Shapiro, The Populist and dissertation, the Negro: A Reconsideration, in The Making of Black America, August Meier ed. (NY: Atheneum, 1969), 32. Gerald Gaither, Blacks and the Populist Revolt: Ballots and in the, Bigotry in dissertation the New South (Tuscaloosa, AL:University of Alabama Press, 1977). On Holiness-Pentecostal movements and race, see, Iain MacRobert , The Black Roots and White Racism of define term thesis Early Pentecostalism in dissertation the U. S. A. Harrell, White Sects and Black Men . Randall J. Stephens is a doctoral student in History at the University of Florida. To Son By Langston Essays? Mr. Stephens wishes to express special thanks to Dr.
David G. Hackett and Bland Whitley for dissertation, their comments on earlier versions of this paper.
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Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege. Fellowships Dissertation! So he moved back to live in francis essays atheism its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies.
Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the fellowships, social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Essay Lady! Strangelove, and our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC’s School of fellowships dissertation, Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television.
He hopes to make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the bacon essays atheism, cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. Fellowships Dissertation! As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for define literary term, the better. The problem I had when I quit school the fellowships dissertation, first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the college experience is bacon essays atheism, like today and I’m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to dissertation earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination).
Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change. His minor is political science. He is a founder of the happy essay, Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is fellowships dissertation, simply an extended version of the define literary, bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms).
Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over dissertation enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in happy experience some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for the history of fellowships dissertation, college.
Throughout the modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal. To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for in the workplace paper, college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill). And even today, most candidates on dissertation, both sides of the isle have the same prescription for mother by langston, college: the problem is fellowships, lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to mother to son by langston hughes increase funding. It usually ends at that.
In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of fellowships dissertation, columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the define term thesis, national debate, but that its role is too great. Dissertation! Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the essay, least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of dissertation, college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. To Son By Langston Hughes! But this is, of dissertation, course, part of the intellectual journey of define literary term thesis, students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture.
It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to fellowships think, but how to think. This is where Mr. Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on to son hughes essays, the head when he describes the purpose of college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs.
However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and dissertation fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the thesis, youth. Education is the single most important factor in fellowships dissertation the growth of our country. Gender Inequality In The Workplace Paper! Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college.
But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the fellowships dissertation, future of this country depends on the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. Inequality In The Research! All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at success. However, college is not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to fellowships dissertation improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there.
Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. Define Literary Term Thesis! College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and dissertation people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in happy childhood experience essay 1966 to encourage people of dissertation, every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. Happy Childhood Experience Essay! The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to dissertation improve society and bacon atheism keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year.
Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. Fellowships! The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. The likelihood of essay lady, students being able to dissertation pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in college is the bacon essays atheism, most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by change. Dissertation! No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Inequality In The Workplace Paper! Two years as an undergraduate student at fellowships dissertation, Fordham University have been made slightly easier by happy childhood, knowing this about myself, because college means change.
Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and fellowships dissertation “don’t leave”. Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of mother by langston hughes essays, a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the fellowships, package. Happy Experience Essay! Students experience change so quickly–changes of fellowships, passions, opinions and interests. Mother By Langston Hughes Essays! They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm’s length. I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke.
College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the dissertation, leaders of business, art, science and medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and essay teenage years are the theory alone–they want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for dissertation, my school newspaper. I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to essay your are the work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and fellowships yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in literary term my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the fellowships dissertation, sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of childhood, our being. It is fellowships, important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don’t care. Teenage Years Are The Best! If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the dissertation, previous generations. There seems to be no sense of francis essays, urgency when it comes to our generation.
Nihilism will do that to everyone. Dissertation! I also find it interesting that the people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. Essay Lady! A contrast between the 60s generation and dissertation us now is that people do not what the problems really are. The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to happy experience essay get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle.
So apathy also plays a role. Fellowships! It is important to by langston hughes realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to fellowships dissertation college is not an option in American society, and it’s hardly a privilege at to son, that. In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is fellowships dissertation, a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child’s conception. College funds and francis bacon essays atheism savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only fellowships, does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out bacon essays atheism 10 in which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the fellowships, successful adult they were meant to be.
What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. Your Are The Best! He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on fellowships, their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about francis essays, than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place.
They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about them. Dissertation! Of course, without the term, internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of dissertation, this away from current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from literary term, it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. Dissertation! There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and term thesis many more reasons not to care.
Hold a pen in fellowships front of you and look at it; notice its size and gender inequality workplace color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Fellowships Dissertation! Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is to son essays, partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object. But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. Fellowships Dissertation! I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and research paper will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised.
Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. Fellowships! We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. Your Years! And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in fellowships dissertation a minivan. By high school, the importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and gender in the workplace other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win!
Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of fellowships dissertation, apart from the rest of the world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by essay lady, saying that I don’t go to a real college.
I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an dissertation, established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. Are The Best! He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the fellowships, students of the 60s and 70s. He’s right about that, but that is nothing to literary thesis be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists.
We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. Fellowships Dissertation! For my sake, and I’m sure for the sake of essay are the best, a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and fun. Fellowships Dissertation! My friends argue that things have changed in essay lady the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example.
Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and dissertation stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of essays atheism, things, and not ready to plan out our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of fellowships, high school. Essay Years Best! Who has time to dissertation worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in essay lady Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines.
The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Dissertation! Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right?
Politics. We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at school. Especially if they don’t have much of essay years, a home life to fellowships live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school.
College isn’t so different, only first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to by langston be wasting time. Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the fellowships, problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and essay teenage years are the they’ll show you what’s happening to fellowships my younger brothers and sisters.
Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in inequality workplace the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to sleep in, not to dissertation participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to literary term thesis the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is fellowships, so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the essay lady, words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is fellowships, highly interesting to francis essays our country, and it is the duty of dissertation, its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in by langston hughes it should receive an dissertation, education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of his life.” He speaks to mother by langston essays the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. Fellowships Dissertation! What sort of mother, education will he provide to match the condition, the dissertation, quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for happy childhood, standards in English and mathematics.
The “need to dissertation know” world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and teenage years best columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to fellowships live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only teenage are the best, a marginal role in our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is fellowships dissertation, not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the your years, virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas.
Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the fellowships dissertation, society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the literary, university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. From the time of Plato, the purpose of the dissertation, university has not been to represent the define literary term thesis, society or culture in dissertation which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. To Son By Langston Hughes! And, since truth is their goal, many of fellowships dissertation, them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in inequality in the common is fellowships, their distance from America’s political center.
This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. Essay Are The Best! It is fellowships, a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the essay lady, United States constantly is found to fellowships dissertation have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and happy meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the fellowships, group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more.
As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . . . says he believes . . . that truth is relative” (1). Research! While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is fellowships dissertation, because the values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. They haven’t the power to unite the childhood, students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and dissertation invited college students across the United States to respond.
Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is happy essay, coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to fellowships critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the francis bacon essays atheism, conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the fellowships, entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)
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History of Kickboxing Martial Arts. Fighting Is Art Since the dawn of time, man has had to fight for one reason or another. There has been war using weapons, sword fights between individuals, and fellowships dissertation then there are modern day wars battled out in mother hughes, the cage. Kickboxing has had many uses in the past, but it is one of the most popular sports in today’s culture. It is a very useful skill to learn. There is no mistake that martial arts are dangerous, but if properly taught, a perfectly disciplined warrior will be a result. Warrior may not have the same meaning as it used to, but fighters are as close to a warrior as possible in modern time. Trained fighters are always toughened mentally and fellowships dissertation physically to a near superhuman extent. Bones are hardened, muscles are developed, and a tough heart and mind is essay lady, required to undergo such training. There is no such thing as a trained fighter without “heart”.
Kickboxing is one of the most popular sports in the world and has been for many years. Fellowships. Kickboxing dates back nearly two-thousand years ago in Asian countries; each style has its own history and application, but they were all developed in their relative motive to express ones’ self, and francis bacon atheism culture. Need essay sample on History of Kickboxing Martial Arts ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Styles of kickboxing have been used on actual battlefields. Dissertation. The training was used to replace weapons, and transform their own body into an actual deadly trained and unstoppable weapon in almost any kind of battle in Asia. Kickboxing is likely the most difficult sport to excel in because of the rigorous training and motivation that it requires to be a professional fighter. Overall, kickboxing has a rich history and francis essays many uses in the past, and can teach an immense amount of information.
More than two-thousand years ago, kickboxing started in Asia. The very first forms of dissertation, kickboxing in existence were Muay Thai and early forms of karate, kung fu, and tae kwon do fighting styles. Literary Term. All of these fighting styles were integrating swift and crushing movements using the hands and feet, and in certain fighting styles, elbows and knees. These fighting styles were used for multiple purposes. Some were used as self-defense, like the monks in Asian monasteries that were frequently attacked by plunderers and enemies; or for use in war like Muay Thai in major battles to pummel their enemies with the fellowships hardest bones in their body. The history of the most dangerous, and define literary thesis applicable martial art, Muay Thai, is an important part of Thailand where it was first created.
Much of the history of Muay Thai was lost in libraries and documents of Thailand were ransacked, and burned down by dissertation the Burmese people (“History of essay lady, Muay Thai and Muay Thai Training. “). Fellowships Dissertation. Even though they were burned, many books and documents remain about the history, invention, and integration of Muay Thai in inequality workplace, sport, and military. Muay Thai translates roughly to “The Art of Eight Limbs” which uses the dissertation limbs to replace weapons of define term, war (“History of Muay Thai and Muay Thai Training”). The first Thai army was created in 1238 near a city called Sukhothai. There were many wars and battles in the area caused by conflicts with neighboring kingdoms and villages. They were referred to as the fellowships Siamese army and they were instructed in hand-to-hand combat and how to francis bacon atheism use blunt and blade weapons (“History of Muay Thai and Muay Thai Training”). Fellowships Dissertation. The use of the body as a weapon evolved into modern day Muay Thai fighting. The old rulers of Thailand were great enthusiasts of the fighting, and that is why Muay Thai has advanced. Kings would set up sanctioned matches between the best Muay Thai kick boxers.
This is where the “ring” was introduced (“History of Muay Thai and Muay Thai Training”). Your Teenage Years. The ring was created by fellowships laying a rope on the ground in shape of a circle or a square for the fighters to childhood stay in fellowships, while they fought. The fighters used hemp rope to essay lady wrap their hands and provide a good brace for the wrists and ankles; these were also used to fellowships prevent joint injury. Old Muay Thai fights were fought with no time limits or weight limits which resulted almost always in a brutal knockout. Even one of the kings of Thailand participated in Muay Thai.
King Prachao Sua would disguise himself as a commoner and fight in village events. He was forced to mother to son by langston disguise himself because everyone in fellowships dissertation, Thailand respected their king so much, that no person would participate in fighting him. Another type of kickboxing with an opulent history is Taekwondo; this form is a fighting style almost strictly dependent on using the legs to strike your opponent in spinning and jumping motions. This style evolved from other martial arts styles that dated back to 50 B. Mother To Son By Langston Hughes Essays. C; evidence of fellowships, this was found on cave walls in the form of paintings (“General Taekwondo Information – History’’). Taekwondo basically evolved from a military fighting method and popular sport called Soo Bakh Do. Soo Bakh Do was used by essay your athletes and militants in combat and training during the Koryo Dynasty. Back then, the sport of kick boxing was for the lower class or poor men (“General Taekwondo Information – History. ”).
Taekwondo practiced today is an evolution of dissertation, many oriental martial arts, and fighting styles that were used long ago, but with a more modern “spin” to it. Inequality In The Research. Most taekwondo instructors incorporate their own techniques in their teachings, which is not uncommon in fight training. Coaches have been revolutionizing martial arts fighting styles ever since the fellowships world’s first intelligent skirmish. Taekwondo got its name from the old Korean martial arts style, Tae Kyon because its focus was on using the define thesis legs as a weapon to pummel the enemies into submission. Taekwondo was not introduced into America for a long time, but after immigrants of oriental descent arrived in to the U. S. A, Taekwondo started being taught by some of the original Taekwondo masters. Dissertation. Another factor in gender in the, the introduction of this fighting style into the United States was that travelers and militants from this country traveled to Asia and learned the style, who in return, taught their own students in their home country. One of the most famous martial arts of all time is Karate. There are quite a few forms of fellowships, Karate, but the one that is trained by the most people is generally a style called Shotokan Karate.
This martial art does not really have a single focus. It encourages using both legs and feet in combat. Inequality. Karate is an attempt of creating a martial art with a perfect balance of offensive techniques and defensive techniques. It is also a highly promoted sport, and fellowships dissertation it is performed in the Olympic Games. Fighters of Karate are well disciplined, even for a trained fighter; and they are usually only essay lady trained to fellowships dissertation use their technique in a self defense situation. Karate, unlike most fighting styles, can even be traced back to francis western India nearly 1400 years ago (“History of Karate”). Karate evolved from other fighting styles like Shaolin Kung Fu. The physical training of Karate was nearly identical to the Kung Fu fighting style, which is also trained in modern day gyms across the world. Advances in modern day training usually focus more on fellowships, the fitness and cardiovascular basis of the training more than the fighting and sparring. Gyms around the world will usually start with running as a warm up, or a series of pushups and sit-ups. The philosophy behind this is that if one can last longer than the opponent one will almost always win; but there are gyms that focus solely on fighting as well to gender inequality workplace research advance technique and allow the fighters to develop their own style.
Using mitts for fighting is another modern day training method. Dissertation. Fighters will use mitts to practice and develop their overall offensive and term thesis defensive skills. Fellowships. The use of different types of punching bags was also integrated into your years best modern day training. Instead of going outside to punch or kick trees, the fighters hit on bags full of sand and other semi-soft materials. Fellowships Dissertation. Workings with the punching bags are very similar to essays atheism practicing using the mitts; it develops the same basic skills and fundamentals used in fighting. Preparation for formal martial arts or kickboxing training can be a little expensive, but generally affordable. Fellowships Dissertation. There is childhood essay, a good amount of gear required that the dissertation gym might not supply to the fighter. There are hand wraps for wrist restraint to protect against wrist fractures and a more solid punch. There are also shin guards required because of the teenage best massive strikes you will take in order to avoid a truly leg damaging kick. Headgear may or may not be optional; it all relies on the gyms terms and regulations. Headgear is important in preventing brain injury from occurring along with breaking of the nose before a fight or to prevent a black eye.
One of the most important pieces of gear is the mouth piece. Fellowships Dissertation. Dental injuries could occur constantly without one; there would be fighters with no teeth left in less than a year if a mouth piece was not used. Of course certain types of gloves are also required. Depending on the martial art or style of kickboxing, the fighter could use grappling gloves with open fingers or a closed finger boxing glove which is used for essay lady, most sparring in the world of fellowships, kickboxing. Mental preparation is also important for martial arts and kickboxing (“Santino’s Flagstaff MMA, Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, Kickboxing: Mental Training For MMA. “). A person must be willing to give their all in the training, and to never give up. A fighter would never succeed without those qualities and francis essays mental preparation. One downside of kick boxing or any other martial art is the risk taken during the participation of fighting. There are many injuries you can receive in hand to hand combat, like concussions or broken bones. There are many cases of concussions in martial arts due to the constant damage to the skull.
The developing of something fighters call “glass chin” is fellowships dissertation, a direct result of too many blows to the head or too many concussions. Essay Your Teenage Best. “Glass chin” is when a fighter is easily knocked out due to a head strike. Dissertation. The bones in the skull are weakened over time, and the brain is more prone to concussive damage. This condition can easily end a great fighter’s career over time. Francis Essays Atheism. That is why a fighter should. not give it his all during a sparring session.
Violent sparring is the number one cause of “glass chin” and in relation ends the fellowships dissertation fighter’s chance at an even greater career. Other career finishers are broken bones and torn ligaments in the arms and legs. A fighter could ruin his limbs by tearing an important ligament in the body. Even with surgery the torn ligament would never perform up to its full potential. These injuries usually do not even occur in a sanctioned fight. Torn ligaments can be the result of essay years, something as small as twisting the leg the wrong way during a kick or failing in the attempt of a certain technique. This injury not only affects a practitioner’s fight results, but also his/her everyday life. The ability to run properly could be affected or even overall ability to fellowships dissertation perform tasks.
Still, an even more painful tragedy could occur during training. Broken bones are fairly common in martial arts fighting. The most common is most likely a fractured or broken nose or ribs. A powerful kick or punch to any bone in the body could cause a break. Kicks from martial arts fighter has been registered at over one thousand pounds per square inch.
That is enough to break a maple wood baseball bat. That is atheism, easily enough to break or fracture a human bone in just one swift motion. Bones as hard as the orbital bone in the head have been crushed under the force of a swift martial arts kick. Dissertation. Bones take a long time to repair and most of the time requires surgery on the appendage. There are permanent injuries in martial arts as well. Injuries like the “glass chin” and also injuries that cause severe brain damage have a large probability in the fight game.
There are professional boxers who have been diagnosed as learning impaired after a long career of your teenage are the, suffering a constant beating to the body. The average human can become conditioned for these types of fellowships dissertation, injuries, but it can and will take a toll on essay lady, the body after time; but those are risks that are commonly taken, even if the fighter is educated about the injuries. A fighter will not simply quit because of the risk; the dissertation martial artist will simply take it. Your Best. All fighters are passionate about the sport, and feel in their heart that they were born for the sport. Fellowships. It simply cannot be changed. Risks for martial arts are not just physical; there are laws or situations in essay lady, a court case where the training may be used against dissertation the martial artist. If a fighter is bacon, registered with a fight association, he may also be registering his hands as a weapon, and fellowships dissertation even under unjust conditions, the fighter might be prosecuted for aggravated assault with a deadly weapon (“American Law And The Trained Fighter”). Even if laws are not specific in a certain state, fight training may be used against one in a court of law and this includes if the hands are not registered as a weapon. Gender Research Paper. Most U. S states vary in these laws, but they all have a similar state of mind. Trained fighters are dangerous to another untrained combatant.
Even with street fighting experience, there is no substitute for training inside a legitimate kickboxing or mixed martial arts gym. If struck first, the fighter can still be charged with deadly force with use of a weapon, even if it is not their fault that the dissertation fight happened in the first place. Contrary to common thought, fighting is not just brutal savages fighting it out in the cage. Fighting is as much of an inequality workplace paper, art as music or choreography. There is more time and practice required in martial arts than any other sport or art in the world. This art expresses what lies within the heart of a human being more than any other art in existence.
When fighting, a person has no problems outside of the ring. Some would say that this is fellowships, true mental serenity. No struggle is to francis bacon go on inside the mind of the dissertation fighter at this time. They may be in a struggle physically, but the brain is ultimately distracted and ultimately at define literary term, peace. Not only is it art in the eyes of the fighter, but in the eyes of others, too.
The martial arts technique can be so accurate and technical that it inspires an fellowships, audience; like the Mona Lisa inspires most painters from the olden days to bacon essays atheism modern times. Each strike is a fighter’s individual style; each kick is like the stroke of a paintbrush used to create a masterpiece which is the dissertation result of the your years are the fight. Fights are nothing more but two artists competing in a bout for whom can create the best work of art and captivate their supporters. These creations mold the person for everyday life; these creations make a work of art out of the fighters very being. There is fellowships, no better character than what is in a fighter. Men and women that participate in this have an ultimate resolve; they know what their meaning in life truly is. They can feel it in happy experience, not just their mind but in their heart.
In general, kickboxing has had many uses in the past, but it is one of the most popular sports in today’s culture and it is fellowships dissertation, a very useful skill to learn. Learning kickboxing can teach even grown men discipline and respect. Martial arts have such a rich history and origins that date back nearly two-thousand years ago; and the tradition is not in danger of dying any time soon. There are so many types of kickboxing, like Muay Thai, Taekwondo, Karate, and of course American kickboxing. All of the kickboxing martial arts have come a long way since their creation. Each one of them has evolved to atheism fit the style of modern day fighters. There are many ways to go about the fellowships dissertation preparation and in the research paper practice of martial arts and there are many ways to train. Although there are risks, they are widely accepted and fellowships no fighter will simply quit because of the risk of injury or any other reason. A fighter will never quit, even if they feel the law is not on their side. The martial arts listed above teach a whole level of enlightenment to the fighters and practitioners.
Fighting has changed lives, and happy essay it will continue to change lives until the end of time. Kickboxing is a way of life, and fellowships a career; it can be used as a way of expression or to “paint a picture” for the spectators. Although the training is rigorous, there will always be fighters out there willing to do what they can, and follow their dreams. Teenage Years Are The Best. When someone is a fighter, they can feel it in their hearts from the earliest years of fellowships dissertation, their life till the day they die. The athletes express their feelings and beliefs by fighting, like a musician uses his instrument to achieve the by langston hughes same purpose: to create a beautiful and fellowships dissertation skillful variety of art.
This fighting may be projected to the world as savage violence, but it is as much of a masterpiece as any other form of art.