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AP and Other Stories Summary and Analysis of A P, Part 1. This story is an essay bicycle, narrated by Sammy, a young cashier at the supermarket A P. One day, three girls in bathing suits stop in to buy some snacks. Models Essays! Sammy is immediately struck by bicycle a “chunky” (596) girl with a “sweet broad soft-looking can.” He is so attracted to her that he accidentally rings up a box of crackers twice, provoking the ire of the middle-aged customer who was trying to buy them. By the the cunning time Sammy calms down the irate customer, the girls are making their way towards an bicycle, aisle close to his checkout slot. He notices that the girls are barefoot. Essay About School! None of them are particularly beautiful; he characterizes the an essay on my first as chunky and “pale” and the second as “the kind of girl that other girls think is very ‘striking’ and ‘attractive’ but never quite makes it.” However, he quickly identifies the are celebrities third as their leader, noticing that she walks slightly ahead of her friends and an essay almost seems to be showing them how to command attention. He infers that it was her idea to come to A P in the first place. He calls her the queen or, later, Queenie. Sammy notices that the straps of the queen’s bathing suit have slipped off her shoulders, so there is no clothing between the top of the bathing suit and the top of her head.
He is in awe of her beauty, and account nursing marvels that only an extraordinarily pretty girl could get away with walking into an essay a grocery store with her straps down. He continues to reflective account, stare at her physical features, including her long neck and her oaky hair. The other people in the store are shocked by the girls’ skimpy attire, as well as the on my bicycle fact that they are walking “against the usual traffic” (597) down the aisles. Sammy criticizes these “sheep” for looking askance at the girls but also being attracted to them. He speculates that “you could set off dynamite” (598) in an A P and the shoppers would still go about their business as usual. Nevertheless, they do seem a bit “jiggled,” with some women even turning around to look at the girls again, as if they cannot believe their eyes.
Only ten years before John Updike published “A P,” his New Yorker colleague J.D. Salinger rocked the literary establishment with his first novel, The Catcher in the Rye . There are striking similarities between Holden Caulfield, the main character of Salinger’s novel, and models Updike’s narrator Sammy. Both hold a deep-seated contempt for authority and hypocrisy. But while Salinger’s hero is so self-absorbed that we never get an objective perspective on his world, Sammy is sharply perceptive, offering insights about human nature and on my bicycle society at large. The main action of “A P” unfolds not in the grocery store but in Sammy’s mind.
It is not a chronicle of his ordinary day at work, but rather of his rejection of bourgeois conformity. Some critics trace Sammy’s heritage not to Holden Caulfield but to Ralph Waldo Emerson, who advocated for non-conformity and moral self-reliance (Porter 1155). In the are celebrities models early pages of “A P,” Sammy establishes his contempt for on my, conformity and essay consumerism, insinuating that the people who shop at A P are “sheep” (597) who can never be roused out of their daily routines. This critique is cemented by his detailed description of the on my store. Sammy locates himself “between the checkouts and the Special bins” (596) and describes the the cunning of history thesis girls going up “the cat-and-dog-food-breakfast-cereal-macaroni-rice-raisins-seasonings-spreads-spaghetti-soft-drinks-crackers-and-cookies aisle” (597). An Essay Bicycle! This careful delineation of the story’s space suggests an underlying concern for realism despite Sammy’s lighthearted rhetorical style, which often relies on caricature. Sammy’s list of grocery items in the aisle is humorous, but it also indicates a deep sense of unease with the rampant consumerism in American culture. None of the are celebrities role models foods Sammy lists are nutritious. An Essay On My! They are all snack foods or condiments—or in mother character building essay, the case of the pet foods, not for human consumption at all.
Rather than a necessity for survival, Updike portrays grocery shopping as a lavish exercise in self-indulgence. By buying so many unnecessary items, he suggests that people abstract themselves from their physical existence as human beings. Sammy’s sexual desire for the girls initially seems to be an antidote to this deadening consumerism. If the other shoppers have, in conforming, sacrificed their humanity, then the on my bicycle girls’ rebellion against social norms seems to be a refreshing dose of human vitality. College Essay Service! This interpretation is an essay, reinforced by their nakedness; by forgoing regular clothing and the conformity that comes with it, they embrace their fundamental human nature, and the beauty of this spectacle is stunning to all who witness it. However, there is an alternate interpretation of the girls’ nudity. They are consumers just as much as the mother older shoppers are, and like those shoppers, they embrace unhealthy foods, looking at on my bicycle, cookies before finally deciding to buy the herring snacks. Dissertation On Performance! They are conformists in their own way, with the queen leading the other two girls who timidly “peek around [the queen’s body] and [hunch] over a little” (597). On My! Although he knows nothing of their personalities and character essay concedes that two of the girls are unattractive, Sammy still lusts after them. Bicycle! His sexual desire, then, is just as greedy and college critique service overindulgent as the shoppers’ desire for snack foods. Over the an essay course of his career, Updike has sometimes been accused of dissertation, misogyny (Shapiro, Roiphe).
Based on his descriptions of the women in the story, Sammy certainly seems to have a misogynist worldview. He insinuates that the an essay bicycle young girls are catty exhibitionists, but the brunt of his contempt is reserved for older women. These middle-aged housewives, he suggests, are the engines of American consumerism, and he consistently belittles them, describing them as “houseslaves in essay about school, pin curlers” (598). His account of the middle-aged woman at the beginning of bicycle, “A P” is dehumanizing; he calls her a witch and the cunning of history compares her to a bird, calming her down by “[getting] her feathers smoothed and bicycle her goodies into a bag” (596). Although the character’s outlook should not necessarily be extended to Updike himself, there are certainly grounds to criticize his treatment of women. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/a-and-p-and-other-stories/study-guide/summary-a-and-p-part-1 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About AP and the cunning thesis Other Stories AP and Other Stories Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Ace in the Hole A P, Part 1 A P, Part 2 A P, Part 3 Pigeon Feathers Separating Short Easter Consumerism and the Cold War Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Updike Biography.
AP and Other Stories Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for AP and Other Stories is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Sammy is a nineteen-year-old cashier at the A P, a large supermarket chain. He narrates a day at the store, complaining about customers who are mean or behave like sheep. He is on my bicycle, critical of the proposal on performance commercialism of modern culture.
Three. Sammy thinks he experiences an epiphany for the rights of these girls but his decision to quit his job is really driven by teen angst and sexual attraction. Check out this GradeSaver link below: Study Guide for AP and on my bicycle Other Stories. AP and Other Stories study guide contains a biography of John Updike, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. AP and Other Stories essays are academic essays for citation.
These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of AP and other short stories by John Updike.
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Literary Theme Essay Essays and Research Papers. The Meaning of Literary Themes The Meaning of an essay bicycle Literary Themes There are different types and . forms of role mother character essay literature. On My Bicycle. They are novel, drama, poetry, biography, non-fictional prose, essay , epic and short story. Role Building Essay. All these types of an essay literature have some elements. To complete a piece of literature, a writer, dramatist or a novelist must use certain elements like plot, character, theme , etc. to capture the interest of their readers. When reading literature, there are themes which are interpreted within.
Children's literature , Fiction , Genre 1898 Words | 5 Pages. LAC1 COMP Unit 16, Lesson 9 Literary Essay About Theme Final Draft (300 points) Write the role building, final draft of your . Literary Essay About Theme . An Essay. Be sure to follow these requirements and mother building essay recommendations when completing your draft: Open a new Microsoft Word document. Type your name, your teacher’s name, your school name, and the date at an essay the top of your document. To help your teacher know whom the models essays, essay came from, save the file as: LAC1 COMP 16.9 Literary Essay About Theme Final Draft_YOUR NAME.doc . Essay , Genre , Greek loanwords 1797 Words | 5 Pages. Name: Date: Short Story Essay English 11 Topic: Making reference to three stories in this unit, discuss the an essay on my, authors' use of . Are Celebrities Models. literary elements (such as symbolism, setting, irony, characterization) to develop their themes . On My Bicycle. Please note, a key element that you will need to deal with is not only the literary elements, but also the of history, themes (so you will need to clearly identify these). An Essay. Write your essay here: Three stories including; “The Painted Door” by Sinclair Ross, “War” by Luigi. Emotion , Fiction , Luigi Pirandello 988 Words | 3 Pages. Raisin in the Sun” in the ways that the story line is proposal similar and an essay on my bicycle both characters in the stories share similar struggles and mother essay qualities. To summarize, the an essay, . shared theme of perseverance is illustrated in both The Negro Mother and A Raisin in the Sun through the use of literary devices including characterization. In “A Raisin in the Sun,” the theme of perseverance is shown through the characterization of both Mama and Beneatha. In Mama’s life, she has struggled through years of poverty and constant work.
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Discuss how they are forced to submit to their parents. In literature, the conflict moves the an essay, story forward. When the story is to end the about, protagonist’s favor, the conflict occurs. It is what the major character must face with and hopefully defeat. What behind conflict is want.
The author always creates situations where the an essay, characters. The Glass Menagerie 1358 Words | 5 Pages. Sleepy Hollow Theme Anaylysis Essay. Ma October 15, 2014 Analysis Essay 4th Hour “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” Theme Analysis Essay . About School. Ichabod’s incredible imagination can be seen and on my bicycle found throughout the text of Sleepy Hollow. Throughout this story, the are celebrities role models, author conveys his argument and messages in the form of an essay many literary elements that supports his argument with the development of the text. The author uses elements such as irony, symbolism, and imagery to express his views. A theme that Washington Irving conveys through. Ichabod Crane , Irony , Short story 845 Words | 3 Pages. English 9E Literary Theme Essay 16 September 2013 The Privilege of Freedom “Only the service, educated are free.” Said . by an essay on my bicycle, Epicetus, this simple quote demonstrates the importance of education.
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Great Gatsby Literary Analysis Essay 20. ?English 3 The Great Gatsby Literary Analysis Essay Timeline: Turn in topic choice: November 16, 2007 Outline Due Date: . November 20, 2007 Typing in-class: November 26-27, 2007 One Peer Edit Due Date: November 27, 2007 (to be turned in with final draft) Final Draft Due Date: November 28, 2007 Requirements: Length Due: 1 and proposal on performance ? pages 3 quotes from the novel that help support your thesis MLA format Choose one of the following topics to write your paper about: 1. How does Gatsby represent. Essay , Literature , Novel 625 Words | 2 Pages. Literary Analysis: Outline This worksheet must be TYPED. Bring your completed worksheet (along with the O’Connor short stories) to class . with you on Tuesday 11/27.
Note: Page 1 of an essay bicycle this outline provides a sample outline of the thesis statement and ONE paragraph from the online sample Literary Analysis Essay . Complete pages 2-3 of this worksheet for class on Tues 11/27. College Essay. Thesis Statement (one sentence that sums up your specific interpretation of the story): In Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The. Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Feminism , Historiography 634 Words | 3 Pages. The Story of an an essay on my Hour Themes and of history thesis Literary Elements. ? The Story of an Hour Themes and Literary Elements Lora Cruse Ashford university ENG125 November, 14 2014 . The major theme in Kate Chopin's “The Story of an Hour” is freedom.
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You. Article , Essay , Five paragraph essay 2441 Words | 4 Pages. Literary Essay : T: Reverend John Hale changed from the beginning to the end of the play the Crucible. A: Anyone who has read . The Crucible P: To further understand the character John Hale in the play The Crucible F: Literary Essay It can be argued that in the play The Crucible, Reverend John Hale’s character’s arrogance and ignorance caused him to begin the Witch Trials of Salem, Massachusetts, and in the end could not do enough to stop them. He undergoes a significant change as the play. John Hale , Nathan Hale , Salem witch trials 879 Words | 3 Pages. 11/25/12 The Catcher in the Rye Theme Essay The Catcher in an essay the Rye by J.D.
Salinger is a novel about the life of a troubled . teenage boy called Holden Caulfield. He believes that he’s surrounded by phonies. Therefore, Holden spends a few days in a New York hotel in the search of something real in role his life. However, he fails to find anything else but loneliness, disappointment and phoniness. There are many themes to this novel, but in my opinion the three main themes are loss of innocence, dealing.
Anxiety , Communication , I'm Crazy 1376 Words | 4 Pages. Thematic Essay The Hunger Games, an an essay on my insightful novel by are celebrities role models, Suzanne Collins, is based on morals and justice. This novel is about Katniss Everdeen, . a 16 year old girl and tribute for The Hunger Games, who is obligated to fight to the death with twenty-three others. She and her male counterpart, Peeta, are pitted against bigger and stronger representatives who have trained for this competition their whole lives, however, this advantage does not intimidate them. Trust, determination, and an essay on my love and friendship. Suzanne Collins , The Hunger Games 900 Words | 3 Pages. HOW TO WRITE A LITERARY ESSAY SUGGESTED LENGTH: 600 WORDS THE TITLE should be specific. The Cunning Of History. You should identify a . Bicycle. particular problem in the literary text you’ve chosen to write about. Acceptable: The Role of the Narrator in Henry Fielding’s Joseph Andrews; Family Politics in Jane Austen’s Pride and essay in french Prejudice Unacceptable: Jane Eyre; Shakespeare’s Sonnets; William Blake’s Songs of Experience (ii) PRESENTATION The essay should open with a clear introduction.
Grammatical tense , Jane Austen , Jane Eyre 1105 Words | 5 Pages. To Kill a Mockingbird - Themes Essay. ?To Kill a Mockingbird – Practice Essay Theme 1 - The Coexistence of Good and Evil The novel To Kill a Mockingbird is an . On My Bicycle. exploration of the human condition: whether people are essentially good or essentially evil. The novel approaches this idea by dramatising Scout and Jem's transition from a perspective of childhood innocence to a mature understanding of the coexistence of good and critique evil. Bicycle. At the proposal management, beginning of the novel, they approach life innocently, believing in the goodness of all people. Later. Atticus Finch , Evil , Good and evil 849 Words | 3 Pages. Theme Essay Website: http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/frankenstein/themes.html The Frankenstein book and movies all portray . An Essay Bicycle. Monstrosity in their own way, but two of these fail to get the point across. I feel Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein portrayed monstrosity the best out of all three of these sources.
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Response Essay Kathy Ottaway, 020091223 . Instructor Esther Griffin 10F Cdn. An Essay On My Bicycle. Literature and Criticism - 01 HUMN2000-10F-11296 Tuesday, November 30, 2010 REDEMPTION 2 Redemption, A Literary Device: Hey Nostradamus! Response Essay Redemption. It is a single word that holds great meaning for both the ones who seek it, and for those whose opinions are the ones to are celebrities models, grant it, whether it is an outside. All Families Are Psychotic , Douglas Coupland , Eleanor Rigby 1440 Words | 4 Pages. ?Novel Essay The Messenger “Everyone can live beyond what they are capable of.” Discuss in relation to ‘The Messenger” The Messenger by . Markus Zusak shows us that everyone can live beyond what they are capable of. As the protagonist Ed, helps those in need, he is challenged to do things beyond his capability. In the on my, beginning, Ed is described as the ‘epitome of ordinariness’ and proposal on performance he is called a ‘dead man’. An Essay On My. The reason for in french about, this is because he has no meaning to an essay bicycle, his life and nothing to live for, no. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1038 Words | 3 Pages. ? Literary Analysis Essay Lamb To Slaughter How can a leg of dissertation proposal lamb go from being dinner to a murder weapon?
In the bicycle, story, Lamb . to Slaughter by the cunning of history, Ronald Dahl, when Patrick Maloney comes home to his wife Mary Maloney and on my bicycle tells her that he’s divorcing her, Mary has somewhat of a mental breakdown and kills her husband by hitting him on the head with a leg of lamb. Also her being pregnant really affected her feeling towards the divorce because she had no ide that he wanted to leave her for so long. The Cunning Thesis. There. Divorce , Domestic sheep , Irony 1056 Words | 3 Pages. The literary essay fulfills its purpose of analyzing the characters, themes , and/or historical context of the . novel. An Essay On My. This purpose is clearly articulated in a valid thesis statement. Proposal On Performance. novel, but the an essay bicycle, analysis is not complete.
The purpose is stated in a thesis statement. Essay Critique Service. The literary essay contains insightful analysis and examples of the choices characters make, the bicycle, consequences of the choices. Critical thinking , Essay , Fiction 498 Words | 2 Pages. Literary Theory Essay on college, Dryden's 'an Essay on Dramatic Poesy' Mimesis, the Greek word for imitation, has been of on my major importance in the history of aesthetic and literary theory. Mother Character. It is the an essay on my bicycle, earlier way to school, . judge any work of art in relation to reality and to decide whether its representation is accurate or not. Though this mode starts from Plato, it runs through many great theorists of Renaissance up to some modern theorists as well. A literary work is taken to on my bicycle, be a representation of reality or of any aspect of it. Plato holds a rather negative view on mimesis;. Ancient Greece , Drama , Literary criticism 1295 Words | 4 Pages.
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He moved around in the area during his childhood, and the. Essay , Fiction , George Saunders 2050 Words | 6 Pages. ? Literary Analysis Essay La Fontaine's Fables Peter Arowolo Jean de La Fontaine was a widely read 17th century . French poet, he is best known for his fables, which have been read and on my bicycle greatly appreciated by generations of children and writers in many languages. He also wrote comedies and verse tales derived from Boccaccio. Jean de La Fontaine was born on July 8, 1621, in Chateau-Thierry, central France. He was the son of a government official. He studied at a Catholic Jesuit college.
Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 1170 Words | 5 Pages. ?Mr Van Gogh Literary Essay Will there always be a Mr Van Gogh? Owen Marshall’s short story ‘Mr Van Gogh’ is an . Role Mother Building Essay. explanation of society’s harsh attitudes towards individuals today. Through characterization, religious allusion and imagery Owen Marshall portrays Mr Van Gogh as someone who is overcoming society’s acts of judgement. This is reflected on an essay on my bicycle, the audience because Marshall makes us question our own behavior in the hope that we will change. Owen Marshal uses imagery, biblical allusion. Allusion , Audience , Fiction 924 Words | 3 Pages. Julia Jones Literary Analysis Essay Language Arts 1.14.12 Feel?ings noun [feliNGs]- 1. An emotional state or reaction; . love compassion grief. In the models essays, story The Giver, by an essay on my, Lois Lowry, ‘feelings’ is nothing but a word, for feelings do not exist.
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Literary Criticisms in Relation to Heart of Darkness Interpretation . is the revenge of the intellect upon art. Even more. It is the revenge of the intellect upon the world. On My. To interpret is to impoverish, to dissertation proposal on performance management, deplete the world -- in an essay order to set up a shadow world of ''meanings,” Susan Sontag. It is a persons interpretation of any form of literary work that defines itself, what the essay nursing, author intends a reader to discover may be completely. Fiction , Heart of Darkness , Humanities 1654 Words | 5 Pages.
Pride and Prejudice Essay: Literary Criticism. perseverance to bicycle, overcome whatever troubles their respective villain brings forward. In the novel, Pride and Prejudice, author Jane Austen portrays her view . of heroes, heroines, and villains in a satirically love story. Andrew H. Wright has written a literary criticism essay , titled “Heroines, Heroes, and Villains in Pride and Prejudice”, in which he states his opinion of proposal management Austen’s purpose. Although critic Andrew H. An Essay. Wright states that some people are simply destined to be heroes, Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. Bridget Jones , Elizabeth Bennet , Fitzwilliam Darcy 1341 Words | 4 Pages.
Tolentino, Fenina Gabrielle M. 11074523 January 8, 2013 Assignment #1 1. What are the in french about school, different types of Literary Criticisms? * . New Criticism / Formalism - This type of criticism concerns itself with the an essay on my bicycle, parts of a text and how the on performance management, parts fit together to make a whole. Because of an essay bicycle this, it does not bring in any information outside of the text: biography of the author, historical or literary allusions, mythological patterns, or the psychoanalytical traits of the characters (except those traits specifically. Fiction , Literary criticism , Literature 1134 Words | 4 Pages. ELA5-05 February 9th, 2014 The Great Gatsby Literary Essay The Great Gatsby, written by F. Scott Fitzgerald, is essay nursing a . perfect example of the on my bicycle, ever decaying American Dream. The novel depicts how rich, or upper-class, people use materialism, money and social status to about school, get ahead in life. The original American Dream is nothing compared to what's depicted in an essay bicycle the book. Of History. The use of lies and cheating is also very present in this story, it's practically everywhere. Lastly, materialism and money go. Arnold Rothstein , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King 1012 Words | 3 Pages.
the emotions expressed within this work, emotions of bravery, valor, and ethics still speak to us centuries later. An Essay On My Bicycle. The anonymous author of the poem convinces . us through the masterful use of on performance management various literary elements that emphasize its meaning and on my message. Role Character Essay. Conflict, imagery and setting are three literary elements that contribute to the effectiveness of the poem. The use of conflict aids us to visualize the an essay bicycle, struggles between Beowulf and his opposing forces. To begin with, we are first introduced to. Anglo-Saxons , Beowulf , Epic poetry 882 Words | 3 Pages. The Crucible Theme Essay Courage Truly courage played an important role in the Salem Witch Trials, and it may have been one . of the key reasons the gruesome Salem Witch Trials finally came to its end. The courage shown by people impacted others during this time period by forcing people to acknowledge their viewpoints, which led to the end of the trials.
Courage was displayed in three ways, emotionally, physically, and spiritually. Emotional courage means showing courage without physical means. John Proctor , Magic , Mary Warren 1092 Words | 3 Pages. ? The purpose of a literary analysis essay is to carefully examine and sometimes evaluate a work of mother essay literature or an aspect of . a work of literature. As with any analysis, this requires you to break the subject down into its component parts. Examining the different elements of an essay on my a piece of literature is not an end in itself but rather a process to character essay, help you better appreciate and understand the work of literature as a whole. For instance, an an essay bicycle analysis of a poem might deal with the different types of.
Essay , Greek loanwords , Literature 1348 Words | 4 Pages. GRADE 12 UNIVERSITY ENGLISH Unit 2: Comparative Essay Writing Summative Task Task: Select a particular idea or theme and/or . an aspect of essay in french form and style and analyse the way it or they is/are depicted in Archibald Lampman’s poem, “In November” and one other poem. Bicycle. You may use: William Wordsworth’s “The World is mother essay too much With Us”, Robert Frost’s “Dust of Snow” E.J Pratt’s A November Landscape Mary Soutar-Hynes – “For Writers Whose Work I Have Loved” In completing. Doctor of Philosophy , Essay , Logic 1073 Words | 7 Pages. 1997 GATTACA THEME NOTES: quotes /scenes for an essay -Love/trust: Scene: nostalgic music harmony: I was conceived in the . Riviera, the Detroit variety: warm colours natural light trees and the beach Scene: stark cold procedural surgical emotionless clinical. They say a child conceived in love has a greater chance of happiness they don't say that anymore it seems your everything they say you are and more Irene says how she has a heart condition to Jerome (v) he replies if there's. 2005 singles , 2007 singles , Andrew Niccol 810 Words | 4 Pages.
Literary Anilisis Essay: Robert Frost, Aquainted with the Night. Literary Analysis Essay Emily Konavaluk Acquainted with the Night -Robert Frost All poems hide diffrent meanings, and everyone . has a diffrent interpritation on what it means and how it relates -or doesnt- relate to them or a spcific situation. On My Bicycle. In the poem Acquainted with the Night, Robert Frost, an are celebrities role models American poet and considered one of the an essay, most popular and dissertation critically respected American poets of his generation. An Essay On My Bicycle. Expresses his own emotions of dissertation proposal management grief and depression, that is due to many losses of his parents. Depression , Emotion , Iamb 1002 Words | 3 Pages. Comparative Literary Essay - The Merchant of Venice- Antonio and an essay on my Shylock are both villains In the mother essay, play, The Merchant of Venice, . written by William Shakespeare, the character Antonio is shown as the protagonist, and Shylock is shown as the antagonist. Although this is how the on my, author wanted the audience to feel, some would disagree and state that both Antonio and Shylock show qualities of an antagonist and can be viewed as villains for different reasons. Essay About. Shylock was a very ruthless man, he only an essay on my wanted. Antagonist , Jews , Portia 1759 Words | 4 Pages. think of any complex choices.
I shared this with you because one of the themes in Lois Lowry’s science fiction novel The Giver is “Choices . cannot be made without wisdom and knowledge of the past”. This is displayed in dissertation proposal management many times in the book. An Essay Bicycle. Three examples are; the elders asking the Giver for advice on important tasks, Jonas’s father releasing a baby, and Jonas’s choice to leave community. The first examples of the theme take place after Jonas recently received the painful memory of war. The Cunning Thesis. That. Cognition , Decision making software , Decision theory 917 Words | 3 Pages. Romeo and Juliet Literary Analysis Essay Writing Prompt: An important question that Shakespeare poses in this play is bicycle who . or what is to essay about, blame for the deaths of Romeo and Juliet? Are Romeo and Juliet responsible for the fates that befall them, or should others take responsibility for their deaths? In a five paragraph essay , you must analyze what are the contributing factors that lead to the final tragedy.
You may analyze the characters themselves or situations and an essay bicycle social factors that contribute. Characters in Romeo and role character essay Juliet , Count Paris , Juliet Capulet 794 Words | 3 Pages. | C-100 End of Theme Essay | | DDE-ILE: C1719 February 2013 | | | | There have been a myriad of . topics covered during the on my bicycle, Intermediate Level Education Common Core (C100) portion that are beneficial to Field Grade officers in the Army. These include classes ranging from symbology to organizational structure to individual development plans. After careful consideration of all the lessons introduced in reflective account essay the C100 module, the most important and an essay beneficial class that officers. Communication , Field officer , Fiscal year 1180 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class.
An essay is a literary composition that . expresses a certain idea, claim, or concept and proposal backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). An Essay On My Bicycle. English and literature teachers use them on college critique service, a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages.
In the play of Hamlet, Shakespeare sets up three plots of an essay revenge which involve three characters, each determined to avenge their deceased loved ones. Critique. . Revenge is an essay bicycle essentially a recurring element in the play and can be noted as an management important theme . Revenge is often lead by uncontrolled emotions, affecting an individual’s thoughts and feelings differently and provoking the individual to act without a reason. An Essay. The play helps us question the justifiability and benefits of revenge through the the cunning of history thesis, story’s. Characters in an essay bicycle Hamlet , Death , Gertrude 924 Words | 3 Pages.
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Short essay on bicycle Air Transportation system (India) Air transport is the most modern means of transport which is unmatched by its speed, time- saving and long-distance operation. It is very important for reflective nursing a large country like India. An Essay Bicycle. Through it one can easily reach to proposal on performance management remote and inaccessible areas like mountains, forests, deserts etc. It is very useful during the times of war and an essay bicycle natural calamities like floods, earthquakes, famines, epidemics, hostility and collapse of dissertation on performance management, law and order. The beginning of the air transport was made in 1911 with a 10 km air mail service between Allahabad and bicycle Naini. The real progress was achieved in 1920 when some aerodromes were constructed and the Tata Sons Ltd. started operating internal air services (1922). Flying clubs were opened in character essay Delhi, Karachi, Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1928.
In 1933 another company Indian National Airways was constituted to serve between Karachi and Lahore. In 1938 .the Empire Air Mail Service was introduced to carry mail between the empire countries. In 1946, the an essay bicycle, Government set up the Air transport Licensing Board which granted 11 licenses. The Cunning Of History. At the time of Independence 4 companies were operating their air services (Tata Sons Ltd., Indian National Airways, Air Services of India and on my Deccan Airways). By 1951 there were 4 new entrants: (Bharat Airways, Himalayan Aviation Ltd., Airways India, and Kalinga Airlines). The ownership of these airlines was taken over by the Government in the cunning 1953 and on my bicycle two separate corporations were set up-the Air India international to cater for the international air routes and account the Indian Airlines for the domestic services. Ever since the nationalization there has been improvement in all directions of the air transport. An Essay Bicycle. The revenue earning of essay nursing, Air India has increased from Rs. 7.56 crore in 1960-61 to Rs. 152.01 crore in an essay 1998-99 while that of Indian Airlines from Rs, 10 crore to Rs. 84.08 9rpre.
The number of passengers carried by these airlines rose from 1.25 lakh to 31.66 lakh (for Air India) and from 7.90 lakh to 80.10 lakh (for Indian Airlines) during the same period. India has international airports besides 87 aerodromes divided into major, intermediate and role building minor categories. Its 5 major international airports are: Mumbai (Santa Cruz), Kolkata (Dum Dum), Delhi (Palam), Chennai (Meenambakkam) and an essay on my Thiruvananthapuram. Mother. The operation, management, planning and development of these airports are the responsibility of the International Airports Authority of on my, India. These airports lie on the International Air routes and are used by Air India and foreign airliners. Here landing facilities are of international standard. There are 22 major aerodromes at Agartala Ahmadabad, Amritsar, Aurangabad, Barapani, Bhubaneshwar, Bhuj, Delhi (Safadarjung), Guwahati, HydeVabad, Imphal, (Tuiihal), Jaipur, Khajuraho, Lucknow, Nagpur, Panagarh. Patna, Ranchi, Tiruchchirappalli, Udaipurand Varanasi.
These are also equipped with modern air services and landing facilities. Intermediate aerodromes (22) are located at Belgaum, Bhopal, Bhavnagar, Chakulia, Dibrugarh, Mohanbari, and Gaya. Indore, Jabalpur, Kandla, Junagadh (Keshod), North Lakhimpur (Lilabari), Port Blair, Raipur, Rajkot, Kumbhigram (Silchar), Tirupati (Ranigunta), Vadodara. Role Models. Vijayawada, Vishakhapatnam and Madurai. Besides there are 43 minor aerodromes located at important cities and an essay bicycle towns of the country where landing facilities vary from modern to mere usurfaced airstrips. The Ministry of Defence also maintains some aerodromes for use of defense purposes. There are 20 Flying Clubs, 5 state government flying schools (Patna, Bangalore, Bhubaneshwar, Kolkata and Jaipur) and 8 Gliding Clubs (Ahmadabad, New Delhi, Pilani, Raipur, Nashik, Kanpur, Agra Cantt. and Hyderabad) in the country.
The air services are provided by Civil Aviation and are managed by two public sector corporations. Air India Limited is the major international river of the country. It has bilateral air services Teements with 100 countries of the world and pirates air services to school the USA, Europe, the Russian Confederation, the Middle East, East Asia, Far East and Africa. On My. Air India owns a fleet of 37 aircraft consisting of 7 B-474-200, two B 747-300 (Combi), Six B 747-400, three A 300-B4 and eight A 310-300 aircrafts. It also has joint-venture services with three foreign carriers and seven 'Block Space' and 'Code Share Arrangements' with other foreign airlines. During 2004-05 Air India carried 4.45 million passengers as against college essay critique service, 2.91 million in on my 1996-97. Besides Air India, a number of foreign companies also operate in the country on international routes. Essay In French About School. Recently the Government has decided to disinvest Air India shares to make room for private and foreign companies. Indian Airlines is the major domestic air carrier of the country.
It also provides services to 14 countries, viz.. Pakistan, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Bangladesh. Thailand, Singapore, UAE, Oman, Myanmar, Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain. Its operations cover 77 destinations including 19 abroad. It owns a fleet of an essay on my, 67 aircrafts consisting of ten A-300 s, thirty A-320s, twelve B- 737 and three DO-228 aircrafts. All Boieing 737 aircrafts are operated by its wholly-owned subsidiary Alliance Air. Account Essay Nursing. Besides Indian Airlines there are two private scheduled airlines which provide regular domestic air services. In addition there are 41 non- scheduled operators providing air-taxi/air transport services. Private operators presently cater to nearly 41.4 per on my bicycle cent of the domestic air traffic. The number of passengers availing of private air services has increased from in french 15,000 in 1990 to 49.14 lakhs in 1998.
On the other hand the increase has been marginal in case of bicycle, Indian Airlines (from 78.66 lakh in 1990-91 to 80.10 lakh in 1998-99). Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited has been providing helicopter support services to the petroleum sector including ONGC, Oil India Limited, and Hardy Exploration at Chennai. It also provides services to certain state governments and public sector undertakings and in the north-eastern states. The company presently has an operational fleet of 20 Dauphin helicopters, three Bell 206 L4, two Bell 407, two Robinson R 44 and three Mi 172 helicopters. The fleet has flown approximately 18,500 hours during 1997-98. The Government under 'Open Sky Aviation Policy' is allowing private operators to fly in the cunning of history thesis the. Indian skies and transport passengers and an essay on my freight. Currently four major private airlines-East-West, Damania. Modilut't and Jet Air are in operation.
Air cargo is an important aspect of air services. The total cargo handled at AAI airports was 12.80 lakh tons in 2004-05 which is roughly seven times than that of 1980^81 (1, 78,700 tons). Most of the important cargo consists of perishable goods (meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, flowers etc.), readymade garments, leather goods, machinery, pharmaceuticals, gems and jewellery, professional and scientific equipments. Some mail to principal cities of the reflective essay nursing, country is carried by air. On My. Santa Cruz (Mumbai) airport tops in handling the essay nursing, air cargo, followed by Palam (Delhi) Meenambakkam (Chennai) and Dum Dum (Kolkata). In order to help the Indian exporters and make their exports more competitive, the an essay bicycle, Government had introduced in reflective account essay nursing April 1990 an an essay bicycle 'open sky policy' for cargo.
Under this policy any foreign airlines or association of exporters can bring freighters to the country for essay nursing upliftment of cargo. The Government has also permitted market forces to determine cargo tariff, with IATA rates as the floor rates. Preserve Articles is on my, home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you. About. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before preserving your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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Essay on Trade Union: Top 13 Essays. Read this essay to learn about an essay bicycle Trade Union. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of role models essays, Trade Union 2. Definition of Trade Union 3. Objectives 4. Principles 5. Why Workers Join Trade Unions? 6. Functions 7. Tactics 8. Trade Union Movement in India 9. Present Position 10. Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour 11. The Trade Unions Act, 1926 and Other Details. Essay on Meaning of Trade Union Essay on an essay, Definition of Trade Union Essay on Objectives of Trade Union Essay on Principles of Trade Union Essay on Why Workers Join Trade Unions? Essay on Functions of Trade Union Essay on Tactics of Trade Union Essay on Trade Union Movement in India Essay on Present Position of Trade Union Essay on Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour Essay on The Trade Unions Act, 1926 Essay on Problems of Trade Union Movement in India Essay on Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement. Over the years, trade unions have emerged as an essential feature of role models essays, industry in every country. The main reason for their emergence is the bicycle factory system and reflective essay nursing capitalistic society.
In the early stages of industrialisation, there was lack of legal protection for workers. The workers felt exploited at the hands of the employers. They joined hands to protect their interests through collective action. A trade union is an organised expression of the bicycle needs, attitudes and expectations of the workers. To an average person, a trade union signifies an organisation of workers engaged in securing certain economic benefits for its members. In the modern context, however, activities of trade union are not confined to mere securing the economic benefits. The purview of activities now includes even the political and role mother character building essay welfare activities undertaken by them for the benefits of its members.
A trade union has many facets—economic, social, and political. Bicycle? It strives to protect, maintain and improve economic, social and vocational interests of their members. A few important definitions of a trade union are as follows: According to Sec. 2 (b) of the Trade Unions Act, 1926. “A trade union is any combination of persons, whether temporary or permanent, primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workers and employers, or between workers and workers, and for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business and includes the character building essay federation of two or more trade unions.”
According to Dale Yoder. “A trade union is a continuing, long term association of employees, formed and maintained for the specific purpose of advancing and protecting the on my interest of members in their working relationships.” According to are celebrities role, S.D. Punnekar, “A union is a continuous association of on my bicycle, persons in role mother building essay, industry-whether employees or independent workers—formed primarily for the purpose of the pursuit of the interests of its members of the trade they represent.” According to V.V. Giri, “Trade union is a voluntary organisation of workers formed to promote and protect their interests by collective action.” According to Edwin B. Flippo, “A trade union is an organisation of workers formed to promote, protect and improve through collective action, the social, economic and political interests of its members.” To summarise, it can be said that a trade union is an organisation of employees formed on a continuous basis for the purpose of securing diverse range of benefits. An analysis of the above definitions reveals the following characteristics of a trade union: (i) Trade union is an association of employers, employees or independent workers. (ii) Trade union is generally a permanent combination. On My Bicycle? It is not a temporary or casual combination of thesis, workers.
(iii) The main aim of bicycle, a trade union is to protect and further the economic, vocational and other interests of their members. (iv) Members of a trade union have common interests and problems, which motivate them to unite. (v) Trade unions always act collectively i.e. through united action of members. (vi) The unions are ready to adapt according to technological and environmental changes. Essay # Objectives of role mother character essay, Trade Unions : According to the Trade Unions Act, 1926, “A trade union must work to protect and promote the an essay interests of the workers and the conditions of their employment.” To be specific, the trade unions generally pursue the following objectives: The subject which drew the major attention of the trade unions is the wages and salaries of the account essay workers.
This item relates to the policy matter of the enterprise. However, differences may arise in the process of their implementation. In the an essay case of unorganised sector, trade unions play a crucial role in bargaining the pay scales. Trade unions aim to improve working conditions by securing shorter working hours, better leave facilities, adequate social security, better housing and education and the cunning thesis other welfare benefits. 3. Rationalisation of Personnel Policies: The economic security of an an essay on my bicycle employee is determined not only by the level of wages and account duration of his employment but also by the management’s policies in respect of recruitment, selection, promotions, transfers, training etc. If such decisions are governed by statutory rules and rational policies, there is greater assurance of fair treatment and equal justice; otherwise there is no security for workers.
A trade union should also strive for harmonious relations between the employees and employer. Trade union, being the bicycle representative of all the workers, may carry out continuous negotiations with the management with a view to promote industrial peace. Another objective that unions seek to achieve is winning recognition for workers that they are equal partners with management in the task of production. The unions try to secure for workers a say in the management and industrial democracy thereby bringing about a new social order. To provide legal sanctions to its demands, the unions attempt to get these framed in the form of Acts so that they become permanent features of the contract between the essay school employers and the workers. For this purpose, the unions may take recourse to political action in terms of an essay, supporting some political party or forming their own political party. Modern trade unions also engage in providing educational, medical and other facilities for the development and welfare of their members, if they have sufficient funds at their disposal. Essay # Principles of the cunning of history, Trade Unions : The trade unions have the following principles: The strength of trade unions is their unity. The unity among members will enable the union to an essay, have a good bargaining power.
If the thesis members stay divided then employers or others to whom unions put their demands will not take them seriously. So the unity in the association will be its strength. The union’s strike on the principle of equal pay for equal work of the same type. They oppose discrimination among workers and demand same wages for similar work. The managements may indulge in paying different wages to create divisions among employees. The ILO charter also suggests that men and women should receive equal remuneration for work of equal value. The security of service of employees is the other principle of trade unions. The continuity of service will ensure social and economic security for union members.
Essay # Why Workers Join Trade Unions? The trade union movement is gaining momentum with the passage of time. An Essay? Workers and others are joining unions to protect and further their interests. Role Models Essays? Why do Workers Join Unions? The working classes are increasingly depending upon them to take up its issues with managements. The main reasons for the workers joining unions are as follows: 1. The workers join unions to get economic security. They want steady employment and an essay bicycle proper income.
The unions take up the the cunning thesis issue of layoffs or wage increases for workers with managements and protect the interest of bicycle, their members. 2. The unions protect workers and refrain management from taking any action which is irrational, discriminatory or prejudicial to essay, the interest of labour. The workers want a proper policy for giving rewards, punishment, layoffs, transfers, promotions, etc. The unions will represent worker’s side to the management and ensure fair and bicycle just policies for service matters. 3. The unions are the voice of workers in communicating their views, aims, feelings and frustrations to management. 4. The unions also help workers in getting employment. 5. The unions provide protection to workers against economic hazards such as accident, illness, death, disability, etc. The functions of modern unions are comprehensive. These functions can be categorised as: 1. Role Character? Intramural functions. 2. Extramural functions.
3. On My Bicycle? Political functions. 4. Social functions. These functions are termed as militant functions too because unions may resort to the cunning thesis, strikes and other pressure tactics to get their demands implemented. Intramural functions include wage rises, proper working conditions, sanitation, safety, continuity in employment and so on. The unions try to resolve these issues through collective bargaining. If discussions and meetings do not help in bicycle, resolving these issues then unions use strike and other pressures as tools in getting these demands accepted. Trade unions also undertake functions which are required for the welfare of their members. These functions include provision of educational, recreational and housing facilities. The unions raise funds in the form of subscription from members and dissertation management spend them for the welfare of workers. In case of untimely deaths, unions provide financial help to the members of the deceased’s family. An Essay On My Bicycle? Extramural functions are very important as they inculcate the spirit of co-operation against dissertation management, members.
The trade unions indulge in political activities in order to help in improving the economic conditions of workers through legislative and administrative measures. The unions hold political meetings to put pressure on the government to bring new legislations which will improve the plight of working class. The unions may also collect funds for an essay bicycle political functions. These functions include carrying out social service activities, discharging social responsibilities through various sections of the society like educating the essay customers. Trade unions employ certain tactics to deal with the management.
These are: Organising drive is one of the major instruments of an essay, force that unions employ. Are Celebrities Role Models Essays? Organising drive is an essay nothing but forming a union where none exists. The mere threat of a union may bring the management to mother character building essay, terms. Similarly, a successful drive may also bring the management to terms. The organiser tries to capitalise on employee dissatisfaction and remises workers that their dissatisfaction would be removed if they join the union. The most important union tactic is strike. Strike directly suspends production, cuts the an essay bicycle creation of college essay service, profit, cut off the employer from the bicycle market, may lose the source of materials and of history thesis fixed charges such as interest, taxes and salaries for officials continue to be incurred during the on my strike period.
The very existence of an enterprise may be threatened by a prolonged strike. By its very nature, strike is a test of strength and if it succeeds in wrecking damage on the management, it does so only at the expense of the models essays workers. Furthermore, strike is a weapon which can easily fail and which has often failed in the past, leaving strikers destitute and jobless. Unions often invoke political patronage to beat the management. Several unions owe their recognition and patronage to on my, political parties and it is not surprising that employee organisations look to them for direction and sustenance. Unions often blackmail the management, at some critical point, of time to get their demands met. Essay # Trade Union Movement in India: The trade union movement in India started with the forming of Bombay Mill Hands Association in 1890 by are celebrities models N.K. Lokhands.
In 1897, Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Printers Union of Calcutta in 1905, Madras and Calcutta postal Unions 1907 were the other associations formed in the beginning of this movement. These were no trade unions in on my, true sense but rather social organisations. Reflective Account Nursing? The main aims of these organisations were to promote welfare activities and spread literacy among workers. These associations were not affiliated to any central organisation or federation. On My Bicycle? The leadership to these unions was provided mostly by social reformers, careerists and politicians-cum nationalists. The trade union movement developed fast particularly during and after World War I. The factors like economic hardship due to rise in reflective essay nursing, cost of living, rising tide of nationalism, emergence of union leadership contributed to development of trade unionism in India.
A number of unions such as Indian Seamen’s Union at Calcutta and Bombay, Punjab Press Employees’ Association, Madras Textile Labour Union, Railway Workers’ Unions were formed with a view to ameliorate the conditions of working class. A number of nationalist leaders like C.R. Das, Moti Lal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, V.V. An Essay? Giri, S.A. Dissertation Proposal On Performance Management? Dange, S.V. Ghate, some of them to an essay bicycle, mention, associated themselves with trade union movement. In 1920 All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was formed under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai.
By 1926-27, workers’ and essay critique service peasants’ parties sprang up and in 1928; various local units of these parties were united into in All India Workers’ and Peasants’ party. The formation of this union gave impetus to left thinking and many unions opted for left- wing leadership. There was a split in AITUC and All India Trade Union Federation (AITUF) was formed under N.M. Joshi. AITUC had another split in 1931 and Red Trade Union Congress (RTUC) was formed by B.T. Ranadive and S.V.
Deshpande. In 1935 RTUC merged into AITUC. On My Bicycle? After nine years of split NTUF also merged with AITUC (1940) making it again a sole representative of the organised labour. Those favouring the ideals of socialism and sharing the views of college essay service, Indian National Congress separated from AITUC and formed Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) in 1947. The socialists later formed Hind Mazdoor Panchayat (H.M.S.). In 1962 a new organisation called Confederation of an essay on my bicycle, Free Trade Unions (CFTU) was formed. The split in political parties was followed by a split in the trade union it was dominating.
This process has continued in reflective account, the Indian scene right upto now. Essay # Present Position of Trade Union : There are five central organisations which dominate the trade unions in India. These organisations are briefly discussed here: 1. The India National Trade Union Congress (INTUC): This organisation which was formed by congress party in 1947 has 3153 affiliated trade unions with a total membership of over 30 lakh workers. It has strong roots in West Bengal, Assam, Gujrat, Bihar and Maharashtra. The largest number of workers in this organisation belongs to textile, jute, tea plantation, hosiery, transport and mining industries. 2. The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC): AITUC which is affiliated to Communist Party of an essay bicycle, India is considered to be the second largest federation of trade unions with over 26 lakh members. It has basis in engineering, petroleum, building and the cunning construction industries.
AITUC is strong in West Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and an essay bicycle Delhi. HMS is the labour wing of Praja Socialist Party. The focus of this federation is more on peaceful, legitimate and democratic methods. Role Models? It has affiliations in on my bicycle, railways, cotton textile, coal mining, engineering industries, etc. It has also a base in post and the cunning of history thesis telegraph department of central government. 4. The United Trade Union Congress (UTUC): Some socialist leaders formed UTUC in April 1949 with an an essay bicycle objective to establish a workers’ and peasants’ state in India. It has influences in role mother, West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Its members come from plantation, textile, ports, shipping and agricultural areas. 5. The Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU): It was formed by CPM members in 1970.
CITU believes that the exploitation of the working class can be ended only be socialising all means of production, distribution and exchange and establishing a socialist state. CITU claims a membership of over 12 lakh workers. Essay # Recommendations of the National Commission on bicycle, Labour : National Commission on Labour feels that the primary function of a union is to promote and management protect the interests of its members. Their goals should be to improve the economic position of workers. On My Bicycle? These objectives will be achieved only college essay if the unions are strong enough to take up workers’ issues with managements and the government. The commission made following recommendations to strengthen the unions: 1. It recommended that the formation of craft and occupation unions be discouraged. Industrial trade unions and federations should be encouraged. 2. The number of an essay bicycle, outsiders in a union should be limited to 30 percent only and this percentage should even be less if the the cunning of history thesis members of a union are 10,000 or more.
3. On My Bicycle? The ex-employees of an organisation should be treated as insiders. In some cases the union leaders resign their jobs to shoulder increasing responsibility of union or they might be victimised by managements for their active participation in union activities. So the commission recommended that these persons be treated as inside members of a union. 4. The commission recommended that there should be no ban on non-employees holding office. 5. Efforts should be made to encourage leadership from amongst members of the working class. 6. The management should be penalised for victimisation of members of unions and also for adopting unfair practices to discourage members from joining unions.
7. The commission also recommended that registration of a union be cancelled if its membership falls below a certain number and if it fails to file its returns in time and rectify the defective returns in a specified time. 8. The unions with 100 c. more members should be recognised, if there is essay nursing more than one union then the one with more members should be recognised. The Trade Unions Act, 1926, legalises the formation of trade unions by allowing employees the right to an essay, form and organise unions. The Act was passed on March 25, 1926 and was brought into force from June 1, 1927. It extends to whole of India.
The main objective of the Act is to provide for the registration of trade unions and to give registered trade unions a legal status and immunity to their office bearers and members from civil and criminal liability in essay, respect of legitimate trade union activities. In pursuit of an essay bicycle, its primary objective, the Act contains 33 sections. The provisions of the Act are divided into character building, eight sections namely: 2. Registration of unions. 3. Duties and an essay responsibilities of of history, registered trade unions. 4. Right and liabilities of bicycle, registered trade unions. 5. Amalgamation and dissolution of college critique, unions. 6. Submission of returns. 7. Penalties and fines.
8. Power to make regulations. The Act is a central legislation, but is administered by the state governments. Central Government handles all unions which are not confined to on my bicycle, one state. It has the power to amend the account essay Act. Essay # Problems of Trade Union Movement in India: Trade unions are concentrated more or less in major metropolitan cities in India and traceable only in large scale units especially in cotton textile industry. The degree of unionism also varies from industry to industry, iron and steel, tobacco, railways, cement, banking, insurance etc. There is very little trade union activity in small scale sector, agricultural sector and domestic sector.
Most of the unions have low membership. Though the number of unions and union membership are increasing, average membership is inadequate. Because of their small size, unions suffer from lack of adequate funds and find it difficult to engage the services of experts to aid and on my bicycle advise members in character building, times of need. They can’t bargain with employers effectively on on my bicycle, their own. Most of the trade unions in India suffer from inadequate funds. This unsound financial position is mostly due to low membership and low rate of membership fee. Trade Union Act, 1926 prescribed the membership fee at 25 p. per member per month. But the National Commission on labour recommended the increase of rate of character building essay, membership subscription from 25 paisa to Re. 1 in the year 1990. But the on my Government did not accept this recommendation.
Due to essay critique, the financial weakness, most of the unions are not in a position to undertake welfare programmes for an essay their workers. Most of the trade unions in India have professional political leadership. The leadership of politicians is interested in exploiting workers for their political purposes. Strikes are organised and prolonged for personal prestige and negotiations with employer’s breakdown due to political considerations. The interest and welfare of the essay workers are very often ignored. An Essay Bicycle? Thus, the political leadership is reflective account essay nursing very harmful to the trade union movement in an essay, India. Multiple unions both at the plant and industry levels are responsible for unhealthy growth of trade union movement. There exist several unions in the same establishment or industry. Essay About? The existence of this phenomenon can be attributed partly to the domination of outside leaders and partly to the labour laws. Trade unions Act encourages a small sector of workers to form separate unions.
Political outsiders establish unions of their own to increase their political influence. In some cases, employers encourage split in unions to undermine their bargaining power. Due to the multiplicity of unions, inter-union rivalry takes place. Unions try to on my bicycle, play down each other in a bid to gain greater influence on the workers. In the process, they do more harm than good to the cause of unionism as a whole. Employers take advantage of infighting between unions and play unions against each other. They can also refuse to bargain on the plea that there is college service no representative union.
Inter union rivalry cuts at the root of an essay on my, trade union movement, weaken the power of collective bargaining and reduces the mother character essay effectiveness of workers in securing their legitimate rights. Many a times, the employers refuse recognition to trade unions under the contention that unions consist of only a small number of workers or because of an essay bicycle, multiplicity of union. Employers are under no obligation to give recognition to unions. Weak finances and of history thesis political leadership do-not permit unions to engage the services of full time, paid office bearers. Union activists, who work on a part-time basis, neither have the time nor the energy to take up union activities sincerely and diligently. Workers join factories with varying backgrounds and therefore, it is difficult for them to put up a joint front in case of trouble. On My Bicycle? Employers exploit the situation, under the circumstances, by dividing workers on the basis of race, religion, language etc. In order to make the trade union movement succeed, the members of the trade unions should take keen interest in the union affairs. But majority of workers do-not take interest in union activities.
The attendance at the general meetings of unions is very poor. Under such circumstances, trade unionism cannot be expected to college, make much progress and outside political leaders exploit the situation to serve their own personal agenda. Many unions in India undertake only limited welfare activities. They feel that their major activity is to fight with the employer for more wages and allowances. Moreover, paucity of funds also hamper the an essay bicycle welfare activities of the unions. In the absence of welfare activities, workers are not attracted towards unions. The general public is adversely affected due to strikes, go slow policy and other practices of unions. As a result, public support or sympathy is not available to college essay critique service, the unions. The general public opinion is unfavourable to an essay bicycle, unions and their unfair practices. Essay # Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement:
Unions must put a joint front. A strong and united trade union movement is necessary to safeguard the interests of the members and to help in achieving the targets of college essay critique service, production. To develop a strong trade union, it is necessary to expand the trade union movement to unorganised sector and small towns. The membership of unions should also be increased. The principle of one union in one industry should be adopted to avoid multiplicity of unions and inter union rivalry. This will help in eliminating the problems created by multiplicity of unions. The financial problems of the unions can be solved by raising the membership and collecting for an essay on my bicycle fees from all the members, the membership fees should be raised as the amount of the wages of the workers increased significantly compared to the situation in 1926 when Trade Union Act provided for the collection of 25 paisa per reflective account, month per member as subscription fees.
Political leadership has developed due to the absence of internal leadership. Outside leadership is the main cause of multiple problems of the an essay bicycle trade unions. These problems can be removed through the development of leadership talents from within. Management should encourage internal workers to lead their own movement. Both managements and trade unions should provide education and training for role models the development of internal leadership. Paid union officials should be employed who are persons of proven integrity and who are competent and an essay on my sincere. They should be able to evaluate workers’ aspirations and strong enough to dissertation, negotiate with employers on equal basis.
It should be made obligatory on the part of the employers to give recognition to an essay, the trade unions. The Royal Commission observed as early as in 1931 that the fact that unions consist of only a minority of employees is not adequate reason for with-holding recognition. Some procedure must be worked out service, so that the most representative union in the plant is on my bicycle recognised by the management. The National labour conference (1982) has suggested a check off system for verifying membership of different trade unions. Under this, workers will authorise managements to deduct, from their wages, dues to any of the unions of their choice. This would provide the basis for finding the strength of each union and determining which of the unions would act as a bargaining agent.
Unions should widen the scope of their activities and provide certain benefits and facilities to the workers. This will attract more workers towards unions and will make the unions strong and popular. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the proposal on performance management following pages:
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How to an essay on my bicycle, Write an reflective essay nursing, APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on an essay on my, their own pages. The entire paper should be written in reflective account nursing the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on on my bicycle, p. Role Models Essays? 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. Bicycle? On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles.
It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and the cunning of history thesis, spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on an essay, subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the account nursing, manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. An Essay Bicycle? State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it.
The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to account, draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. On My? Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t?
Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the models, end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at an essay, the end of the first paragraph by essay stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in an essay terms of the on performance, ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991.
Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to bicycle, present first, second, third, and of history, so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. When an bicycle, idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. In French About School? The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses.
The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the on my, reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into essays, your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in an essay on my complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Of History? Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. An Essay? Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). College Essay? It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the bicycle, articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold)
The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to role mother building essay, write, but requires precision. An Essay On My? Your goal is to mother character, describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the an essay on my bicycle, Procedure section prior to essay service, the. Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for bicycle age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for account essay their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych.
280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into an essay, a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the mother character essay, paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the an essay bicycle, computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the proposal on performance, computer, and so forth. An Essay Bicycle? If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in essay service detail. Bicycle? For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the essay, measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for on my your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here.
Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only proposal on performance management describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold) Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold)
What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. Bicycle? In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Thesis? Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to an essay on my, avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to dissertation proposal, the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate.
Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. An Essay On My Bicycle? If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into reflective account essay nursing, labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is an essay reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. The Cunning Thesis? For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating.
For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of an essay on my bicycle, APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. About? Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the on my bicycle, same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and of history, SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. An Essay? Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of the cunning of history thesis, means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to on my, report means and proposal on performance management, standard deviations in on my the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure.
Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to about school, interpret your findings and bicycle, place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and reflective essay nursing, work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the an essay on my bicycle, results say about the broader behavior under investigation?
Bring back some of the critique, literature you discussed in on my the Introduction, and management, show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the an essay on my, limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it?
Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the school, study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. An Essay On My Bicycle? What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and role mother building essay, behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to an essay on my bicycle, answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an about school, idea for an essay on my bicycle a future study.
End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by account nursing last name of an essay bicycle, first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of are celebrities models, each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. An Essay? Examples of references to journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of references to books and essays, book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. Bicycle? 187-192 of APA manual to proposal, learn more).
[Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the an essay on my bicycle, major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the dissertation proposal on performance management, chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. An Essay? (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Critique? Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol.
2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the on my bicycle, APA manual. Essay In French? Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). An Essay Bicycle? Tables can be single or double-spaced.
If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the mother building essay, DV. Underneath the on my, figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Include error bars in in french about school your bar graphs, and an essay bicycle, note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp.
174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the authors’ names and role essay, publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the on my bicycle, sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in college critique service parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the on my, authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. Reflective Essay Nursing? ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is on my cited. Dissertation Proposal Management? When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the an essay, first time).
“Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. Role? If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and an essay bicycle, Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in role models essays other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. An Essay Bicycle? If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of role, most criminal acts.
The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at an essay bicycle, the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the management, American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .