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buffalo bill essay Buffalo Bill the write thesis, character was first a fiction created to symbolize the wild west. William Cody the man became so enraptured with this persona that it began to dominate his life and his work. Student! It was Cody who, in write thesis his autobiography, placed Buffalo Bill in the company of Daniel Boone, Kit Carson, and Davy Crockett. William Cody was a real person, however, with a history of his own, and he was a man devoted to pursuits outside of his theatrical enterprise. Just as the Wild West Show reduced a vast region with an scholarship essays high infinite number of complex racial, cultural, economic, geopgraphic, and ecological issues to a common archetypal myth, Cody's life as a showman reduced him to the legendary character of Buffalo Bill. Nevertheless, the complexities of the west remained unsettled, and Cody's life outside the show encompassed ambitions and a abstract thesis failures not apparent in Cody the showman. Part of admissions personal, this inscrutability derives from Cody's relentless desire to a abstract thesis become Buffalo Bill. As we have seen, fact and fiction intertwined so tightly in the Wild West Show that the medical school statement, two became indistinguishable from one another. This same blending spilled over into a abstract, Cody's personal life as his real identity became confused with the character of Buffalo Bill. One problem is that Cody so aggressively promoted his enterprise that he was almost always on scholarship school juniors stage as Buffalo Bill.

In New York, San Franciso, Chicago, and Europe, Cody's savvy for publicity essentially required that he maintain his character anywhere he went. In his day, he was a national hero, a role model, and a living legend. Write A Abstract! Slipping out of character or dashing the these lines writing & essays, public's expectations of him might have led to the ruin of his empire, or so it seems Cody believed. Buffalo Bill represented the write a abstract, quintessential American through his embodiment of frontier values and all the raw independence, freedom, and self-sufficiency included in along lines paragraphs & essays wild west virtues. As the nation become increasingly industrial and as waves of immigrants descended on American shores, Buffalo Bill became the very symbol of the a abstract, American spirit. Cody recognized the burden he carried, but relished the responsibility of shouldering it.

Still, there was more to along these paragraphs Cody than his legend, and in fact, his Wild West Show was to Cody a source of capital to finance the many other ventures he initiated. Outside of the entertainment industry, Cody's most significant project was that of developing the town of Cody, Wyoming. In Cody's scouting days, he grew enamored of the land in Big Horn Basin. In 1895, Cody began to establish his eponymous town, and his approach to development was remarkably similar to the making of the Wild West Show. Cody possessed a broad, comprehesive, and inventive vision for his community. He imagined a utopian western metropolis where old west values and write a abstract emergent modern technology and prosperity would coexist in a new White City. Cody's indefatigable pursuit of his envisioned ideal was indeed impressive. He hustled, lobbied, and wheeled-and-dealed anyone who could help him achieve his goal. He had organized financing to dig three canals to irrigate the land using the Shoshone River. When his initial efforts to raise the two million dollars necessary for its completion failed, he hounded his friend Teddy Roosevelt for medical personal statement support.

By 1904, the Department of Interior initiated the Shoshone Reclamation Act, and by 1910, two dams were in operation, and 16,200 acres were under irrigation. In personal letters to his friend C.L. Hinkle, a member of the write a abstract thesis, Wyoming State Land Board, Cody demonstrates the extent of his vision of the town. Excerpted below are some passages from these letters which illustrate Cody's inexhaustible energy. The letters appear in The Business of Being Buffalo Bill: The Selected Letters of William F. Cody, 1879-1917 (1988, Praeger, New York), and essay I have quoted them as they appear in the book. Much of the biographical information I include was gathered from Blackstone's book. For further reading, see especially the first section entitled Letters, pp. 1-84.

One of Cody's many projects was to institute a Military College in Cody. The original location for the college was to be in Colorado, but through Cody's influence, he was able to convince the command to move it to write thesis Wyoming. April 15th, 1901. . Student! Now Hinkle. Some time ago I filed in the names of Charles DeMarris and my self-on the waters of the write, hot springs near Cody. On Skin! Will you please examine these filings and thesis give me the typography questions, particulars regarding same. this is very important for me to know at once as I am doing something that will be of great interest to the state I have incorporated a company of which I am President which will be known as- Cody Military College International Academy of write a abstract, Rough Riders. to teach young men all branches of on skin, Miliary Science it's taking like wild fire-our company will commence the permanent construction of the barracks in thesis June and will establish a military camp in tents at once. Essays! Another of Cody's goals was to take advantage of nearby Hot Springs to write a abstract build a hotel and essays scarlet guilt resort.

Cody the town was already being promoted in the show with the slogan: Take the Burlington Northern to the Big Horn Basin. His eventual goal was to link Cody with Yellowstone National Park via an auto and stage line, and he worked arduously to ready the region for the inevitable influx of tourists. April 27th 1901. Thanks for finding out about those hot springs near Cody. Now what I want to know is write a abstract thesis, what the state proposes to do with them. You know I am working hard to establish a Military college in our state and essays on skin it will be a great advertisement for a abstract the state.

And as I was the first man to make application to the state for those mineral waters I should be considdered. Essays On Skin Care! Please find out what I can do to get use of those springs. And let me know at once. Very truly yours. PS. Telegraph me if the write, town sections is scarlet guilt, allright now.

P.S. Hinkle fix this business up for me and I will make it allright with you. I want to get control of a abstract thesis, those springs. Your favor of the 15th before me. I will make application for 130,000 gallons of the different waters per student day from those springs for write thesis the use of the Military College and for typography essay my hotel and for bathing and shipping purposes.

I think that the water should be shipped all over write a abstract, the country as soon as the railroad gets there. It will advertise the state. This amount of water will be only on skin, comparatively a drop taken from the immense flow of those springs and I wont be injuring anyone in taking it. Instead I will be benifiting the people and advertising the State. Very truly yours, The Wild West made a final European tour in write a abstract thesis 1903. The tour was arranged by James Bailey of Barnum and Bailey Circus so that the Wild West's kickoff show in Europe would be concurrent with Barnum Bailey's return from their European tour. This move was a brilliant partnership in terms of logisitcs because the shows could exchange their show trains and other equipment and thereby lessen practical complications posed by transportation arrangements. The timing of this exchange also eliminated competition between the essays scarlet guilt, two shows for U.S. audiences. Despite overseeing the tour, Cody continued to manage and promote the development of Northern Wyoming.

My Dear Hinckle. A Abstract! Thanks for your favor. Student Job Corps! Am sorry our Govenor did not get the nomination. But such is life. I compliment you on your deserved promotion. Have commensed building a hotel near our old hunting camp at mouth of middle fork. And will add forty more rooms to the Irma. A Abstract! Also getting my coal mine in to shape to ship coal. That dear old country eats up my money faster than I can make it.

1907 marked a turning point for Cody and essays high juniors his Wild West Show. Financially, the enterprise began to falter. James Bailey had invested in write a abstract thesis half of the show, but after his death, his estate couldn't provide enough capital to essay keep the show up to write a abstract thesis Cody's standards. The long tours on the road began to take their toll on along these lines paragraphs Cody, and an apparent homesickness for his ranch in Big Horn Basin crept into him. He managed to overcome financial problems, but it was a narrow escape, and money woes plagued him for the rest of his life. In 1910, he began a series of Farewell tours, after which he intended to retire to write Wyoming. Cody's empire slowly crumbled during the last ten years of his life. The Farewell tours took nearly three seasons to complete, and troubles befell the show constantly. On Skin! Cody had overextended himself financially with bad investments, and keeping the show running and managing activities in Big Horn proved too much. His marriage had ended in 1905 and he and Louisa Frederici had been entangled in a lengthy lawsuit. His health and his spirit suffered, but in Buffalo Bill fashion, he suffered in write a abstract thesis private, and pushed on with new projects to pay his debts.

He merged the writing paragraphs & essays, Wild West with the Sells-Floto Circus and established a motion picture company. As this letter to friend and hunting companion E.E. Buck Arbuckle indicates, Cody's problems only write a abstract thesis, worsened. Say. This is the allfired darkest summer to stay in the road I ever seen. Once in a while I think we struck a plain trail then I loose it again. and I don't know where I am going. in about two weeks write me again. and see if I have picked up a trail I can hang to. By 1916, Cody's health was in sharp decline, perhaps aggravated by ongoing legal battles, contract disputes, and financial troubles too insurmountable to conquer.

Cody remained idealistic and hopeful to the end, always on the lookout for a new investment opportunity. But with no credit and student job corps essay no significant income, his prospects were not good. When word of his ill health went public, the Cody family was flooded with letters and telegrams from a worried nation. Cody was dearly loved and respected by many. A few of the telegrams below express the sympathy shared by millions when news of Cody's death in write thesis Denver on January 10, 1917, made the headlines. Dear Friend Bill am appealing to the Celestial court to revise the medical jurys decision hoping nerve will and constitution may steer you off the trail over Great Divide and let you camp for typography essay questions years yet on the banks of the rippling Shoshone. Stay with them. How Koolah old pal. Burke was the Press Agent for Buffalo Bill's Wild West.

Burke idolized Cody and is responsible for much of the existent literature glorifying Cody's life. Cody received this telegram the day before his death. Burke sent another the write, following day. Essays Scarlet Letter Guilt! A heart weeps with you in sympathy which also loses a rugged ideal idol in the death of dear Bill Cody. White House, Washington. May I not express my sincere sympathy with you in the death of Colonel Cody. January 12, 1917.

The Oglala Sioux Indians of Pine Ridge, South Dakota, in council assembled, resolve that expression of deepest sympathy be extended by their committee in thesis behalf of all the Oglalas, to the wife, relatives, and friends of the late William F. Cody for the loss they have suffered; that these people who have endured may know that the Oglalas found in Buffalo Bill a warm and lasting friend; that our hearts are sad from the heavy burden of his passing, lightening only in the belief of our meeting before the presence of our Wakan Tanka in the great hunting ground. On Skin Care! Chief Jack Red Cloud. and a fitting conclusion excerpted from an official Resolution in Memoriam from the State Legislature of California: Whereas, the State of California desires to express its appreciation of the courage and a abstract fearlessness of this, our last frontiersman, whose life stands forth in the establishment and foundation of our western country; and. Whereas, in his death that romantic and stirring chapter in scarlet letter our national history that began with Daniel Boone is forever closed.

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Hotline #1,030: Penn Station To Resume Regular Service; SEPTA Train Crash Injures 33; STB Pressures CSX; SMART Begins Service; Purple Line Set to Break Ground. Check Out Our Newest Hotline! NARP thanks those members who have sent in write a abstract, industry-related news stories, op-eds, editorials, or letters to the editor from your communities. We include them in our social media efforts, along with the weekly Hotline. Typography? Please send your news items to Bob Brady, bbrady@xenophonstrategies.com, and we will continue to share it with the membership.

We also ask members to write send events that we can put on the website here. Scarlet Letter? And please follow NARP on Facebook and Twitter. The Surface Transportation Board (STB) is increasing pressure on CSX to improve its new system for freight trains to allow Amtrak to get passengers to their destinations on write thesis, time. The federal agency now requires CSX to provide hard numbers, as opposed to anecdotal evidence, showing improvement in services due to operational changes recently implemented. Along These Paragraphs? As a result of these changes, Amtrak's Hoosier State and Cardinal trains, which run on write thesis, CSX tracks between Indianapolis and essay Dyer, have seen significant declines in on-time performance (OTP). The Hoosier State train fell from a 61.8 percent OTP in a abstract, June to 54.3 percent in July. Letter Guilt? The Cardinal was on write a abstract thesis, time for only 23.1 percent of these writing paragraphs & essays, its trips. “The reality is that appropriate pressure about being a good corporate citizen is coming to write a abstract thesis bear on CSX for them to honor the agreement they have with Amtrak to provide reasonable service to a company that requires on-time performance, said Arvid Olson, transportation chair of the typography Quality of Life Council of Greater Lafayette Commerce. Due to the recent CSX network service problems and write recovery efforts, the Surface Transportation Board will hold a public listening session on Tuesday, September 12. The listening session will start at 9:30 AM in essay, the Board’s Hearing Room at the agency’s headquarters located at 395 E Street, S.W., in Washington, D.C. NARP is encouraging all passengers in the DMV region to attend and talk about how surging delays are affecting them!

Speakers must file a notice of intent, identifying the write a abstract party and the proposed speaker, by September 7, 2017. The session will be open for public observation. An email from CSX supervisor to dispatchers showed Amtrak trains being intentionally delayed. CSX officials denied the claims after the emails were first obtained by the Journal Courier in essays guilt, Lafayette, IN. The email correspondence included the following direction, “Give high priority to write a abstract (freight trains) Q031/Q032. If we are meeting with Amtrak make the delay on Amtrak first. If Amtrak is running down one of these trains go ahead and get to the point Amtrak is seeing the student job corps (end of the freight train) before we get them around. “This is not right of CSX, as it poses numerous problems for Amtrak and its passengers,” said NARP President Jim Mathews. “It’s clear there are persons within CSX who think they are above federal regulations and can prioritize freight over passenger trains, but the issue is not coming to a head and the STB is putting its foot down.”

Some of the issues arising from the numerous delays, in addition to OTP, is how much money Amtrak has lost due to CSX. This includes compensation for displaced passengers, the cost of getting passengers to other train stations to make connections, and additional crew costs. Amtrak co-CEO Wick Moorman said service at Penn Station in New York will resume its regular schedule on Tuesday, September 5. The “Summer of Renewal” project spanned 44 days, and many feared repairs would cause significant delays to commuters on Amtrak, LIRR and NJ Transit. Despite the concerns raised by write a abstract riders to politicians like Governor Andrew Cuomo, the work has run smoothly with little to no issue. We thank customers for their patience while we renew the along lines writing paragraphs infrastructure at New York Penn Station.

We also appreciate the collaboration and support of our commuter partners, NJ Transit and the Long Island Rail Road, said Amtrak co-CEO Wick Moorman, in a statement. Our engineering forces are making great progress and we look forward to write a abstract thesis resuming scheduled operations Sept. Student? 5. The summer project involved closing three tracks at a time as workers conducted total track and switch replacement at “A Interlocking,” a sorting area for incoming and outgoing trains at write, Penn Station. “We have been keeping a close eye on the work at typography, Penn Station, and it has been occurring without any significant issues,” said NARP President Jim Mathews. A Abstract? “Penn Station is student, a vital link for the NEC, and write though passengers may have experienced some delays this summer due to along lines paragraphs & essays track closures, their commutes in the future will be safer and more reliable as a result.” After 59 years, passenger rail service returned to the North Bay in California with the commencement of write, service from the Sonoma-Marin Area Transit (SMART). Agency officials, along with other elected officials in essays, the area including U.S. Rep. Write? Jared Huffman (D-San), state Sen.

Mike McGuire and California’s secretary of transportation, Brian P. Kelly., gathered this morning at school admissions personal statement, Santa Rosa’s Railroad Square station to celebrate the opening day of service with a ribbon cutting and speeches to a large crowd that was excited for write a abstract thesis SMART service to begin. Service officially began at 12:49pm, with free rides for all passengers. Starting Saturday, and continuing through Sept. Essays School? 4, all fares will receive a 50 percent discount. Fares will return to write thesis normal on Tuesday, September 5 and will range from $3.50 to medical school $11.50, depending on distance traveled.

“This is a great day for passenger rail service in thesis, the North Bay,” said NARP’s Mathews. “The commencement of service was fraught with several delays and some may have questioned if service would ever begin. It’s finally here and people are excited to take a ride on SMART.” SMART will run 34 trips each weekday, and 10 trips on weekends. Riders will be able to board trains at 10 stations from Santa Rosa to downtown San Rafael, a 43-mile route along old Northwestern Pacific Railroad tracks. Full schedules can be viewed online at www.sonomamarintrain.org/schedules-fares. Stories From Passengers: Jack and Karin Traylor; Dayton, OH. My wife and I dreamed of traveling across America to see our wonderful nation, once we retired and typography had the time to do so. That day has arrived, and we've made three wonderful trips on Amtrak in the last fifteen months to get our journeys underway. I don't fly for medical reasons and my wife does not like to fly. A Abstract Thesis? Plus, as senior citizens, we find that long auto trips are just not practical anymore. So, train travel, on Amtrak, has been perfect.

We first made a coast to coast trip from Atlanta, to essays scarlet New Orleans, then Los Angeles, to Chicago, then Washington, D.C., and back to Atlanta. Next we made a similar trip, but went to Seattle and returned. Finally, we wanted to visit the French culture in southern Louisiana, so we rode Amtrak from Atlanta to Lafayette, LA, and returned, with stopovers each way in New Orleans. Whenever we do stopovers, as we did in New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Chicago, on the first trip, and in Chicago and Seattle on the second, we boost the local economy by a abstract spending money on hotels, restaurants, and admissions personal statement attractions. We hope to be able to continue our long-distance Amtrak trips as there is a abstract thesis, much of America still to see. The Amtrak travel and service always has been first-rate. A big thanks goes to the Jack and Karin for sharing their story!

NARP is student job corps essay, looking for more stories like this about the write thesis National Network to help us fight the White House's proposed budget for FY 2018. Facts and figures alone can’t communicate how vital these trains are to along lines writing paragraphs the communities that depend on them. NARP needs to write hear from YOU about scholarship essays, your town, and write thesis your train. We’ve heard from on skin care, hundreds of you so far and we’re making sure they get seen in Washington. but we still need more! If you haven’t yet taken part in this effort, please take just a minute or two to write out a abstract, a few paragraphs telling us why passenger rail is important to you, and email it to stories@narprail.org.

We’re looking for stories from individual passengers about how train service benefits their lives, and how their lives would be hurt by the loss of medical personal, train service. We’re especially interested in stories that describe how trains: Connect you to vital services, such as medical care or vital government services. Provide access to educational opportunities, whether it’s traveling across the state to university or commuting to an internship. Allow you to maintain mobility while managing a disability or medical condition. Help you and your business, and its role in helping you connect with customers and clients.

A new report from the a abstract thesis University of California-Berkeley and along lines & essays released by a abstract the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) revealed that passenger and freight rail will be essential to helping the state, its economy and environment as its population grows by 21 million people by 2050. Student Essay? The report, Rail and California Economy, presents case studies and analysis of freight- and write a abstract passenger-rail transportation on land use, freeway congestion and the movement of commodities, and how they can affect state's economy. In terms of typography, passenger rail, the LOSSAN passenger corridor, which is under Amtrak and write runs from San Luis Obispo to San Diego, stimulates growth in student job corps, residential, industrial and commercial development. Additionally, Caltrain, which runs along a 77-mile corridor from San Francisco through Silicon Valley to San Jose, accommodates 4,500 passengers per hour. That is the equivalent of thesis, adding an additional freeway with two lanes in each direction.

The report also found that Caltrain helps save more than 50,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide annually, which equates to removing 10,000 vehicles from the typography roads. Regarding freight rail, the a abstract thesis report highlights that more than $400 billion worth of U.S. imports moved through California in 2015, which represented 18 percent of the national total. About 75 percent of lines writing paragraphs & essays, containerized goods leaving the nation were transported by write a abstract rail. Typography Essay Questions? Without rail service to and from the write a abstract thesis ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, container flows through the ports would be reduced by 39 percent, while port truck traffic would increase by 44 percent. A new Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) study that lowered cost estimates for the MBTA’s North-South station has increased the support for the project.

The study showed minimum bid cost estimates as low as $3.8 billion to maximum bids of nearly $6 billion. That’s far lower than the original analysis that predicted $9 billion would be needed. As a result, there is new support with more people and organizations are rallying behind the typography questions decades old idea. The Salem News editorial board, for example, wrote that the city could learn from the long-delayed and overcost Big Dig, and linking the two stations “could transform not only write a abstract Boston but the communities ringing the along city. Write A Abstract Thesis? That includes those of us here on the North Shore and Cape Ann.” “Boston has 16 commuter rail and Amtrak lines that terminate at either North Station or South Station,” the report from HKS said. “Today, rail commuters cannot travel continuously through the city because these two stations are not directly connected by track. The short stretch between North Station and South Station is the lone missing link in the MBTA commuter rail system and in Amtrak service lines from Virginia to Maine. The editorial board also supports the essay questions project due to the link’s potential to connect 327,000 projected commuter rail trips each weekday, while providing economic development throughout the area. Governor Baker commissioned a $1.5 million study on linking the a abstract thesis two stations.

The study is expected to be completed next spring. Upcoming Regional NARP and State Passengers Association Member Meetings Events. Please contact Bruce Becker to have a local, state or regional meeting added to the NARP calendar of upcoming events! It was confirmed this week that several members of the National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) under President Trump have resigned their positions. Medical School Admissions Personal Statement? The exodus from NIAC on Monday follows recent patterns of others who have quit their positions on advisory Presidential councils since the write violent clashes between protesters in Charlottesville, VA. The council is still moving forward, despite members leaving.

The NIAC still held its quarterly business meeting Tuesday with a majority of its members still in attendance. Its members were appointed under the Obama administration, but the council was created under George W. Bush. The council was convened to advise the president and scarlet guilt the Department of Homeland Security on the security of critical U.S. infrastructure and information systems. Simultaneously, the White House announced it will not be moving forward with the creation of the President’s Infrastructure Advisory Council in the face of resignations. The PIAC was intended to be a council of 15 to 20 business leaders who would provide advice and consultation as President Trump’s administration drafted an infrastructure proposal. Despite being a key campaign promise, the write a abstract White House has not made any progress on drafting an along paragraphs & essays, infrastructure proposal. As the September 30 deadline for the current fiscal year is one month away, Congress is running out of time to pass a spending bill. There are signs they will defer to a Continuing Resolution that will keep funding levels static. Thanks to the dedicated efforts and enthusiasm of all those that came out to a abstract support the “Rally4Trains,” Congress heard our voices, though the work is not yet done.

Even if the Congressional Resolution is essays high school juniors, applied, we need YOU to continue to engage on social media using the #Rally4Trains! A CR is only a step toward achieving our goal, and our collective voice needs to be continuously heard by Congress. As of now, more than 210,000 people have signed a petition to save long-distance passenger rail in America, have you? Help us get to 225,000! A second petition has more than 6,000 signatures. If you haven’t yet had the thesis chance, please add your name to the lists. Show Congress that we are still united for trains! Keeping this issue front-and-center is student job corps essay, important. Sharing pictures of rallies at write thesis, your station or in your town on Facebook or Instagram, or just sharing your frustration over the short-sighted budget request, is an easy and free way to lines writing paragraphs pitch in. A Abstract? At the end of your Facebook post, insert #Rally4Trains , just as you see it spelled here. That ensures that everyone’s messages and pictures are gathered in one place for everyone to see online!

As always, call Congress at: 202-224-2131, and tell them you support funding rail in America. That number will allow you to connect with the people you elected to represent you in Washington. Letter Guilt? Or, email them by visiting the www.townswithouttrains.com website, and a abstract clicking the “Contact Congress” button. Essays? And, share the #Rally4Trains hashtag on your social media accounts. [ The Towns Without Trains and write # Rally4Train s project has been made possible through generous bequests from the estates of these lines writing & essays, George McCallum, Edmund Fritz, and write thesis Lewis Hoppe, as well as financial contributions from NARP members all across America who make our work possible. Essay Questions? ] Following the SEPTA accident on Tuesday morning in Upper Darby, PA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) indicated that its investigation could take up to a year. The investigation to determine the cause will includes identifying any safety issues and alert SEPTA officials. What is known, so far, is that 33 passengers were hurt when a train carrying riders did not stop and hit the back of an unoccupied train.

For Congressman Bob Brady and Upper Darby Mayor Tom Micozzie, a year is thesis, not fast enough. Both officials have said they want to expedite the process to job corps let passengers know that SEPTA trains are safe and “get confidence back in a abstract, these riders.” “We want to express concern for all those injured and affected in scholarship essays high school, the accident,” said NARP President and a abstract CEO Jim Mathews. “Any time an incident like this occurs we must investigate rigorously to determine the causes and scholarship essays high school ensure it can never happen again. We have to take a hard look at write, safety measures in place and on skin strengthen our efforts.” To encourage a speedier process in review of the write a abstract thesis accident, Congressman Brady is working with ranking members of the transportation committee to look into a congressional hearing. Summer by scholarship juniors Rail Concludes in Washington, D.C. Tomorrow. After 27 days of travel by Amtrak, bike and other public transit services, NARP interns Cate Boyle and Victoria Principato will celebrate the conclusion of Summer by Rail when they arrive at D.C.’s Union Station tomorrow. Write A Abstract? The pair is scheduled to high school arrive at 10:05 a.m., and then will take one last bike ride using Capital Bikeshare along the National Mall.

When all's said and done, Victoria, a rising senior at Catholic University, and thesis Cate, a recent graduate of Catholic, will have spent their summer visiting 22 cities in 10 states. Student Job Corps? This incredible trip totaled more than 10,000 miles along the way. Destinations the write a abstract two interns visited include major urban areas like New York, Chicago, Toronto, Montreal, and Los Angeles, as well as smaller cities like Kalamazoo, MI; Jefferson City, MO; and Hattiesburg, MS. The goal of the trip was to highlight how well connected the U.S. Scholarship Essays Juniors? is, and how people in different communities utilize public transportation for day-to-day purposes. Along the way, the students were able to see unique sites and attractions in each city. You can check out a abstract thesis, their trip by visiting www.summerbyrail.com, where numerous blogs and photos are hosted. A recent blog by Victoria, regarding their visit in St. Louis, is included below. by Victoria Principato. What a day!

After breakfast, Cate and high I made our way down to the Jefferson City station, got on our train, and write thesis soon enough, we had arrived in St. Louis. After a quick tour around the station, we wanted to medical school admissions make sure we saw everything the city has to offer in the short time we would be spending in St. Louis, so we made use of the city’s metro system. It was super simple, and really similar to the metro system in Washington, D.C.! We bought day passes, which were only $7.50, and write a abstract thesis hopped on the metro that arrived directly at the Civic Center Station. A few short stops later, we were blocks away from the city’s most famous structure, the Gateway Arch building!

Standing at 630 foot tall, this monument is the world’s largest arch. The steel monument is every architect’s (and engineer’s!) dream come true. Although I found the building beautiful and scholarship essays high juniors inspiring, Cate’s level of excitement was on a whole other level! After checking out the Arch, we made our way to “The Loop,” which is the arts district of St. Write A Abstract Thesis? Louis. With plenty of shops to stop by, it was the perfect way to get a flavor of all that the city has to offer. However, after some time outside, we definitely needed a break from the scorching southern sun. Luckily for us, we wandered into Fitz’s! Famous for their root beer floats and ice cream sundaes, Fitz’s is a St.

Louis favorite, and serves its soda all across town. It was definitely the best way to cool off after a St. Louis summer day! After our time in care, the arts district, we had to head back to the station to catch our next train. Although our time in St. Louis was short, we had a great time getting to experience some of what the city has to offer. Next time we come back, we’ll definitely be buying passes to ride up into the Arch to write a abstract thesis experience the full effect! And we’ll surely stop by Fitz’s for student job corps essay another root beer float. Write A Abstract Thesis? Thanks for the southern hospitality, St. Essays On Skin Care? Louis! Up next: Texas!

A new study from DePaul University found that lower gasoline prices in the U.S. have hampered Amtrak and bus companies that want to provide service to people traveling less than 400 miles at write, a time. According to the study, travelers prefer planes for trips longer than 400 miles and essays scarlet letter cars for trips under 100, but now Amtrak and bus companies are losing out on being able to provide service for in-between distances. Part of the issue, the report reveals, is that Amtrak and buses are not able to write a abstract thesis compete with cheap gas prices. The study found nine metropolitan areas in the U.S. with populations above 700,000 that have no Amtrak service or express bus service. In addition, since 2014, eight of the 50 most heavily-traveled routes between cities 120 to 400 miles apart have lost express coach service.

The report found that ridership and revenue on essays care, Amtrak and bus services--such as Megabus and a abstract BoltBus--has declined since 2015, roughly tracking a decline in U.S. gasoline prices. “There has been, and may always be, a comparison between driving and taking the train, especially when fuel prices are so low,” said NARP President Jim Mathews. “But what people often don’t factor in when making their choice between driving, taking the bus, or flying, versus taking the train, is freedom. Freedom to student job corps get up and walk around, to sit back and read or eat a meal with plenty of leg and elbow room. Driving a car or sitting on crowded buses and planes do not allow for this.” Registration is NOW Open For NARP’s 2017 RAIL NATION CHICAGO Passenger Rail EXPO And 50th Anniversary Celebration - Chicago, IL. Thursday, November 2 to thesis Sunday, November 5, 2017. Don’t Miss Out. Four days packed with an exciting array of presentations, speakers, panels, exhibits, tours, excursions and events highlighting the future of passenger rail in the United States and celebrating NARP’s 50th Anniversary. Fabulous Anniversary Celebration Gala Dinner on Saturday Evening, November 4. Host Hotel: Millennium Knickerbocker - E. Walton Place at N. Essay? Michigan Ave. Visit the Event Webpage for complete information, agenda details; to register and to write thesis reserve a room.

Or call the job corps essay NARP Office 202-408-8362 for assistance. Don’t Delay. Discounted hotel reservations must be made by October 3rd! Richard Anderson - President/CEO - Amtrak Gov. Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts Hon. John Robert Smith - Board Chair - Transportation for America Joseph Szabo - Executive Director - Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning Daniel Elliott III - Vice-Chair - Surface Transportation Board Jim Wrinn - Editor - Trains Magagzine Ian Jefferies - Senior Vice-President Government Affairs - Association of American Railroads Henry Posner III - Chairman - Railroad Development Corporation William O'Leary - President/CEO - Alaska Railroad Yves Desjardins-Sicilano - President/CEO - VIA Rail Canada Bob Johnston - Passenger Rail Columnist - Trains Magazine Don Phillips - Rail Industry Columnist - Trains Magazine Karen Hedlund - Director Public-Private Partnerships - Parsons Brinckerhoff Richard Harnish - Executve Director - Mid-West High Speed Rail Association Prof. Write A Abstract? Anthony Perl - Simon Fraser University Represenatives From: Brightline Texas Central California High Speed Rail Southern Rail Commission American Public Transportation Association Federal Railroad Administration. Travel by Train to NARP’s 2017 Passenger Rail EXPO And 50th Anniversary Celebration. Don’t miss out!

There’s still time to book your seat on medical admissions statement, the PV Dearing following our 50th Anniversary Celebration and November Passenger Rail EXPO in Chicago. Space is available from Huntington, West Virginia to Chicago on write thesis, the Cardinal and school juniors from Chicago to Washington after the meeting on the Capitol Ltd. The Cardinal will arrive in Chicago on a abstract thesis, November 2nd. If you have any questions about medical admissions personal statement, pricing and accommodations please reach out to Betsy Nelson at bnelson@narprail.org. Amtrak announced that it hired William Heinrich as the transit agency’s new chief information security officer. Heinrich will begin September 5, the same day regular service will resume at New York’s Penn Station. Heinrich, who will replace Ron Baklarz, was previously at BNSF Railway for 24 years. In his new role, Amtrak said Heinrich will be responsible for “the advancement of thesis, information security awareness, governance and essays on skin care processes across the company.” Following discussions between Maryland Governor Larry Hogan and write thesis U.S. Department of Transportation Secretary Elaine Chao, Maryland’s Purple Line has been granted $900 million in essay, federal funding.

It was unclear if the state would be able to receive the funds, but state representatives said the agreement is expected to be signed next week. The agreement drew support from Maryland Democrats who worried Governor Hogan would not fully support it. According to thesis report, the Purple Line was spared partly because the project was so far along in development, with crews ready to begin construction. In addition, the scholarship essays school Trump administration was eager to promote it as a model for financing and operating major infrastructure projects by using public-private partnerships. As a result of the deal, the governor is thesis, moving quickly on starting construction for the 16-mile light rail line that will link Montgomery and job corps essay Prince George's counties. Gov. Hogan’s office has scheduled a groundbreaking for write a abstract thesis 10 a.m. on Monday in the Hyattsville area in Prince George’s. There are openings for state representatives on the NARP Council of Representatives, including one each in Alabama; Arizona; Hawaii; Idaho; Indiana; Missouri; North Dakota; Ohio; Virginia and Wyoming. If you want to become more active in NARP’s leadership and work, this is your opportunity to become involved. If you are interested in being considered for these writing an appointment to an open state seat by the Board of Directors please visit review these position responsibilities and required qualifications and complete the corresponding Candidate Information Statement. There is write a abstract thesis, no deadline to apply. submissions are considered on a rolling basis as they are received.

National Association of essays scarlet, Railroad Passengers | 1200 G St. NW, Suite 240 | Washington, DC 20005 | Phone: 202-408-8362 | Fax: 202-408-8287 | Contact NARP | Privacy Policy. Copyright 2017 National Association of thesis, Railroad Passengers. All rights reserved. Website produced by CHCS Internet Development.

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Aircraft Maintenance and Quality Assurance Resume. by Great Resumes Fast. Download our free resume templates. Write A Abstract. WorkBloom's resume templates all come with matching cover letters. 1234 Main Street, Orange Park, Florida 12345. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE QUALITY ASSURANCE. Performance-driven, versatile leader with over 20 years of aircraft quality assurance, maintenance administration, and staff supervision. Experienced instructor with superior ability to motivate personnel and enhance the overall efficiency, performance, and medical school admissions personal, compliance with standard procedures and regulations. Track record of exceptional service and Naval Aviation support directly focused on achieving goals and objectives safely, accurately, and on time as demonstrated by thesis, numerous commendations, citations, medals, and awards. Essays On Skin Care. Exceptional Administrator who gets it done right the first time all of the write thesis, time. - Sgt. J.L. Williams.

Most certainly my #1 EP . Best AZC I have had the pleasure of essays letter working with in my 19 year Navy career. Great leader and mentor to all Sailors! - Capt. D.R. Write A Abstract. Gordon. Student Essay. Effective instructor capable of recognizing varied abilities and tailoring duties and training to the aptitude of team members. Fully engaged mentor to all staff with the a abstract, ability to relate human factors to essays on skin, individual performance and growth. Maximizes every training opportunity by providing in-depth training, and write thesis, utilizes caring, hands-on leadership style to student job corps essay, produce top quality teams with extremely high morale. Consistently achieves exceedingly high qualification rates as Enlisted Aviation Warfare Specialist (EAWS) Program Coordinator and superior Aviation Maintenance Administrationman (AZ) retention rates. Vast knowledge of Maintenance Administration and total expertise of Navy Aviation Maintenance Program (NAMP).

Experienced, detail-oriented auditor with a focus on compliance with all standard safety and operational policies and procedures. Prepares and write a abstract thesis, oversees 100% accuracy of logs, records, and reports to ensure smooth deployment of resources. Along These Paragraphs & Essays. Keen ability to thesis, recognize and implement streamlined processes that reduce errors, increase organization, and on skin care, improve operational quality and efficiency. Quality Assurance Supervisor , Jacksonville, Florida (2007 to 2009) Directed team of 13 QA representatives performing NAMP Program audits, and monitored 13 work centers/ detachments supporting 14 SH-60B helicopters. Trained, deployed, and supported combat-ready LAMPS MK-III Detachments, achieving a CNAL Retention Excellence Award, Battle E Award, Talon Award, SECNAV Safety S and Arnold J. Isbell Trophy. Led Ordinance Handling Program lauded best on station and set the calendar year record in CHSMWL for Pre-deployment readiness grades. Community leader of 2008 CPO Induction and Training. Maintenance Control Supervisor , Mayport, Florida (2006 to 2007) Effectively managed production efforts of 237 maintenance personnel performing scheduled unscheduled maintenance on 14 SH-60B aircraft. Achieved 76% retention rate and a abstract, single-handedly ensured the qualification of 7 junior AZs through intrusive mentorship and typography essay questions, sterling personal example. Managed intense OPTEMPO resulting in the execution of 6,600 mishap-free flight hours, a 99% sortie completion rate and a Wing leading RFT gap of less than .02. Maintenance Administration , Brunswick, Maine (2004 to 2006) Supervised, trained, and mentored 10 enlisted personnel responsible for a abstract, maintaining all required logs, records, and reports for four uniquely configured P-3 aircraft.

Provided in-depth training to appropriate personnel during three aircraft acceptance/ transfers, three depot level modifications, 35 major component changes, and the processing of over 130 technical directives. Achieved 80% qualification rate as EAWS Program Coordinator, 78% AZ retention rate, and 35% advancement rate within division. Received Navy Marine Corps Commendation Medal, Gold Star in scarlet letter guilt, Lieu of 3rd Award - 2006. A Abstract Thesis. Conducted sensitive airborne reconnaissance operations in response to Joint Chiefs of Staff tasking while deployed during Operations ENDURING and on skin, IRAQI FREEDOM. Expertly led team of six subordinates in the flawless data analysis for numerous worldwide operational detachments. Identified and corrected over 400 critical training deficiencies within the Technical Directive Status Accounting Program resulting in a rating of Outstanding on CPRW-5 and write, CNAL AMMT inspections. Reduced aircraft records and reports error rates by student, 33% by utilizing methodical approach to a abstract thesis, training and production. Achieved 95% EAWS qualification rate, 100% AZ retention rate, and essays scarlet letter guilt, overall 25% AZ promotion rate.

Maintenance Administration Control , Atlantic Training/ Operations (2001 to 2004) Contributed directly to preparation efforts for CPRW-5 AMMT inspections, resulting in all programs achieving on-line status, nine programs with ZERO discrepancies and an overall grade of Outstanding. Led Material Control team in the management of 4 OPTAR funds valued at $6 million with 100% accountability for end of fiscal year audit. Oversaw maintenance functions for 10 P-3C aircraft, including supervising and training team of 9 personnel. Devoted countless hours mentoring personnel, attaining a 74% reenlistment rate, 47% EAWS designation and squadron's Retention Excellence Award (2003). Write Thesis. Achieved 96% EAWS qualification rate in essays guilt, 2003 and write a abstract, increased division EAWS qualifications by medical school personal, 50% in a abstract thesis, 2001. Received Navy Marine Corps Achievement Medal, Gold Star in Lieu of 5th Award - 2003. Aircraft Service Period Adjustment SDLM Coordinator , Naples, Italy (1999 to 2001) Evaluated, coordinated, and ensured quality of over essays 45 depot-level Emergency In-Service repair of Navy and Marine aircraft in Mediterranean NAVCENT AOR using foreign contractors, including providing oversight and support of Standard Depot Level Maintenance program. Flawlessly managed 12 ASPA inspection requirements for 3 squadrons, 2 different T/M/S aircraft, and 2 SDLM aircraft inductions. Write A Abstract Thesis. Initiated and updated 40 records for emergency in-service repairs, and conducted Production Control and essays, SDLM Induction Procedures Training to enhance mission readiness.

Asked for by name as established expert in write, aircraft logs and records by Commander, Fleet Air Mediterranean to assist in performing annual Aviation Maintenance Management Team assist visits to forward deployed detachments. Essays Scarlet Letter Guilt. Selected as NAPRA Sailor of the Year CY 2000 amp; Sailor of the Quarter 1st amp; 3rd quarters 1999. Write A Abstract. Received Navy Marine Corps Commendation Medal amp; Achievement Medal - 2001. Instructor - Aviation Maintenance Administration Training , San Diego, CA (1997 to 1999) Designated as Master Training Specialist, 1998. Conducted aviation maintenance and scholarship high school, survival training to aviation units in a abstract, Pacific fleet, including management of aviation training devices and scholarship high, equipment valued at over $500,000. Spearheaded team to completely revise the NALCOMIS OMA System Administration course, greatly improving the quality of training for fleet personnel and thesis, saving the Curriculum Division more than 50 hours of technical research. Ensured workstations, software and peripherals for 5 classrooms including over 250 computers were always 100% operational, resulting in the highest quality of training with zero lost instructional time. Received Navy Achievement Medal, Gold Star in Lieu of 3rd Award - 1998. University of Florida, Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration - December 2009.

Windows NT Systems Administration Course - 2002. Petty Officer First Class Leadership Course Mobile Training Team (MTT) - 2002. Instructor Training Course - 1995. Naval Aviation Dispersed Technical Publications Librarian Training - 1995. Aeronautical Technical Publications Library Management Training - 1995 1990. Shipboard Aircraft Fire Fighting Training - 1991. Naval Aviation VIDS/MAF and SCIR Documentation Training - 1989.

Naval Aviation Maintenance Logs and along these writing & essays, Records Management - 1988. Write Thesis. Aviation Maintenance Administrationman Class A1 - 1987. We recommend these resources if you want to improve your resume and/or cover letter further: MORE RESUME AND COVER LETTER EXAMPLES. WorkBloom's goal is to help you find work and medical admissions personal statement, reach your highest aspirations, one step at a time.

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Writing a thesis abstract that will impress a potential examiner

essay on foreign aid The Power of Independent Thinking. The Curse of Foreign Aid. Student Winner. Third Prize ($1000) 2.1. What is wealth. 2.2. How wealth emerges. 2.3.

How private property boots wealth. 3.1. A reinforcement of write a abstract wealth creation. 3.2. Common criticisms. 3.3. Some empirical results. 4.1. Two kinds of scarlet guilt interventionism. 4.2. African case. 5.1. Food and clothes. 5.4. National industry subsidizing. 5.5. Thesis! Public Works.

#147;Is foreign aid the solution to global poverty?#148; Today#146;s world economy is filled with contrasts. Medical Personal Statement! While in some regions we find people dying of starvation, in write others the concern about consumption becoming too high to essays school juniors, be sustainable is taping shape. These sharp differences have prompted some populists and write a abstract ideologists to blame the rich for the misery of the poor and to ask for on skin international redistributions of write thesis wealth. It is easier to find opulent societies guilty of having plundered underdeveloped communities than to explain why some people can prosper and other cannot. And it is student essay also easier to simply imagine that one can improve poor peoples#146; lives by removing wealth from one place and putting it elsewhere than implementing the a abstract ideas that one would have to develop after reflecting seriously. Thus if we want to & essays, analyse why some societies are poor and whether some proposals are consistent with wealth creation, we must begin to understand the underlying conditions that make this wealth possible. Therefore our essay will be organised in four sections. The first one is devoted to the definition of wealth, its foundation and its economic sources.

Afterwards, we will study which are the implications of globalization on the sources of a abstract wealth. Thirdly, we will examine why its conditions are not universally fulfilled and how this fact explains poverty. Along Writing Paragraphs & Essays! And finally we will criticize foreign aid as a mean to achieve development. 2.1 What is wealth? Human being act purposely to achieve ends. A Abstract! A human being needs means to fill the gap between his current state of affairs and his desired state of affairs. As long as he obtains the proper means he shortens the subjective distance between his action and his end. We can thus say that an individual is richer than another if he is essays scarlet letter guilt closer to write thesis, fulfilling his ends, and this will depend on the quantity and the quality of his means.

Under this perspective, wealth is the writing & essays relative abundance of suitable means in relation to one#146;s ends. This may appear a very simple definition, but we can extract some important corollaries which distinguish it from a abstract other definitions of wealth, avoiding popular misinterpretations. First of all, wealth is directly related to individual ends. One person can be richer than another if he can satisfy better his ends even with a smaller endowment of means. Typography Essay Questions! This does not mean that men without ends are the a abstract thesis richest, but that one cannot consider that the size of the wealth is equal to the size of the endowment of properties. High School! People with hard-to-realize ends need by definition more means to achieve them and write a abstract thesis thus one should not consider necessarily this greater abundance as a sign of higher wealth. In other words, action plans should be traced by typography the individuals who must perform them.

Obtaining the same good can represent little wealth to some and write thesis too much (too costly to be obtained) to another. Secondly, one should not only consider the direct means that satisfy the job corps ends, but also the entire production process that enables the achievement of those direct means. Action plans are so highly complex in write that they involve many productive stages. Consumption goods are just the job corps essay final stage and thus all previous stages that allow individuals to produce consumption goods are also considered wealth. Therefore, capital must be included in our definition.

But if we recall the previous point, we can understand that it must be capital designed through individual plans: the correct proportion between consumption goods and capital goods is given by individual time preference. Thesis! Forcing capital accumulation (or capital consumption) means banning the achievement of the most valued ends and thus the destruction of wealth. Thirdly, wealth depends on the availability of means; those which cannot be used by any agent should not be considered wealth. That obviously excludes from our definition such terms as #147;natural wealth#148;, which tries to compare wealth with the abundance of natural resources. Of course, natural resources may be wealth, as far as they are needed to fulfil one individual#146;s ends. However, only those natural resources which are currently available are wealth. World inhabitants are not richer by questions the fact that planet#146;s core is formed by iron and nickel. We cannot still extract those minerals and that makes them useless. Natural resources become wealth just as some individual controls them. This is in fact related to write a abstract, our previous remark. We have to consider wealth as the essays school juniors whole chain of our plans: of course natural resources are wealth when we use them, but also those capital goods which open the path for write their availability.

A community can live on the hugest deposits of natural resources. But as long as they lack of the tools to exploit them, one should not count those resources as wealth. Until now, we have defined wealth and scholarship essays high school sketched some of write its characteristics: it is scholarship school juniors a set of available means inserted in the plans of an actor to fulfil his ends. From now on write a abstract thesis we are going to on skin, analyse which are the conditions that make possible its creation and reproduction. 2.2 How wealth emerges. We have already said that any material resource cannot be considered wealth unless it is available to an individual#146;s plan. We should distinguish between two kinds of availability: physical and legal availability. Thesis! The first one refers to the material disposition of one mean; it is a factual relationship between the agent and the mean. The second one implies having ultimate decision-making powers. Legal availability may or may not coincide with physical availability.

We can find cases where the person who has material contact with the resource is the essays on skin care one who has had the power of deciding its use. But we can also have cases where the individual who has the material disposition is not the one who has decided its destiny (for instance, a worker who follows an entrepreneurial plan may have the physical availability but as long as he follows the wishes of the entrepreneur, he lacks legal availability.) If we take a closer look, we realize that legal availability is not exactly equal to a right to decide. Insofar I want to omit any ethical analysis, I am not speaking about who should have the legal availability, but about who actually has it. For example, a thief who eats a stolen loaf of bread has had the power of last resort decision over that good (and thus its legal availability). In other words, legal availability is completely related with effectively inserting one mean in our plans (subjective side), while physical availability refers just to the material use of the resource (objective side). We could define a private property system as a society where original physical availability gives rise to original legal availability, which also includes the power to be transferred (homesteading). Furthermore, those to write thesis, whom the legal availability has been transferred must retain it either until it is high school juniors further transferred or until the mean is consumed and perishes (enforceable voluntary agreements). If these two clauses are not fulfilled, we cannot speak properly of a private property system. Broadly speaking, when either homesteading or enforceable voluntary agreements fail, we have a third-way system and when both principles fail a socialist one. Our definitions are probably too superficial, but they highlight two kinds of interventionism: partial and total.

The first one influences the assignment of legal availability (either at the beginning or in later stages) and the second one places every single mean of a society under the power of some people who has neither homestead it nor acquired it by enforceable voluntary agreements. Because of we have stressed the role of a abstract thesis availability in our definition of wealth, we must now raise some conclusive remarks on who will enjoy the wealth in each system: Private property system: People who make one resource available for student its first time or who obtain that resource through a voluntary agreement have the power to decide its use. Wealth includes all those means originally or derivatively acquired. The conclusion is write a abstract pretty obvious.

A private property system is a prerequisite for wealth creation. Scarlet Letter! Without homesteading and enforceable voluntary agreements there is no foundation for wealth, and almost every opportunity disappears or gets subjected to politicians#146; desires. 2.3. Write! How private property boots wealth. Once we know that private property is typography questions a prerequisite for wealth creation, we have to explore the write ways in which individuals arrive at that result in a private property system. First of all it is necessary to recognize the fundamental role that cooperation#151;what is these paragraphs & essays more usually named #147;division of write thesis labor#148;#151;plays. Cooperation and along these & essays division of labor benefits its participants in at least three ways: economies of write a abstract scale, diversification of abilities and student job corps specialization. Economies of scale refer just to that situation in which there are positive synergies from write cooperation. The output of essay two individuals working together is a abstract greater than the sum of essay their products when working in isolation. Write A Abstract! As division of labor goes, people can form associations to collaborate among themselves for scholarship high school increasing the production of required means. In fact, there may be some products which cannot be obtained by write a abstract autistic individuals.

For instance, moving heavy objects, surgery with general anesthesia or read an original novel. In these cases, the economies of scale derived from the whole system of typography essay questions division of labor are virtually infinite: two null outcomes sum a positive one. Diversification of abilities stems from the differences in capabilities among men. Some people are more skilled at some task than others. If individual A needs a mean x to reach his ends but has plenty of difficulties to get it, while individual B, who can produce it easily, has several problems in obtaining mean y, whose production A mastered, it is sensible to a abstract, them to cooperate. They both can profit from the different abilities of other people. Even if I am very unskilled at a particular task, I still have options to achieve that task through cooperation. This leads us to the third benefit of job corps essay division of a abstract labor: specialization. If people perform those tasks in which they are better, they could improve even further they skills and scholarship essays school juniors increase their productivity. People such as geniuses could devote their time to research, as they do not need to grow food, tailor their cloths and teach their children.

Other people may perfectly agree to provide them with those products in prospect of future technological developments. We do not need to restrict this analysis to the exchange of services, but we can generalize it as this process as an indirect exchange scheme, i.e. Write Thesis! people create means, which are not directly needed for their own ends but for other people#146;s. Specialization can evolve till systematic production of one basket of goods which are hoped to be sold in the market. Everyone who wants to participate in essays letter this huge spontaneous organization#151;capitalists, workers, entrepreneurs or consumers#151;has to find his place looking for profit opportunities. To do this people will employ economic calculation with historical market prices (as patterns of past exchanges) and write a abstract their entrepreneurial sense. Decisions about what to produce (and what to consume), who to produce for (and who to along these paragraphs & essays, buy from) and how to produce (and which are the conditions of the purchase) modify the previous productive structure. In developed economic societies, division of labor is totally dependent on consumer needs as forecast by entrepreneurs and capitalists.

Trade of goods and services become the most powerful way by which cooperation and specialization are brought about. Without this free trade among individuals people would have to cooperate through the barter of their abilities. Each person would have to find another person who could help him and who wanted something in what he could be helped by the first. Division of labor would be transitory: as soon as one contract expired, that production structure would disappear. Write A Abstract Thesis! Specialization would be very rudimentary and the scope of cooperation would be limited to the projects of the direct participants. What exchange allows is an increase of the medical admissions personal size of the write a abstract thesis division of on skin care labor to every person that participates in write a abstract thesis the market, even without being aware of it, and to have individuals specialized in some production processes which have not been explicitly asked by care anyone. Then we get to the third stage of economic development. When people know that they can sell some good continually in write thesis the market and buy other goods with the proceedings, it becomes profitable to reduce the opportunity cost of that productive activity in order to retain as much revenue as possible. In fact, sales depend on consumer#146;s willingness to buy and that depends on offering some product better than other sellers. Insofar other people provide more suitable goods and services than us, sales will collapse and our income with them. Entrepreneurs are ready to immobilize part of their incomes in order to have better productive methods.

Capital allows them to incorporate more machines and technologies, to start new business and to devote time to research and develop better products which aim at consumer#146;s needs. Division of scarlet guilt labor through exchange makes capital accumulation possible: people know that their task is to produce some goods and that their performance will be the thesis better the more capital they employ. They save part of guilt their earnings to invest in write thesis their previous production processes (amortization) or in new ones. This way, wealth is created in an asymptotic proportion. On the one hand, production of goods and services increases hugely#151;i.e. more ends being achieved; on the other, we have more intermediate goods which are also wealth because of the scholarship high reasons so far explained. More capital not only means more present consumption goods, but also more future ones (capital goods are lastly financed with saved consumption goods that can be recovered through liquidations). Societies get richer as far as their proportion of a abstract thesis consumers goods in relation to along, capital goods gets smaller, although its absolute number grows[4]. Probably it is in the case of investment where the necessity of private property is more clearly seen. People will only be disposed to write a abstract thesis, spend resources in student roundabout methods of production that take a considerable time to mature if it is foreseeable that their proceeds will be retained by the owner. Otherwise, individuals will consume their incomes as soon as they obtained them. If private property is uncertain in the future, so will investment in the present.

3.1 A reinforcement of wealth creation. We have so far analyzed what is wealth and how people organize themselves to create it. Now we will study how the phenomenon known as globalization affects our previous conclusions. Globalization is just an expansion of the extent of the write division of guilt labor[5], i.e. an a abstract thesis increase in cooperation among people, both in the number of participants and in medical admissions personal the number of relationships. This change may have been motivated by several factors, such as reductions in transportation costs due to better technology, an improvement of communications or a higher respect for write thesis private property (for instance, a reduction on trade barriers means allowing more enforceable contractual agreements among people located in essays guilt different countries). But in any case, the nature of globalization is the a abstract thesis same wherever it comes about: the spontaneous division of labor adapts itself to the new capitalists, workers, entrepreneurs and essays care consumers and a abstract thesis becomes more wealth productive. A deeper and essays on skin care more extensive division of labor implies more economies of write thesis scale, wider range of individual abilities and more opportunities for specialization. Since entrepreneurs face a greater demand from the new consumers, they can increase the size of their factories and reduce the average cost of production spreading it among more units. Lower averages costs mean also lower prices for consumers after competition drives them down.

A wider range of individual abilities diversifies the qualities and quantities of suppliers: there are more people who can do more things. Very specific skills are more abundant and thus the typography essay bargaining power and prices of specific local producers go down. Finally, thanks to the economies of scale and the greater number of a abstract abilities, specialization can be focused to very concrete issues, increasing thus productivity and creativity. All this leads to lower prices and more diversified means: consumers can buy more and better commodities and thus reach more ends, i.e. more wealth is created. Increased trade among individuals is just the external and job corps visible way in write which this new division of labor manifests itself. However, before new trade patterns are developed, the exchanged commodities must be produced, what just can be done through changes in the structure of production. Labor and capital must be reassigned among productive branches and enterprises. When these companies are located in different countries, that process is usually called migrations and capital movements respectively. It is commonly asserted that we could expect out of this process a tendency toward the equalization of the incomes of along writing & essays factors of production.

But we should speak not about write thesis, monetary incomes, but about school admissions statement, subjective incomes. Employees not only look for higher wages that allow them to acquire more mean but also for other factors such as location, simplicity, physical effort, psychical motivation, altruism, etc. These characteristics are also wealth, as long as they affect the means with which to satisfy our ends. Those who dislike physical effort will be more pleased if they can achieve their objectives through a relaxing work instead. In fact, improving workplace conditions is another kind of remuneration that must be financed with capital[6]. There is only one way by a abstract thesis which wages can be increased without destroying wealth, this is by increasing labor productivity[7]. Labor productivity can only essays be increased through capital, either by more capital accumulation or by incorporating technological advances in the form of capital goods. The more capital an entrepreneur has, the more productive methods that can be used and the higher wages that can be paid. Write A Abstract Thesis! However, capital accumulation is a very hard task. Capital is savings and to save one has to restrict its consumption.

If production is very low savings will also be very low and letter thus capital accumulation will happen slowly. This is where capitalist enter into the picture. Capital profitability is write thesis determined by the rate of typography questions return, this is, profits over capital invested. As far as profits are just revenues minus costs and wages are a very important part of the costs, hiring people who were earning a low salary increases capital rate of return. For instance, if I earn $11000 from my business and to run it I have to spend $10000 a year#150;out of which 5000 are wages#151;my rate of write a abstract return is 10% (profits=1000, capital expenditure=10000). If I could hire people who are willing to work for student half of the previous wages, my rate of return pumps to 46%[8]. The much higher profitability of the low wage scheme will push entrepreneurs to hire those people who are willing to work for write thesis half of the previous wages and due to their competition, these wages will go up (and also high wages will tend to go down in medical admissions statement order to find a work place). This is just wage arbitration among homogeneous workers. Entrepreneurs may have to incur in additional expenses in order to hire those low wage workers.

This can happen, for example, if it is necessary for the production center to relocate closer to where the write a abstract thesis people work. Likewise, we can illustrate it just changing the above numbers a bit. If entrepreneurs can only reach those workers by paying 1000 extra dollars, rate of return will be around 30%, a figure which is lower than 46% but that it is still far higher than 10%. In other words, it is profitable to essays letter guilt, hire those low wage workers even with those expenses. Being that the case, low wage workers are not condemned to write a abstract, a slow capital accumulation process when capitalists are near. Entrepreneurs will hire those low wage workers thanks to their capital reserves and that will allow those workers to earn higher wages than they otherwise would earn. Scholarship Essays School Juniors! Up to this point, these workers can start saving increasing quantities of money and become themselves capitalists who continue the capital accumulation (and wealth creation) process. The case is the write a abstract thesis same when those who support the extra costs are not capitalists but entrepreneurs. With migrations entrepreneurs are not the ones who seek workers; it is the workers who seek entrepreneurs, and the ones assuming the costs Instead of capital looking for lower wages, those earning low wages are looking for higher productivity[9]. In any case, the capitalist#146;s seek for profits allows workers to reach a more diversified supply of labor opportunities which makes possible better combinations of essays letter guilt their job preferences with higher wage rates[10].

The resulting division of labor system will encompass all the thesis benefits studied in the previous section but in a deeper form. This should help us to clear one common misunderstanding related to the exceptional and unique character of globalization. As a legacy of essay German historicism and a abstract thesis Marxist theory of History, globalization is seen as a new stage in human development that requires some ad hoc economic theory. On the contrary, economic principles comprised in the previous section would be enough to describe globalization. There exist no particular economic laws which depend on historical contingencies. The prerequisite of scarlet guilt private property and the profits from division of thesis labor led by exchange and capital accumulation are an a priori truth apart from the concrete circumstances in essay questions which they take place. When the extent of the market increases, we just have a rescale of division of a abstract thesis labor. There is no modification and no exception in scholarship essays the underlying economic laws. 3.2 Common criticisms. To many people globalization is just a process by which a minority plunders the majority.

It is a abstract a zero-sum game in scarlet which losers outnumber by far the winners. Our analysis has proved that this is not clearly the case; every participant in the increased division of labor derived from globalization benefits. Anyway, in write a abstract order to give a more solid ground to our conclusions, we are going to address those critiques. The first misunderstanding comes from those who deny that division of labor is mutually beneficial in any case. If one person is better than another in everything, there would be no profitable exchange as far as the scarlet first individual can provide for himself all that he need. As there will not be any specialization, the first individual will monopolize all the production and will exclude the second one from the thesis division of labor system. We may call it #147;the absolute advantage theory of trade#148;. The doctrine was already proved fallacious by David Ricardo when he explained that international trade was governed by along lines writing & essays comparative and a abstract thesis not absolute advantage. If individual A can produce 10 television sets or 3 cars in 12 hours and individual B 8 televisions and 2 cars, then if both work in isolation and try to diversify production, the maximum output achievable in a day would be: Individual A: 10 television sets and personal statement 3 cars.

Individual B: 8 televisions sets and write a abstract 2 cars. Total output: 18 television sets and essays letter guilt 5 cars. However if both cooperate and write a abstract individual A specializes in TV production and individual B in car production, total output is given by: Individual A: 20 television sets. Individual B: 4 cars. Total output: 20 television sets and 4 cars. Now A can use their 10 extra cars to buy not only the third car that would have produced in isolation but also a forth one that was not available to him.

B on the same way can use his two extra cars to buy 10 television sets, which represent two more than those that could produce in essays scarlet guilt isolation. Trade is a abstract mutually beneficial in physical terms for both individuals even when one of them does not have an absolute advantage in any good. As they devote their time in those projects in which they are better, global productivity increases. This physicalist approach is however just a particular case of a more general one: division of labor is mutually beneficial with regard to subjective plans. Since time is medical school admissions personal statement scarce, every person must choose which activities to perform. People will tend to concentrate on the most valued activities and outsource less valued ones. But to do that, any person must compare the cost of acquiring that activity in the market (this is, hire another person to do it) with the cost of performing it by himself. As long as the cost of performing that activity by himself is an opportunity cost (not performing by himself other activities), the individual will have always to renounce to perform some activities. If the cost of being provided that non-performed activity by the market is a abstract inferior to the profits he derives from it, then there will be incentives for cooperation, even if that individual is absolutely superior in both tasks.

In other words, absolute advantage is along these lines writing & essays not a handicap for social cooperation. Indeed, cooperation fosters wealth both by increasing productivity and by providing commodities which would not have been available otherwise. The other main criticism has many variants but one same root: it follows the write Marxist idea that capital exploits labor. With this we can argue either that capital previously-hired workers or the on skin newly hired ones. Let#146;s focus on the first idea. We have seen that in globalization there is a abstract a tendency toward the medical admissions equalization of incomes for homogeneous factors of production. A Abstract! This necessarily means that low remunerations will increase but also that high remunerations must decrease; i.e. Third-World workers will enjoy higher wages but #147;national#148; workers will suffer from lower salaries[11]. The fallacy of this argumentation lies on the implicit assumption that the only form of income for #147;national#148; workers is wages, what implies that national workers must remain national workers even when we are exporting capital (so they will not discover any profit opportunity for investing abroad). If being a capitalist becomes exceedingly profitable thanks to foreign low wage workers, there is no reason to suppose that national workers cannot invest part of their savings to hire foreign workers.

In spite of the decreasing in guilt their own wages, they can obtain additional income coming from capital investments. For example, an entrepreneur hires five high wage workers for $10000 each and sells his output for $60000. The rate of write a abstract thesis return of this investment will be 10000/50000=20%. If this entrepreneur discovers that he can hire low wage workers for $1000 $, he will fire his five high wage workers obtaining a return of scholarship essays high school juniors 55000/5000=1100%. This is unmistakably a signal that more investment is write needed in this sector and thus other capitalists and previous high wage workers can increase capital funds out of their savings.

For instance, the five workers might have saved $1500 each one from his last salary and hire these low wage workers for typography that price. In that case, they could sell the output for $60000, obtaining a profit of $52000 and a return of 52500/7500=700%. The entrepreneur could decide to invest his funds elsewhere or bid for the low wage workers for a further higher salary. The first option will increase total output of the economy with respect to the previous situation (more wealth is now created). The second one would leave the a abstract thesis high wage workers with a new trade-off: to form a cooperative and medical school admissions statement compete with low wage workers or to write a abstract, become stockholders of a more capitalized enterprise that wants to enter in that sector.

In both cases, output will be increased and student thus prices will be lower than otherwise. Finally, workers could also think not to write a abstract thesis, be able to compete in essays school that sector, and thus to a abstract, invest his savings in satisfying the additional demand that will come out these paragraphs & essays, of the huge profits of his previous employer. A Abstract! Recall that when the essays letter entrepreneur hired high wage workers he obtained a profit of $10000 $, but now he is gaining $55000, this is 45000 extra dollars which will be devoted either to write a abstract, consumption or to essays letter, savings. Both decisions create an a abstract thesis additional demand either for consumption or for scholarship high juniors capital goods that could be satisfied by the investment of his previous employees. Of course, in every case previous high wage workers could still look for another job which paid them a slightly lower salary with which to thesis, complement his investment returns. Essays On Skin! Newly, more output and thus more wealth is created. We can summarize our conclusions in the following scheme.

When one entrepreneur finds new low wage workers, fired ones can: 7.1. Compete for hiring low wage workers: The entrepreneur then increase the output in other sectors. 7.2. Invest in the same sector (cooperative or corporation): There is more output in the same sector. 7.3. Invest in the new sector that emerges from entrepreneurial profits: There is either more consumption or more capital goods. 7.4. Look for new jobs: More output in other sectors. As we see, the write thesis net result of the typography appearance of new workers is to increase total wealth: there is write a greater quantity and variety of on skin care consumption and capital goods and then lower prices. Whether this wealth will be redistributed to workers in write thesis a higher proportion than their preceding income is a question that cannot be answered a priori.

The point is that if they act properly#151;by inserting themselves into school admissions statement the more complex division of write a abstract labor system and aiming to solve other people#146;s needs#151;they can be clearly better off as there has been created more wealth. This conclusion is equally valid when we talk in aggregate terms. Capital exports just mean that there are plenty of opportunities for capital outside. If workers want to remain just workers without trying to take advantage of those opportunities, it is possible that, despite the fall in prices, they get worse off. However this would just represent a shortcoming in grasping which the necessities of admissions personal people are: when there are individuals willing to write, work for essays scarlet guilt a low salary what is needed is more capital, not higher wages. The other common objection to globalization is write thesis just the opposite school admissions personal, of this one. Capitalists still exploit workers, but this time foreign ones. The argument goes as follows: entrepreneurs invest in foreign low wage countries only as long as they wages remain low. Write A Abstract Thesis! When their wages begin to rise, capital goes outside the essay country (hot money) looking for other low wage zones.

This argument is write much simplistic than the earlier. The implicit assumption is that there will always be enough lower wage workers to essays scarlet, satisfy entrepreneurial (consumer) needs which will offset wage increases. Unfortunately, labor is the only real scarce factor of write production[12] and as capital is accumulated, labor must receive increasing remunerations, at along these writing & essays least in real terms. But even if we considered the write a abstract thesis assumption true for these lines a moment, the conclusion would be incorrect. In order to hire a worker an entrepreneur has to offer him a subjective income higher than the preceding one. The more this extra payment lasts the more opportunities for saving the worker has. One entrepreneur could disinvest from one country after having stayed there five years, but during that period their workers could have become capitalists who invest by themselves[13] (and this includes the write thesis ability to hire that infinite bunch of lower wage workers that is supposed to exist). 3.3 Some empirical results. Although we have shown a priori the intrinsic goodness of a global market economy, it may be interesting to refer to some data that illustrate our arguments.

Xavier Sala-i-Martin has performed some empirical research[14] that show that the number of poor people#151;defined as those who earn less than $826 a year#151;has diminished from 1200 millions to 800 in the period 1970-2000. Student Job Corps! The results are far more impressive if we take into thesis account that world population has doubled in that period and that thus poverty in relative terms has gone down from 37% of world population to 13%. These results are pretty similar to those of Surjit Bhalla who suggests that poverty#151;$2 a day#151;has fallen 60% to 23%. Furthermore, Sala-i-Martin also offers data regarding other indicators that point in the direction of growing wealth. Life expectancy has increased from 60 to essay questions, 67 years, child mortality has fallen from 10% to 6%, literacy has grown from 64 to write a abstract thesis, 80% and access to potable water has risen from 25% to 80%. Both authors coincide in one point: there has been on part of the world which has not taken advantage from globalization, i.e.

Africa. For instance, Sala-i-Martin says that #147; We are living in a world which is not perfect, although it globally improves, but it is also a world in which Africa is a disaster. The question is medical admissions who to blame: Africa or globalization #148;. Similarly, Bhalla states that: Zero 2$ is likely in all parts of the World in thesis 2015, except in sub-Saharan Africa. This region#146;s share of the world#146;s poor people is expected to rise from 36% today to almost 90% in 2015[15]. Our target in the next section will be to care, explain how wealth can be destroyed, looking at thesis particular policies that have isolated African people from job corps essay globalization. 4.1 Two kinds of interventionism. Up to this point, we have studied which are the foundations and representations of wealth: private property and division of labor manifested through commodities exchanges and capital investment. However we have also seen that in some parts of the world#151;Africa#151;people has been systematically unable to create wealth.

The fundamental reason behind this fact is, as we have already seen, the systematic violation of a abstract thesis property rights that blocks division of labor, exchange and capital accumulation. This violation may come either from a State which explicitly abolishes private property or from typography a state of affairs in which legal availability is not generally respected. Write Thesis! In these cases people would lack incentives to cooperate in medical school statement a huge scale division of labor, as long as very long-term plans would be subjected to the arbitrary decision of write thesis another person or group of people. Systematic interventionism creates alternative networks of medical school admissions statement labor to write thesis, those that would have prevailed in a free market. It tries to either impose one central plan or to combine it with the supposed plans of its participants. Student Job Corps Essay! During the time in which this alternative networks function, any other association is perceived as sabotage of the central plan: people who do not summit are hampering the collectivist organization. As we see, individuals cannot adjust their plans as they could made in write a abstract a market economy. No more than the essays people who are endowed with the legal availability over all the resources is capable to modify the individual#146;s position in the network. No profit opportunity can be detected precisely because no profit opportunity exists: individuals cannot follow their own plans and write thus no one can find any end to be satisfied.

Exchange cannot take place and capital accumulation makes no sense. It is the State who decides how much is on skin care saved and consumed and how savings must be spent to create machines, materials and other productive structures. Wealth destruction#151;poverty#151;with explicit interventionism is clear. Write Thesis! No individual plan can be realized and then almost no material structure can be considered wealth. Just those consumer goods that central planning board gives to scholarship essays high juniors, people and write a abstract which coincide by chance with some of their ends will lastly be considered wealth. Neither division of labor schemes nor productive structures could be considered wealth, since they block other higher ranked ends and means that could be achieved by individuals in absence of coercion. Asystematic interventionism is equally destructive of wealth, but its manifestation is typography questions a bit different. We may have a State whose discretionary behaviour lacks of a rule of action with respect to legal availability. In this context, people would be led by their expectations of coercion. If they foresee that they will be deprived in the future of the write thesis legal availability over their means, they will shorten their plans until the point in which they hope to typography essay questions, be able to use their means. The reason is obvious: means only derive value from their ability to satisfy individual ends, if those means are stolen before they can be used, they lose all their value.

Shortening the number of write thesis stages in individual plans has a precautionary effect against coercion. High! If the a abstract period between means creation and means consumption is very short, asystematic violence is less likely to occur; it has less time to materialize. The longer the period of the plan, the higher the probability of admissions statement asystematic interventionism to write, happen, even if we considered that a given government is not a priori very willing to coerce people. So far we can already say that the effect of on skin asystematic interventionism is always to write a abstract thesis, shorten the number of stages of people#146;s plans and we know that among the longer there are always more productive plans, which implies a narrow margin for social cooperation and for capital investment. When we fulfill our ends through the division of labor, we place other people#146;s ends as a mean of essay ours. This human cooperation can be done horizontally (an association of various people who try to satisfy other person#146;s ends) or vertically (I satisfy the needs of another person which in turn were the write thesis means for satisfying a third person ends). Asystematic interventionism affects both those horizontal associations with a high number of stages or vertical associations that by definition have more than one stage. The fact that the more time-consuming structures are the ones that are most damaged also implies that capital accumulation (which could be use to finance this time-consuming structure while they did not mature[16]) will also be strongly diminished. The range of letter division of labor is a abstract greatly reduced and resources are normally consumed as one gets them because there is no investment opportunity. A society can suffer both systematic and asystematic interventionism. The scope of the first one determines the along writing extension of the division of labor: more systematic interventionism means a smaller division of write a abstract thesis labor organization.

The hardness and on skin regularity of the a abstract thesis second increases the uncertainty over legal availability and thus the guilt complexity of the write division of labor that remained outside systematic interventions. Although many interventionist policies fit our descriptions, we can give some very visual examples of both classes. Taxes and regulations are kinds of typography essay questions systematic interventionism. Wars, inflation and write thesis expropriations are examples of the asystematic one. Taxes imply that some people spend wealth without having created it, i.e. These Lines & Essays! there is a complete loss of write legal availability over resources. People have worked for the government and thus we may consider that all the efforts so devoted were part of a coercive plan conceived by the State. A 100% tax would mean socialism, this is, the complete planning of individual actions. Regulations force or prevent some actions to happen. In this sense, it is a sort of construction of society and cooperation. If people have to act in some way, they cannot act in another that may be more profitable for their plans.

If people must not act in some way, the potential area for cooperation is restricted. Wars may generate a huge uncertainty over the future legal availability of resources, specially when defence competences have been expropriated and monopolized without giving individuals the possibility of typography questions choosing their most preferred defender. During a war, insecure people try to write a abstract thesis, provide themselves as fast as possible with the most elementary consumption and protective goods. There is student job corps no place for long term investments. Inflation, as the write thesis debasement of money, provokes a redistribution of the value of the currency, which complicates the possibility to purchase of the desired consumption goods and which erodes savings. The consequences is clearly a tendency to job corps, buy consumption goods before its prices increase more and to transform savings into assets that do not loss value, even if they are very illiquid. Finally, expropriations mean the write probability of typography essay questions losing a resource by governmental discretionary decision. The higher the subjective probability, the faster one will be willing to sell or consume the a abstract resource.

Therefore, that means it will not enter into long-term plans. It is clear that any society that suffers from any of these diseases must suffer from wealth destruction (impoverishment). Now let examine how this analysis fits with Africa and how it can explain its situation[17]. We will mainly use Heritage 2007 Index of typography Economic Freedom data: Taxes: Although there are countries with very high top rates[18], unfortunately it does not seem that this factor radically separates Third from write a abstract First World.

This does not mean nevertheless that the African tax system does not destroy wealth: every resource appropriated coercively by government as we have seen provokes this effect. African societies would do much better without it. If one had to sum up Africa#146;s main problem it would unquestionably be the lack of respect for property rights. Scholarship Essays School! Taxation, regulation, inflation and expropriation are clear attacks on private property that close any possibility for Africa to insert in the international division of labor. Mauritius, Botswana and a abstract thesis South Africa are the medical admissions South-African countries whose population is write most prosperous[26] and, according to lines writing paragraphs, Heritage, are also the three with more respect for property rights. We have identified a priori the disease. We have shown that it fits with reality. We thus know what the only solution for African societies is: transition to write, a full private property system. However, from many strata other solutions are proposed; we will devote our last section to analysis the viability of those ideas. Along this essay we have established that private property is both a sufficient and scholarship essays school a necessary condition for wealth creation. It is write sufficient because no other factor is needed to reconcile individual plan in student a mutually beneficial cooperation scheme.

It is necessary because without it no action or policy will be able to create wealth. Notwithstanding voices can still be heard asking for a grand foreign aid program to a abstract thesis, help Africa develop. Their proponents generally do not explain the concrete ways in letter guilt which this aid will foster wealth; it is write just assumed that it will. Although for a non-economist it might seem self-evident that money is wealth and that giving money to people can achieve them to be prosperous, these judgements are doubtfully valid and consistent. The Western observer tends to school, think with his backward experience, i.e. Write A Abstract Thesis! assuming that money is wealth because he has a bigger or smaller legal availability over it. The reasoning should be much different if we took into account that Africa is not stuck by the lack of resources, but by the lack of private property. The same shortcoming that prevent African wealth creation, remove efficiency to any foreign aid, either private or public. It may be useful to prove this point by examining the scholarship juniors ways in which foreign aid could be used and what would be their consequences.

Before of that, it is necessary to clarify one point. I am not going to value whether foreign aid is useful for other legitimate purposes. My argumentation will just be concerned with development and wealth creation, this is, with the ability of thesis individuals to fulfil increasing numbers of ends. Despite being against public foreign aid, I do not want to question private charity#146;s movies. Scholarship High School Juniors! I will just show that if the purpose of the donor is to help African people to a abstract thesis, be able to create wealth, it will simply not work in typography questions absence of a abstract thesis private property. 5.1 Food and clothes. The most primary destiny of foreign aid is to buy food and clothes#151;as kinds of very basic products#151;to Africans. The relation of essays high school juniors this use of aid with growth would be the following: starving people cannot prosper; if we feed them, they will have free time to create wealth. The reasoning has a problem of causality inversion. Write A Abstract! What we try to care, explain and thesis solve is African poverty, one of whose signs is starvation. Africans are not poor because they starve, but they starve because they are poor.

Every rich society was some day in the past as poor as Africans are today, but however they did not get stuck. If Africans are so poor as to starve, the reasons for this must be found elsewhere besides the high symptoms. In case this kind of policy were implemented, receivers of food would be able to survive while the free food provision continued. They would not be able to create wealth by the same reasons they had not been able in the past. Write A Abstract Thesis! And as soon as aid stopped, starvation would continue. Consequently, spending foreign aid in this issue will not help African development.

Mainstream interventionist economists have already recognized in essays on skin part our previous argument (mostly after the complete failure of foreign aid to promote growth). Giving food to Africans will not favor their development once that provision is cut. However, they do not relate it to private property insecurity but to educational barriers. Write Thesis! The idea has been sum up in the motto #147; If you give a man a fish he will eat today but if you teach him to fish he#146;ll eat for a lifetime #148;. Foreign aid thus could be useful in promoting education and in this way African development. This reasoning still fails to recognize what the true problem is. African people already know how to fish or how to grow their lands. It would be naive to suppose that after centuries of having lived with the Nature they do not know anything. The true point is that despite knowing how to fish they do not fish or at least they do not fish enough. Medical Statement! In other words, they do not use their knowledge to write a abstract, form economic plans.

And they do not do that due to student job corps essay, the reasons we have already sketched: there is write no l a private property system in essays Africa. Without private property there can be neither a truly productive division of labor (among fishermen) nor investments that assist them (ships, nets. Write A Abstract Thesis! ). No one want to medical admissions statement, put their very scarce resources in some projects that with high probability will be interrupted by force. Extensions of the argument are equally invalid. Write Thesis! Educating technicians, physicians and student essay other scientists will not attract foreign investment, for the reason that the problem is not in the insufficient formation of African people, but in the regulatory framework. Africa has already a comparative advantage in write thesis costs that is not currently exploited by foreign companies because of that framework. Nothing would change with better education. In fact, the foreseeable consequence is on skin care that those scientists formed in Africa emigrate to the First World, where they are required and where that kind of projects can be realized. A variant of the a abstract food case for foreign aid is the demand for better health care. According to this argument, diseases such as AIDS block any opportunity to prosperity. If Africans had better health, they could create wealth.

The argument might be plausible if healthy African population would be able to along lines paragraphs & essays, get richer, but this is write not the case. Although diseases are a huge problem, they are not the problem that prevents many people#151;healthy and unhealthy#151;from fulfilling their ends. In fact, two of the richest African countries#151;Botswana and along lines paragraphs South Africa#151;are also two of the write most affected by AIDS, whereas other very poor countries such as Congo have much lower AIDS infection rate. 5.4 National industry subsidizing. Another part of the economic literature thinks that a Third World problem is the lack of national industries which could sell in national and international markets since they are immediately swept away by more efficient multinational corporations. Some of them defend infant industries tariffs to protect national markets and medical statement others propose to subsidize the industries in order to compete in international ones; subsidies that could be paid with foreign aid. This argument completely misses the point.

Of course the lack of write a abstract capital in Africa is an obstacle to the formation of scholarship school juniors competitive enterprises with a high performance. The process by which African people will be able to create their own multinational companies has already been studied: foreign capital would increase wages, out of which there could appear a saving-investment fund. Furthermore, as Africans became wealthier and thesis solvent they could ask for foreign loans to start their own business. Essays! Financial markets would provide enough capital for the most ambitious projects. The problem is that foreign companies do not invest substantially in Africa because what have seen before. Africans have to a abstract thesis, enter in the international division of labor to supply now the goods and services which are required by consumers not by politicians. There is no point in forcing the appearance of on skin care industries that are far more inefficient that other competitors. It would just be a complete waste of write thesis resources, whose effects would be similar to the food and along these lines clothes argument: Africans employed in subsidised industries would receive a net transfer of income, but they would not be able to write a abstract, spend it productively while private property is under attack. The last possible justification for foreign aid is public works. Admissions Statement! Government would be entitled to a abstract, build all the infrastructures the country needs to essays guilt, wake up. Once the equipment could be used, African people and foreign companies would start investing thanks to the higher expected profitability of their projects.

The implicit assumption is that part of the poverty of thesis Africa comes from its lack of some equipment, which only the State can provide. And this is the reason why it is false. Profit opportunities in Africa would be out there if government did not hamper the market. It is simply fallacious that if government do not provide people with infrastructures nobody else would; precisely because satisfying that need is in itself a profit opportunity. But the problem of this proposal is the scarlet guilt same than in previous cases.

If a private property system is not restored, no infrastructure would be of utility. Entrepreneurs will not be able to retain and control their gains and thus they will have no incentive to look for those gains. Governmental expenditure would moreover constitute a case of systematic interventionism that reduces the extent of the market and a abstract summits it to central planning orders. Resources would be allocated where the State says and not where consumers need, making more difficult its insertion in the international division of labor. We have so far studied what wealth is, how it emerges and why some societies are unable to create it.

The main conclusion has been that private property is a sufficient and personal a necessary condition for development. The second corollary is write thesis obviously that any other proposed policy will fail while this huge shortcoming is not solved. Likewise, we could say, following P. T. Bauer, that foreign aid is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for development: Foreign aid is clearly not necessary for economic development, as is student job corps obvious for instance from the very existence of developed countries. All of these began as underdeveloped and write thesis progressed without foreign aid. Essays Scarlet Guilt! Moreover, many underdeveloped countries have advanced very rapidly over the last half century or so without foreign aid. There are many such countries in the far east, south-east Asia, East and West Africa and a abstract thesis Latin America. Nor is foreign aid a sufficient condition. It cannot, for instance, promote development if a population at large is not interested in material advance, nor if it is strongly attached to values and customs incompatible with material progress. All this implies that foreign aid is useless. But P. On Skin Care! T. Bauer was going a bit further in the quote which opened this essay by saying that #147; Development aid, far from being necessary to rescue poor societies from write a vicious circle of poverty, is essay far more likely to keep them in that state.#148;.

Could foreign aid be not only useless but also harmful? From the donor perspective it is crucial to write thesis, distinguish between private and job corps essay public aid. The first one, as far as it is voluntary, cannot harm ex ante the donor; it is his best choice. Public aid however is obtained through coercion, hampering the satisfaction of individual ends (destroying wealth). As P. T. Bauer once more stated it is #147; redistribution from poor taxpayers in rich countries to rich people in poor countries #148;.

From the receiver#146;s perspective it is write a abstract thesis necessary to student job corps essay, distinguish whether he keeps the a abstract legal availability or not. In the first case, it is along these writing & essays clear that every gift raises disposable wealth for the receiver, as long as the number of available means to satisfy his ends increases. However, if the government ultimately owns the aid, either public or private, the original receiver will not be able to fit it into thesis their plans and typography essay thus it could not be considered wealth at write a abstract all. In fact, it will increase governmental power of aggression against private property, i.e. the root of all evils. Many people think that receiving money can never be harmful, and that may be true as long as you control it.

But if that money feeds your master, it only makes you become a bit more of a slave. There is no paradox in African people asking for typography essay the end of foreign aid or as the Kenyan economist James Shikwati puts it: Huge bureaucracies are financed (with the aid money), corruption and complacency are promoted, Africans are taught to be beggars and write not to be independent . And thus he claimed: For God#146;s Sake, Please Stop the school admissions personal statement Aid! [27] The following graph illustrates perfectly our reasoning: There is only one path to development: capitalism. What matters is not how much income does a country have during a given year, but whether people have the freedom to thesis, use that income in the pursuing of medical school personal statement their ends. If they do, no foreign aid will be needed to help them because their own skills combined with entrepreneurial seek will be enough. If they do not have this freedom, then not even all the resources of the write a abstract world would allow them to prosper.

I hope that this paper helps to highlight this reality, so that Western piety stops harming third world people. Bauer, Peter, and school Basil S. Yamey, #147;The Economics of Under-developed Countries#148;, Cambridge University Press. Bhalla, Surjit, #147;Imagine There#146;s No Country: Poverty, Inequality and Growth in write a abstract thesis the Era of Globalization#148; Bohm-Bawerk, Eugen, #147;Capital and student job corps Interest#148;, Libertarian Press. Hayek, Friedrich, #147;Prices and Production#148;, George Routledge Sons. Hazlitt, Henry, #147;Man vs. The Welfare State#148;, Arlington House. Hazlitt, Henry, #147;The Conquest of Poverty#148;, Foundation for Economic Education. Heritage Foundation, 2007 Index of Economic Freedom. Huerta de Soto, #147;Money, Bank Credit and Economic Cycles#148;, Ludwig von Mises Institute.

Mises, Ludwig von, #147;Human Action#148;, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Reisman, George, #147;Capitalism#148;, Jameson Books. Roberts, Paul Craig Schumer Charles, #147;Second Thoughts on Free Trade#148; http://www.vdare.com/roberts/second_thoughts.htm. Rothbard, Murray, #147;Man, Economy State#148;, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, #147;Globalizacion y Reduccion de la Pobreza#148;, FAES. Shikwati, James, #147;Interview in Der Spiegel#148;, http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,druck-363663,00.html. Strigl, Richard von, #147;Capital and Production#148;, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Wickman Kurt, #147;Whither the Common Agricultural Policy#148;, Timbro. [1] We can say that there is a abstract thesis no uncertainty of future aggression over essays individual plans. People decide its length just considering the return, the time preference and other risks not related with plundering. [2] For every capital good, there must be a definite market in which firms buy and a abstract sell that good (. ) Under one owner or one cartel for the whole productive system, there would be no possible areas of scarlet guilt calculation at all, and therefore complete economic chaos would prevail.

Murray Rothbard, Man Economy and State, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute, p. 613-614. [3] See Bohm-Bawerk, Capital and Interest, Libertarian Press. [4] See Hayek#146;s Prices and Production, George Routledge Sons. [5] We follow closely Adam Smith and George Reisman#146;s definition: . George Reisman, Globalization: The Long-Run Big Picture. A Abstract Thesis! http://www.mises.org/story/2361. [6] Because entrepreneurs compete with other entrepreneurs for the factors of along lines writing production, they can either offer higher wages or better conditions of labor. Write A Abstract! An entrepreneur may not be able to hire workers just through wages increases if their labor conditions are very disliking. [7] Of course, wages could also be increased out of capital accumulation in typography questions a non-market economy; i.e. instead of write thesis investing, replacing capital structure or remunerating capitalists, salaries are increased. Wherever the typography questions sources of capital reduction come, the effect is a clear destruction of wealth. If investing is restrained, some entrepreneurial plans are forbidden and some wealth will not arise. If capital is not replaced, capital goods get depreciated (and we included capital goods as part of the wealth).

And if capitalists are not remunerated or less remunerated, part of their plans will not be fulfilled (wealth destruction) and furthermore their savings will decrease (what leads toward the depreciation of part of the capital stock). [8] Revenues: 11000, costs: 7500, profits: 3500. Rate of return=3500/7500=46% [9] Normally we can expect that the write one who moves first gests the greater advantage. Along These Lines Writing Paragraphs & Essays! If capitalists assumes the cost of write a abstract thesis hiring the job corps workers he will have a wider set of options, while if it is the worker capitalist will only profit passively. For example, if a company moves to a village of 100 low wage workers, it can hire the 100% of the population for the very low wage. If the a abstract thesis company does not move and only 10 villagers travel to another village of high wage workers, the company will be able to essay, hire them but a much higher wage rate than before. Write A Abstract Thesis! This is why immigrants who move to First World usually earn higher wages than those who stay in their countries and are hired by first world companies. [10] As people grow richer, they can afford to buy other goods and services that only essays on skin interest them when some other needs have been fulfilled. One could recognize in this proposition some flavor of Maslow pyramid of write a abstract needs, which more or less establishes that some ends will only care be pursued when other more basic ends has been achieved. Really, economic theory has a more powerful tool to write thesis, understand these processes.

Diminishing marginal utility shows that increases in the number of a homogeneous mean are directed to lower-valued ends. Typography Essay! Increases in the number of a good will reduce the value of the extra units and then the productivity and write a abstract thesis remuneration of typography essay questions factors of write thesis production employed in it. After the increase in the quantity of this mean (increase in wealth) other uses for factors of production become relatively more profitable than before. [11] This theory was supported by statement Paul Craig Roberts and thesis Charles Schumer who argued that comparative advantage only hold with two contidions: free internal mobility for factors of production but external immobility. Scholarship Essays School Juniors! Otherwise, rich countries will export capital and internal productivity will fall, decreasing wages. See #147;Second Thoughts on Free Trade#148;, New York Times, 6 January 2004: http://www.vdare.com/roberts/second_thoughts.htm. [12] It is our labor and our time that are fundamentally scarce, not land or natural resources. It is our labor and our time that we fundamentally need to save, not land or natural resources . George Reisman, Capitalism, p. 71, Jameson Books.

[13] In fact the problem of hot money (fast capital outflows) is not associated with rising wages, but with inflation : If people want to write, #147;freeze#148; the money, one just have to create a proper financial environment in which it is possible to invest comfortably. This environment means: a gold coin that cannot be devaluated, the complete separation of essays scarlet money and capital markets according to the strictest principles of liquidity, budget balance and the respect for the general principle of law, i.e. fulfillment of agreements and write thesis debt satisfaction through the issue of the real values. One can be sure that in this context there would no be any crisis, devaluation and hot money. Jose Ignacio del Castillo, Dinero caliente y globalizacion: http://www.liberalismo.org/articulo/174/ [14] Globalizacion y reduccion de la pobreza, Xavier Sala-i-Martin, FAES. [15] Surjit Bhalla, Imagine There#146;s No Country: Poverty, Inequality and Growth in the Era of Globalization, p. 172: http://www.iie.com/publications/chapters_preview/348/10iie3489.pdf. [16] See Capital and essays Production by Richard von Strigl, Ludwig von Mises Institue. [17] Of course we are aware that Africa is a very heterogeneous region and write a abstract that not every problem affects the whole African societies. However, these problems do explain a important part of the poverty of the countries that suffered or still suffer them and in all cases are African countries.

[18] For instance, Chad has a 65% top income tax rate and along lines paragraphs & essays 45% top corporate tax rate. Ivory Coast 60% and 35%. Togo 55% and 37%. And the Republic of Congo 50% and 38%. [19] For example, the Swedish think tank Timbro estimates that EU consumers pay roughly 80#150;100 % more for their food than would be the case in a mature free-market regime. Timbro, Whither the European Agricultural Policy? www.timbro.se/bokhandel/pdf/000011.pdf. [20] 233 days in Guinea-Bissau, 155 in the Democratic Republic of thesis Congo, 136 days in Equatorial Guinea, 124 in scholarship essays school Angola, 113 in Mozambique or 96 in Zimbabwe. [21] Zimbabwe: The government#146;s increasingly hostile attitude toward foreign investment and its support for economic nationalism have led to write a abstract thesis, growing cronyism and corruption. Expropriation is very common. The government controls foreign exchange. Essays! Foreign exchange accounts are subject to government approval and restrictions.

Payments and a abstract thesis transfers are subject to government approval and numerous restrictions, and all outward capital transactions are controlled. Angola: Capital and job corps essay money market transactions, capital repatriation, real estate transactions, and personal capital movements are subject to thesis, strict controls. In most instances, these transactions require central bank approval and/or licensing. Republic of Congo: Residents may not hold foreign exchange accounts, but companies can hold foreign exchange accounts with special approval. Scarlet Guilt! Non-residents may hold foreign exchange accounts subject to government approval. Sierra Leone: Non-citizens and foreign investors are not permitted to participate in certain economic activities. Thesis! Both residents and non-residents may hold foreign exchange accounts, subject to some restrictions.

Ethiopia: Foreign exchange accounts, payments, and current transfers are subject to controls and scarlet letter guilt restrictions. A Abstract! There are significant controls on capital transactions. Essays! All investments must be approved and certified by thesis the government. [22] Many African countries (such as Guinea-Bissau, Chad and Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe) #147; operate under highly restrictive employment regulations that hinder employment and productivity growth #148;. The non-salary cost of employing a worker is normally high. Senegal has rigid #147; regulations related to increasing or contracting the number of work hours #148;.

Cameroon #147; labor legislation mandates retraining or replacement before firing a worker #148;. And Burkina Faso forbids #147; night and weekend work #148;. [23] Here we have a non-exhaustive list of most recent conflicts: Ethiopian Civil War (1974-1991) Angolan Civil War (1974-2002), Mozambican Civil War (1977-2002), Uganda-Tanzania War (1978-1979), First Chadian Civil War (1979-1982), Ugandan Civil War (1982-1986), Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), Somali Civil War (1988-to date), First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996), Rwanda Civil War (1990-1994), Algerian Civil War (1991-2002), Sierra Leone Civil War (1991-2002), First Congo War (1996-1997), Guinea-Bissau Civil War (1998-1999), Etiophia-Eriteria War (1998-2003), Second Congo War (1998-2003), Second Liberian Civil War (1999-2003), Second Chadian Civil War (2005-to date). [24] Zimbabwe: 267%, Angola: 34#146;8%, Guines: 26#146;3%, Zambia: 18#146;5%, Madagascar: 15#146;6%, Ghana: 15#146;6%, Burma: 15%, Nigeria: 15%. [25] Namibia: Expropriating land from high school juniors white farm owners is now official policy.

The government expropriated three large farms at the end of 2005 and by mid-2006 had begun to offer the land for resettlement. Burundi: Private property is subject to government expropriation and thesis armed banditry. Zimbabwe: Expropriation is common as the political executive pushes forward with its resource-redistribution-by-angry-mob economic plan. [26] Per capita income in typography Mauritius is $13500, in thesis Botswana $11400 and in South Africa $13000. The author gives reasons pretty similar to scarlet letter guilt, ours: Money was spent on write thesis current spending and public consumption#151;which, in turn, led to a rapidly growing public sector in the economy. Needless to say, this strengthened other socialist tendencies in the economy and investment became, in many developing countries, mainly a government activity. In addition, aid boosted fiscal budgets and essays scarlet led to a rapidly growing number of parastatals and a abstract thesis state-owned enterprises. Largely supported by the donor community at scholarship essays high school the time, these soon became arenas of corruption and this corruption spread like wildfire to write thesis, other parts of the these paragraphs & essays society. The tragedy of aid, as been shown in write numerous evaluations and by World Bank research, is that donors are part of the problem of corruption; aid often underpins corruption, and scarlet letter guilt higher aid levels tend to erode the governance structure of poor countries. In other words, donors have failed to follow the chief principle of the Hippocratic oath: do no harm!

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