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bib works An Interlinear Translation of the Fables of Aesop into the Bengalee Language: Intended to Facilitate the Acquisition of English by the Natives of Bengal : in Four Parts. Part I. Serampore : Serampore Press, 1834. Typography Essay. * Bray, John. “Missionaries, officials and the making of the Dictionary of Bhotanta, or Boutan Language .” Zentralasiatische Studien 37 (2008):33-75 [electronic edition]. History Thesis. *Brockington, John. William Carey's Significance as an Indologist. A Paper Presented at the IXth World Sanskrit Conference, Melbourne, Australia, January 1994. Indologica.com. The Online Journal of the International Association of Sanskrit Studies. XVII-XVIII (1991-1992):81-102 [electronic edition]. Carey, William, and Colebrook, H. T. Hitopadesa, or Salutary Instruction in the Original Sanscrit.
Serampore: , 1804. * Carey, William, and John Clark Marshman. A Dictionary of the Bengalee Language . Vol. II. Serampore: s. n., 1828 [electronic edition]. Carey, William, and John Clark Marshman. Review of Two Pamphlets. Questions. s.n.: s.n. *Carey, William, and Joshua Marshman. The Ramayuna of Valmeeki, in the Original Sungskrit. With a Prose Translation and essay college, Explanatory Notes. Vol. I , Containing The First Book . Serampore: s. n., 1806 [electronic edition]. *Carey, William, and Joshua Marshman.
The Ramayuna of Valmeeki, in questions the Original Sungskrit. With a Prose Translation and pitzer essay, Explanatory Notes. Vol. Typography Essay Questions. II , Containing Part of The Second Book . Serampore: s. Abstract. n., 1808 [electronic edition]. Carey, William, and Joshua Marshman. The Ramayuna of Valmeeki, in the Original Sungskrit. With a Prose Translation and Explanatory Notes. Volume II. Serampore: s. n., 1808. _________________. Volume III.
Serampore: s. Questions. n., 1810. ________________. Another edition, Dunstable: s. n., 1808. ________________. Another edition, From the Calcutta Edition,Madras: J. R. Hogg. Argumentative College. 1826. *Carey, William. A Grammar of the Bengalee Language. Serampore: Mission Press, 1801. The Center's copy contains an inscription on the title page indicating it was once the property of William R. Williams (1804-1885), pastor of the Amity Baptist Church in New York. The copy sold at the Dominic Winter auction in June 2004, formerly in possession of Bristol Baptist College, contains the inscription College of Fort William for the Use of Students 1801. --Myron C. Noonkester. _______________. Dialogues Intended to Facilitate the Acquiring of the Bengalee Language.
Serampore: Mission Press, 1801. ____________. The History of Raja Pratap Aditiya, the Last King of the Island of Saugor, in the Bengalee Language and Character. Serampore: Mision Press, 1801. ____________. The Heetopades, in the Bengalee Language and Character. Serampore: Mission Press, 1801. *___________. A Grammar of the Bengalee Language.
The Second Edition, with Additions. Typography Essay Questions. By W. Carey. Teacher of the Sungskrit, Bengalee, and Mahratta Languages, in the College of Fort William. Serampore: Printed at the Mission Press, 1805. ____________. A Grammar of the Bengalee Language. The Third Edition. Paying People To Do. Serampore: Printed at the Mission Press, 1815. *____________. A Grammar of the Bengalee Language. The Fourth Edition, with Additions.
Serampore: Printed at the Mission Press, 1818. _____________. Colloquies. Serampore: , 1801. ______________. Typography. Another Edition. People To Do. Serampore: , [1815?]. ______________. Third Edition. Serampore: , 1834. ______________. [Public Disputation, September 29, 1804] in Primitae Orientales . Volume 3. Calcutta: Fort William College, 1804. pp.
112-120. ____________. A Grammar of the Sungskrit language, Composed from the Works of the Most Esteemed Hindoo Grammarians. To Which Are Added, Examples for the Exercise of the Students, and a Complete List of the Dhatoos or Roots#133; Serampore: Printed at the Mission Press, 1804. *_____________. No. IX.
Translation of a Speech in the Shanscrit Language, Delivered by the Shanscrit Professor, Acting as Moderator, at the Oriental Disputations on the 20th of September, 1804; Extracted from the Third Volume of the typography questions, Primitiae Orientales in The College of Fort William in argumentative essay college Bengal. London: Printed for T. Cadell and W. Davies, Strand; by W. Typography. Bulmer and Co. Cleveland-Row, St. James's, 1805, pp. 168-178.. *_______________. A Grammar of the Sungskrit Language, Composed From the works of the most esteemed Grammarians. To which are added, Examples for the Exercise of the Student, and A Complete List of the people to do assignments, Dhatoos, or Roots . 2 vols. Serampore: Printed at the Mission Press, 1806.
In this former library copy, the questions, stamp is S. CAROLI BORR. (St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Abortion Works Cited Page. The stamped former owner(?) of the book was Rev. Luke V. McCabe, D.D., LL.D., who was ordained to the priesthood, Philadelphia Cathedral, April 5, 1869; Professor of Moral Theology, Greek, St. Charles Borromeo Seminary (1897); Professor of Dogmatic Theology, Hebrew and Greek, St. Charles Borromeo Seminary (1905); Cuira pro Causis Matrimonialibus: Judex , Archiodese of Philadelphia (1897; 1905); and typography questions, Catholic “Examinatores Synodales,” Archdiocese of Philadelphia, 1920. --Bennie R. Crockett, Jr. Essay College. ______________. A Grammar of the Mahratta Language, to essay Which are Added Dialogues on Familiar Subjects. 2 nd ed., Serampore: Printed at the Mission Press, 1808. An example of this edition sold at the Dominic Winter Auction in June 2004. --Myron C. Noonkester. *______________. A Grammar of the Mahratta Language. To Which are Added Dialogues on Familiar Subjects.
The Third Edition. By W. Carey, D. D. Professor of the Sungskrit, and Bengalee Languages, in the College of Fort William. Argumentative Essay College. Serampore: Printed at the Mission-Press, 1825 [click here for Carey's 1808 introduction ]. This copy includes the typography essay questions, bookplate of college Thomas Latter (181-1853) who was an officer in the 67th Bengal Native Infantry and Deputy Commissioner at Prome, in Burma. He published notes and articles on a variety of local and regional topics, and is best known for producing a Grammar of the Language of Burmah (London and questions, Calcutta,1845). People To Do. *______________. A Grammar of the Mahratta Language. To Which are Added Dialogues on questions Familiar Subjects. Argumentative Essay Outline. The Third Edition. Serampore: Printed at the Mission-Press, 1825. [electronic edition]. *______________.
A Dictionary of the Mahratta Language Serampore: s. n., 1810. Typography Questions. _______________. Kong Raghu's History in Mahratta. Serampore: [Mission Press], 1815. Abortion Essay Cited Page. *______________. A Grammar of the Punjabee Language. Typography Questions. By W. Carey, D. D., Professor of the Sungskrit, Bengalee and Mahratta Languages in the College of Fort William. Abortion Cited. Serampore: Printed at the Mission Press, 1812. The Center's copy, purchased with funds graciously provided by Dr. Tommy King, is an inscribed copy presented by William Ward to the Baptist Library Stokes Croft, Bristol, 1820. ______________.
Itihasamala, or, A Collection of Stories in the Bengalee Language. Serampore: The Mission Press, 1812. ______________. A Grammar of the Telinga Language. Serampore: Printed at typography, the Mission Press, 1814. *______________. A Grammar of the abortion essay works, Telinga Language. Serampore: Printed at the Mission Press, 1814 [electronic edition]. ______________.
A Collection of Original Letters [Marathi]. Essay Questions. Serampore: Mission Press, 1815. ______________. A Grammar of the Kurnata Language#133; Serampore: Printed at the Mission Press, 1817. ______________. A Dictionary of the Bengalee Language, in Which the history, Words are Traced to Their Origin, and Their Various Meanings Given, Serampore: Printed at the Mission-Press, 1815. The copy auctioned by Dominic Winter in June 2004 from the Bristol Baptist College collection contains William Ward's signature and bookplate of Bristol Education Society Museum. --Myron C. Noonkester. ______________. A Dictionary of the Bengalee Language, in Which the Words are Traced to Their Origin, and Their Various Meanings Given, 2 vols. Serampore: Printed at the Mission-Press, 1818, 1825. _______________. Dialogues Intended to Facilitate the Acquiring of the Bengalee Language. 3rd ed., Serampore: Mission Press, 1818. *_______________. Dialogues Intended to Facilitate the Acquiring of the Bengalee Language. 3rd ed., Serampore: Mission Press, 1818 [electronic edition]. _______________.
A Dictionary of the Bengalee Language. 2 vols., Serampore: The Mission Press, 1827-28. John C. Marshman abridged Volume 1 (Bengalee and English) from questions, Carey's quarto dictionary. Marshman compiled Volume 2 (English and Bengalee). *_______________. A Dictionary of the Bengalee Language. Solve The Math. Abridged [by J. Typography Essay. C. Marshman] from Dr.
Carey's Quarto Dictionary. Volume I. Mph Essay Tips. Bengalee and English. Second Edition. Serampore: Sold at the Press and also by Mr. P. S. Derozario, No. 5, Tank Square, and by All the Principal Booksellers in Calcutta, 1840. *_______________.
A Dictionary of the Bengalee Language. Abridged [by J. Essay. C. Marshman] from abortion cited, Dr. Carey's Quarto Dictionary in 2 Volumes. Volume II. English and Bengalee. Third Edition. Serampore: Sold at the Press and also at Mr. P. S. Derozario, Church Mission Press, and by essay All the Principal Booksellers in outline college Calcutta, 1839. *_____________. A Dictionary of the Bengalee Language.
Vol. II. English and Bengalee. Fourth Edition. Serampore: Sold at the Press, and questions, also by Mr. P. S. D'Rozario, and by All the Principal Booksellers in Calcutta, 1847. The Math Problem. *_____________. Essay Questions. A Dictionary of the Bengalee Language. Vol. I. Bengalee and English. Abridged from Dr.
Carey's Quarto Dictionary. Second Edition. Serampore: Printed at the Tomohur Press. Sold at the Press, and also at the Calcutta School Book Society's Depository and by All the Principal Booksellers in people assignments Calcutta, 1856. *_____________. A Dictionary of the Bengalee Language. Vol[s]. I [and II].
Bengalee and English. [English and Bengalee]. Abridged from Dr. Carey's Quarto Dictionary. Fourth Edition. Serampore: Printed at the Tomohur Press. Sold at the Press, and also at the Calcutta School Book Society's Depository and by essay questions All the Principal Booksellers in Calcutta, 1871. *_ ______________. Carey's A Dictionary of the Bengali Language (Bengali-English) in which the Words are Traced to their Origin and pitzer supplement 2011, their Various Meanings Given.
2 vols., New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1981. *[Carey, William, Joshua Marshman, William Ward]. College for the Instruction of Asiatic Christian and Other Youth, in Eastern Literature and European Science. Serampore, 1818. [electronic edition] *[Carey, William, Joshua Marshman, William Ward]. College for the Instruction of Asiatic Christian and essay, Other Youth, in Eastern Literature and European Science, at Serampore, Bengal.
London: Printed for Black, Kingsbury, Parbury, and Allen, Leadenhall Street, 1819. Assignments. *Chatterjee, Sunil Kumar, compiler. Family Letters of Dr. William Carey. Serampore: Carey Library and Research Centre, 2002. *Dass, Kasee, tr. The Muhabharut: Translated into Bengalee Verse, By Kasee Dass; and Revised and Collated with Various Manuscripts, By Joy Gopal Turkulunkar, of the Government Sungskrit College, Calcutta, in Two Volumes. Typography Questions. Serampore: Printed at the Serampore Press, 1836. *Eclectickwn, Eis. Language in Relation to Commerce, Missions and Government. England's Ascendancy and the World's Destiny. Submitted to the Consideration of Merchants, Statesmen and Philanthropists . By Eis Eclectickwn.
Manchester: Printed by A. Burgess and Co., Victoria Arches, 1846. Donated by Calvin and Tillie Remmert , Houston, Texas, this dictionary belonged to William Carey during his childhood in Paulerspury. Gesenius, D. Wilhelm. Hebrew Lexicon to the Books of the Old Testament including The Geographical Names and Chaldaic Words in Daniel, Ezra, c. Translated from the German by Christopher Leo. Part I. Cambridge: At the University Press, 1825. Held in the Carey Library and Research Center, Serampore College (492.43 Ges33), Dr. Joshua Marshman owned this lexicon as illustrated by his signature (courtesy Serampore College) on the flyleaf. The spine on thesis abstract the book has an imprint which reads HEBREW LEXICON Gesenius Dr. Marshman's Copy. *Gine, Pratap Chandra. #925;#8057;#956;#959;#962; in context: Philo, Galatians, and the Bengali Bible . Delhi: ISPCK, 2001. * Goswami, Krishnapada.
Bengali Grammar and Its Relation to typography questions Sanskrit. The Calcutta Review IV/1-2 (July-December 1978):75-80 [electronic edition]. *Grierson, G. A. Early Publications by the Serampore Missionaries. The Indian Antiquary , 32 (June 1903):241-54 [electronic edition]. *Jeyaraj, Daniel. Embodying Memories: Early Bible Translations in Tranquebar and Serampore. Henry Martyn Centre Lecture, March 14, 2012 [electronic edition]. http://www.martynmission.cam.ac.uk/media/documents/HMC seminars 2012/Henry Martin Centre Lecture - Memories of Bible Translation in Tranquebar and Serampore.doc. *Johnson, Francis. Hitopadesa. The Sanskrit Text of the First Book, or Mitra-Labha; with a Grammatical Analysis, Alphabetically Arranged. Prepared for the Use of the essay 2011, East-India College, by Francis Johnson, Professor. London: James Madden and Co.
Successors to Parbury and Co., 8 Leadenhall Street, 1840. Johnson, Samuel. An Abridgement of Johnson's Dictionary, in English and Bengalee Peculiarly Calculated for the Use of Native as well as European Students : To which is Subjoined a Short List of essay French and Latin Words and Phrases in Common Use among English Authours. To Do Assignments. Serampore Mission Press 1822. * Kobita-Rutnakur, The, or, Collection of Sungskrit Proverbs in typography questions Popular Use; Translated into Bengalee and English. Compiled by Neel-Rutna Haldar.
Second Edition [Neel-Rutna Haldar, compiler] [John Clark Marshman, translator] Serampore: [Mission Press], 1830. John Clark Marshman's Advertisement prefacing this work is dated March, 1830. He indicated that this edition follows a first edition which Haldar had printed at a private press. Marshman's translation, amounting to an indepedent work of the sort for which authors today would claim publication credit, represents yet another of his previously unnoticed contributions to essay works cited the Serampore enterprise. [Leyden, John]. A Comparative Vocabulary of the Barma, Malyu and T'hi Languages. Serampore : Printed at the Mission Press, 1810.
Schroeter, Frederic Christian Gotthelf. A Dictionary of the Bhotanta or Boutan Language. Typography Questions. Printed from a Manuscript Copy Made by the Late Frederic Christian Gotthelf Schroeter. Edited by John Marshman. To Which is Prefixed A Grammar of the Bhotanta Language. Edited by W. Essay College. Carey. Serampore: s.n., 1826. Select Papers on the Subject of Expressing the Languages of the essay questions, East in the English Character: Extracted from the Periodicals Published at Calcutta, in the Early Part of the how to the math problem, Year 1834. [Serampore] : Serampore Press, 1834. * Shakespear, John. A Dictionary of Hindustani and English.
By John Shakespear, Oriental Professor at the Honourable East-India Company's Military Seminary. Second Edition, Much Enlarged. London: Printed for the Author. By Cox and essay, Baylis, 75, Great Queen-Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, And Sold by Black, Kingsbury, Parbury, and Allen, Booksellers to the Honourable East-India Company, Leadenhall Street, 1820. *Singha, Umura. Kosha, or Dictionary of the Sungskrita Language. By Umura Singha. With an English Interpretation and Annotations by H. T. Colebrooke, Esq. Second Edition. Serampore: , 1825. *Taberd, Jean Louis, ed., Episcopo Isaropolitano, Vicario Apostolico Cocincin , Cambdoi et Ciamp , Asiatic Societatis Parisiensis, nec non Bengalensis Socio Honorario. Dictionarium Anamitico-Latinum, Primitus Inceptum ab Illustrissimo ed Reverendissimo P[ierre].
J[oseph]. Pigneaux, Episcopo Adranensi, Vicario Apostolico Cocincin , c . Fredericnagori Vulgo Serampore, ex typis J. C. Marshman, 1838 [electronic edition]. *Takoor, Mohunpersaud, Assistant Librarian in the College of Fort William. A Vocabulary, Bengalee and English, For the abortion works page, Use of Students. Calcutta: Printed by essay Thomas Hubbard, At the Hindoostanee Press, 1810 [electronic edition]. One hundred copies of this book were printed, and this copy exists in the Bibliotheca Regia Monacensis [ Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich ]. The dedication page in this book reads: To The Rev. People To Do Assignments. W. Carey, D.D.
Professor of the Bengalee, Sunscrit, and Marhatta Languages, in typography essay the College of Fort William, This Work, Is Most Respectfully Dedicated By his most Obedient Humble Servant, Mohunpersaud Takoor. Calcutta, Jan. 1st, 1810. *________. A Vocabulary, Ooriya and people assignments, English, For the Use of Students. Serampore: Printed at essay questions, the Mission Press, 1811. Mph Essay Tips. According to Graham W. Shaw, The Cuttack Mission Press and Early Oriya Printing, British Library Journal 3/1 (1977): 34, this work by Takoor was The first vocabulary of Oriya. --Bennie R. Essay. Crockett, Jr. *Trevelyan, Charles E., James Prinsep, John Tytler, Alexander Duff, Henry Thoby Prinsep. The Application of the Roman Alphabet to All the Oriental Languages; Contained in a Series of Papers, Written by Messrs. Trvelyan, J. To Do. Prinsep and Tytler, Rev.
A Duff, and Mr. H. T. Typography. Prinsep, and Published in Various Calcutta Periodicals in the Year 1834. [Serampore]: From the Serampore Press, 1834. [ Turner, Sharon]. Wilkins's, Carey's, and Colebrooke's Grammars of the Sanskrit Language, The Quarterly Review 1, no. 1. February, 1809: 53-69. *[Turner, Sharon]. ART. Paying People Assignments. VII.
The Ramayuna of typography Valmeeki, translated from the original Sungskrit, with explanatory Notes . By William Carey and Joshua Marshman. 4to. Vol. Problem. I, Containing the typography essay questions, first Book. pp. 449, The Quarterly Review 3, no. 6. May, 1810: 379-388. *Yates, William. A Grammar of the Sunscrit Language, On a New Plan. Paying People Assignments. By William Yates. Calcutta: Printed and Sold at the Baptist Mission Press. Sold also by Messrs.
Black, Parbury, and Allen, Leadenhall Street, London, 1820. Created: December 20, 2000 Updated: April 24, 2017.
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The Modern Essay by essay questions, Virginia Woolf. Widely considered one of the finest essayists of the 20th century, Virginia Woolf composed this essay as a review of Ernest Rhys's five-volume anthology of Modern English Essays: 1870-1920 (J.M. Dent, 1922). The review originally appeared in The Times Literary Supplement , November 30, 1922, and Woolf included a slightly revised version in her first collection of essays, The Common Reader (1925). In her brief preface to people to do assignments the collection, Woolf distinguished the common reader (a phrase borrowed from Samuel Johnson) from the critic and scholar: He is questions worse educated, and nature has not gifted him so generously. He reads for his own pleasure rather than to impart knowledge or correct the opinions of essay outline college others. Above all, he is guided by an instinct to create for himself, out of whatever odds and ends he can come by, some kind of whole--a portrait of a man, a sketch of an age, a theory of the art of writing. Typography Essay. Here, assuming the guise of the common reader, she offers a few . Argumentative Essay Outline College. . . ideas and opinions about the nature of the questions, English essay. Compare Woolf's thoughts on essay writing with those expressed by Maurice Hewlett in The Maypole and the Column and by outline, Charles S. Brooks in The Writing of Essays. As Mr.
Rhys truly says, it is unnecessary to essay go profoundly into the history and origin of the essay--whether it derives from Socrates or Siranney the Persian--since, like all living things, its present is more important than its past. Moreover, the history thesis, family is widely spread; and while some of its representatives have risen in the world and wear their coronets with the best, others pick up a precarious living in the gutter near Fleet Street. The form, too, admits variety. The essay can be short or long, serious or trifling, about God and essay Spinoza, or about turtles and Cheapside. But as we turn over the pages of these five little volumes, containing essays written between 1870 and 1920, certain principles appear to control the chaos, and we detect in the short period under review something like the progress of history. Of all forms of literature, however, the essay is the one which least calls for paying, the use of long words. The principle which controls it is typography simply that it should give pleasure; the desire which impels us when we take it from the shelf is simply to receive pleasure. Everything in an essay must be subdued to that end.
It should lay us under a spell with its first word, and we should only wake, refreshed, with its last. In the interval we may pass through the most various experiences of amusement, surprise, interest, indignation; we may soar to the heights of fantasy with Lamb or plunge to the depths of wisdom with Bacon, but we must never be roused. The essay must lap us about and draw its curtain across the world. So great a feat is seldom accomplished, though the fault may well be as much on problem the reader's side as on the writer's. Typography. Habit and lethargy have dulled his palate. A novel has a story, a poem rhyme; but what art can the essayist use in these short lengths of prose to sting us wide awake and fix us in a trance which is not sleep but rather an intensification of life--a basking, with every faculty alert, in the sun of pleasure? He must know--that is the first essential--how to write. His learning may be as profound as Mark Pattison's, but in an essay, it must be so fused by the magic of writing that not a fact juts out, not a dogma tears the surface of the texture. Macaulay in one way, Froude in another, did this superbly over and over argumentative college, again. They have blown more knowledge into us in the course of typography questions one essay than the 2011, innumerable chapters of a hundred textbooks.
But when Mark Pattison has to tell us, in the space of thirty-five little pages, about Montaigne, we feel that he had not previously assimilated M. Grun. M. Typography Questions. Grun was a gentleman who once wrote a bad book. M. Grun and his book should have been embalmed for people, our perpetual delight in amber. But the process is fatiguing; it requires more time and perhaps more temper than Pattison had at his command. He served M. Grun up raw, and he remains a crude berry among the cooked meats, upon which our teeth must grate forever. Something of the sort applies to questions Matthew Arnold and a certain translator of Spinoza. Literal truth-telling and finding fault with a culprit for his good are out of place in an essay, where everything should be for our good and rather for people assignments, eternity than for the March number of the Fortnightly Review . Typography Essay. But if the voice of the scold should never be heard in this narrow plot, there is another voice which is as a plague of locusts--the voice of a man stumbling drowsily among loose words, clutching aimlessly at to do, vague ideas, the voice, for example, of Mr. Hutton in the following passage:
A book could take that blow, but it sinks an essay. A biography in two volumes is typography essay indeed the proper depository, for there, where the licence is so much wider, and hints and pitzer essay glimpses of outside things make part of the feast (we refer to the old type of Victorian volume), these yawns and stretches hardly matter, and have indeed some positive value of their own. But that value, which is contributed by the reader, perhaps illicitly, in typography questions his desire to get as much into the book from paying people assignments, all possible sources as he can, must be ruled out here. There is no room for the impurities of literature in an essay. Somehow or other, by dint of labor or bounty of nature, or both combined, the essay must be pure--pure like water or pure like wine, but pure from dullness, deadness, and deposits of extraneous matter.
Of all writers in the first volume, Walter Pater best achieves this arduous task, because before setting out to write his essay ('Notes on Leonardo da Vinci') he has somehow contrived to get his material fused. He is a learned man, but it is not knowledge of typography Leonardo that remains with us, but a vision, such as we get in a good novel where everything contributes to bring the writer's conception as a whole before us. Only here, in the essay, where the bounds are so strict and facts have to be used in history abstract their nakedness, the true writer like Walter Pater makes these limitations yield their own quality. Truth will give it authority; from its narrow limits he will get shape and intensity; and then there is no more fitting place for some of those ornaments which the old writers loved and we, by calling them ornaments, presumably despise. Nowadays nobody would have the courage to embark on the once famous description of Leonardo's lady who has. learned the secrets of the grave; and has been a diver in deep seas and keeps their fallen day about her; and trafficked for strange webs with Eastern merchants; and, as Leda, was the mother of Helen of Troy, and, as Saint Anne, the mother of Mary . . . The passage is too thumb-marked to slip naturally into the context. But when we come unexpectedly upon 'the smiling of women and typography essay the motion of great waters', or upon abortion works page, 'full of the typography essay, refinement of the dead, in sad, earth-coloured raiment, set with pale stones', we suddenly remember that we have ears and we have eyes and that the English language fills a long array of stout volumes with innumerable words, many of which are of more than one syllable.
The only living Englishman who ever looks into these volumes is, of paying people to do assignments course, a gentleman of Polish extraction. But doubtless our abstention saves us much gush, much rhetoric, much high-stepping and cloud-prancing, and for the sake of the prevailing sobriety and hard-headedness, we should be willing to barter the essay questions, splendor of Sir Thomas Browne and paying people assignments the vigor of Swift. Yet, if the essay admits more properly than biography or fiction of sudden boldness and metaphor, and can be polished till every atom of its surface shines, there are dangers in that too. We are soon in sight of ornament. Soon the current, which is the life-blood of literature, runs slow; and instead of typography sparkling and flashing or moving with a quieter impulse which has a deeper excitement, words coagulate together in frozen sprays which, like the grapes on a Christmas-tree, glitter for a single night, but are dusty and garnish the day after.
The temptation to decorate is great where the theme may be of the slightest. What is there to interest another in the fact that one has enjoyed a walking tour, or has amused oneself by rambling down Cheapside and looking at the turtles in people assignments Mr. Sweeting's shop window? Stevenson and typography questions Samuel Butler chose very different methods of exciting our interest in these domestic themes. Stevenson, of essay cited page course, trimmed and polished and set out his matter in the traditional eighteenth-century form. It is admirably done, but we cannot help feeling anxious, as the essay proceeds, lest the material may give out under the essay questions, craftsman's fingers.
The ingot is pitzer supplement 2011 so small, the manipulation so incessant. And perhaps that is why the peroration-- To sit still and contemplate--to remember the faces of women without desire, to be pleased by the great deeds of men without envy, to be everything and everywhere in sympathy and yet content to remain where and essay what you are-- has the sort of insubstantiality which suggests that by the time he got to the end he had left himself nothing solid to work with. Butler adopted the very opposite method. Think your own thoughts, he seems to essay 2011 say, and speak them as plainly as you can. These turtles in the shop window which appear to leak out of their shells through heads and feet suggest a fatal faithfulness to a fixed idea. And so, striding unconcernedly from one idea to the next, we traverse a large stretch of ground; observe that a wound in the solicitor is a very serious thing; that Mary Queen of Scots wears surgical boots and is subject to fits near the Horse Shoe in Tottenham Court Road; take it for granted that no one really cares about Aeschylus; and so, with many amusing anecdotes and some profound reflections, reach the peroration, which is that, as he had been told not to see more in Cheapside than he could get into twelve pages of the Universal Review , he had better stop. And yet obviously Butler is at least as careful of our pleasure as Stevenson, and to write like oneself and call it not writing is a much harder exercise in essay questions style than to write like Addison and call it writing well.
But, however much they differ individually, the Victorian essayists yet had something in common. They wrote at greater length than is now usual, and they wrote for a public which had not only time to sit down to its magazine seriously, but a high, if peculiarly Victorian, standard of culture by which to judge it. It was worth while to outline college speak out upon essay, serious matters in an essay; and there was nothing absurd in writing as well as one possibly could when, in a month or two, the same public which had welcomed the essay in history thesis abstract a magazine would carefully read it once more in typography questions a book. Mph Essay Tips. But a change came from a small audience of cultivated people to a larger audience of people who were not quite so cultivated. The change was not altogether for the worse. In volume iii. we find Mr. Birrell and Mr. Beerbohm. It might even be said that there was a reversion to essay the classic type and that the essay by losing its size and something of paying people its sonority was approaching more nearly the essay of Addison and essay Lamb. At any rate, there is a great gulf between Mr. Birrell on Carlyle and the essay which one may suppose that Carlyle would have written upon Mr.
Birrell. There is little similarity between A Cloud of argumentative Pinafores , by Max Beerbohm, and A Cynic's Apology , by Leslie Stephen. But the essay is alive; there is no reason to despair. As the conditions change so the essayist, most sensitive of all plants to public opinion, adapts himself, and if he is good makes the questions, best of the supplement essay 2011, change, and if he is bad the worst. Mr.
Birrell is certainly good; and so we find that, though he has dropped a considerable amount of weight, his attack is much more direct and his movement more supple. But what did Mr. Beerbohm give to typography essay the essay and what did he take from it? That is a much more complicated question, for supplement essay, here we have an essayist who has concentrated on the work and is, without doubt, the prince of his profession. What Mr. Beerbohm gave was, of course, himself. Typography. This presence, which has haunted the essay fitfully from the time of essay works page Montaigne, had been in exile since the death of Charles Lamb. Typography Questions. Matthew Arnold was never to his readers Matt, nor Walter Pater affectionately abbreviated in outline college a thousand homes to Wat.
They gave us much, but that they did not give. Thus, sometime in the nineties, it must have surprised readers accustomed to exhortation, information, and denunciation to find themselves familiarly addressed by a voice which seemed to belong to a man no larger than themselves. He was affected by private joys and sorrows and had no gospel to preach and no learning to impart. He was himself, simply and directly, and himself he has remained. Once again we have an essayist capable of typography essay using the essayist's most proper but most dangerous and delicate tool. Mph Essay Tips. He has brought personality into literature, not unconsciously and impurely, but so consciously and purely that we do not know whether there is any relation between Max the essayist and Mr.
Beerbohm the typography essay, man. We only know that the spirit of personality permeates every word that he writes. The triumph is the triumph of style. For it is only by knowing how to write that you can make use in literature of yourself; that self which, while it is essential to literature, is also its most dangerous antagonist. Never to be yourself and yet always--that is the problem. History. Some of the questions, essayists in Mr. Rhys' collection, to be frank, have not altogether succeeded in how to the math problem solving it. We are nauseated by the sight of trivial personalities decomposing in the eternity of print. Essay Questions. As talk, no doubt, it was charming, and certainly, the how to the math, writer is questions a good fellow to meet over a bottle of beer.
But literature is stern; it is no use being charming, virtuous or even learned and brilliant into the bargain, unless, she seems to reiterate, you fulfill her first condition--to know how to write. This art is possessed to perfection by Mr. Beerbohm. But he has not searched the dictionary for polysyllables. He has not molded firm periods or seduced our ears with intricate cadences and strange melodies.
Some of his companions--Henley and Stevenson, for example--are momentarily more impressive. But A Cloud of Pinafores has in it that indescribable inequality, stir, and final expressiveness which belong to life and to life alone. College. You have not finished with it because you have read it, any more than friendship is ended because it is time to part. Life wells up and alters and adds. Typography Essay. Even things in how to solve the math problem a book-case change if they are alive; we find ourselves wanting to meet them again; we find them altered.
So we look back upon essay after essay by Mr. Beerbohm, knowing that, come September or May, we shall sit down with them and talk. Yet it is true that the essayist is the most sensitive of all writers to public opinion. The drawing-room is the place where a great deal of reading is essay done nowadays, and supplement essay 2011 the essays of Mr. Beerbohm lie, with an exquisite appreciation of all that the typography, position exacts, upon the drawing-room table. There is no gin about; no strong tobacco; no puns, drunkenness, or insanity. Ladies and gentlemen talk together, and thesis some things, of course, are not said. But if it would be foolish to attempt to confine Mr. Beerbohm to one room, it would be still more foolish, unhappily, to make him, the artist, the man who gives us only his best, the representative of our age. There are no essays by Mr.
Beerbohm in the fourth or fifth volumes of the present collection. His age seems already a little distant, and the drawing-room table, as it recedes, begins to look rather like an altar where, once upon a time, people deposited offerings--fruit from their own orchards, gifts carved with their own hands. Now once more the conditions have changed. The public needs essays as much as ever, and perhaps even more. The demand for typography, the light middle not exceeding fifteen hundred words, or in special cases seventeen hundred and fifty, much exceeds the paying people to do, supply. Where Lamb wrote one essay and Max perhaps writes two, Mr. Belloc at a rough computation produces three hundred and sixty-five.
They are very short, it is true. Yet with what dexterity the practised essayist will utilise his space--beginning as close to typography essay the top of the essay, sheet as possible, judging precisely how far to go, when to turn, and typography essay questions how, without sacrificing a hair's breadth of paper, to wheel about and alight accurately upon the last word his editor allows! As a feat of skill, it is well worth watching. But the personality upon which Mr. Belloc, like Mr. Beerbohm, depends suffers in the process. It comes to history thesis us, not with the natural richness of the speaking voice, but strained and typography questions thin and full of mannerisms and affectations, like the voice of mph essay tips a man shouting through a megaphone to a crowd on a windy day. 'Little friends, my readers', he says in the essay called 'An Unknown Country', and he goes on to tell us how-- There was a shepherd the other day at essay, Findon Fair who had come from the east by Lewes with sheep, and how to the math problem who had in his eyes that reminiscence of typography questions horizons which makes the eyes of shepherds and pitzer essay 2011 of mountaineers different from the eyes of other men. Typography. . . . I went with him to argumentative essay outline college hear what he had to say, for questions, shepherds talk quite differently from other men.
Happily, this shepherd had little to say, even under the stimulus of the inevitable mug of solve the math beer, about the Unknown Country, for the only remark that he did make proves him either a minor poet, unfit for the care of sheep or Mr. Belloc himself masquerading with a fountain pen. That is the penalty which the habitual essayist must now be prepared to face. Typography Essay. He must masquerade. He cannot afford the time either to be himself or to be other people. He must skim the surface of people to do thought and typography essay questions dilute the strength of personality. How To Solve. He must give us a worn weekly halfpenny instead of a solid sovereign once a year.
But it is not Mr. Belloc only who has suffered from the prevailing conditions. The essays which bring the collection to the year 1920 may not be the questions, best of their authors' work, but, if we except writers like Mr. Assignments. Conrad and Mr. Hudson, who have strayed into typography essay questions, essay writing accidentally, and concentrate upon those who write essays habitually, we shall find them a good deal affected by the change in their circumstances. To write weekly, to abortion essay cited page write daily, to write shortly, to write for busy people catching trains in the morning or for tired people coming home in the evening, is typography questions a heartbreaking task for men who know good writing from bad. They do it, but instinctively draw out of harm's way anything precious that might be damaged by contact with the solve problem, public, or anything sharp that might irritate its skin. And so, if one reads Mr.
Lucas, Mr. Lynd, or Mr. Squire in typography essay the bulk, one feels that a common grayness silvers everything. They are as far removed from the extravagant beauty of people Walter Pater as they are from the intemperate candor of Leslie Stephen. Beauty and courage are dangerous spirits to bottle in a column and typography essay a half; and thought, like a brown paper parcel in a waistcoat pocket, has a way of paying people assignments spoiling the symmetry of an article. Essay Questions. It is pitzer essay a kind, tired, apathetic world for which they write, and the marvel is that they never cease to typography questions attempt, at least, to write well. But there is no need to pity Mr. Clutton Brock for this change in thesis abstract the essayist's conditions. He has clearly made the best of his circumstances and not the worst. One hesitates even to say that he has had to essay make any conscious effort in the matter, so naturally, has he effected the transition from the pitzer essay, private essayist to the public, from the drawing-room to the Albert Hall.
Paradoxically enough, the shrinkage in size has brought about a corresponding expansion of individuality. We have no longer the 'I' of typography Max and supplement 2011 of Lamb, but the 'we' of public bodies and typography essay questions other sublime personages. It is 'we' who go to how to solve the math hear the Magic Flute; 'we' who ought to profit by it; 'we', in some mysterious way, who, in our corporate capacity, once upon a time actually wrote it. For music and literature and art must submit to the same generalization or they will not carry to the farthest recesses of the Albert Hall. That the voice of Mr.
Clutton Brock, so sincere and so disinterested, carries such a distance and reaches so many without pandering to the weakness of the mass or its passions must be a matter of legitimate satisfaction to us all. Typography Essay. But while 'we' are gratified, 'I', that unruly partner in the human fellowship, is reduced to despair. 'I' must always think things for himself, and essay feel things for himself. To share them in a diluted form with the majority of well-educated and well-intentioned men and women is for him sheer agony; and essay questions while the rest of us listen intently and profit profoundly, 'I' slips off to the woods and the fields and abortion essay page rejoices in a single blade of grass or a solitary potato. In the fifth volume of modern essays, it seems, we have got some way from pleasure and the art of writing. But in justice to the essayists of 1920 we must be sure that we are not praising the famous because they have been praised already and typography the dead because we shall never meet them wearing spats in history thesis Piccadilly. We must know what we mean when we say that they can write and give us pleasure.
We must compare them; we must bring out the quality. We must point to typography essay this and mph essay tips say it is good because it is exact, truthful, and imaginative: Nay, retire men cannot when they would; neither will they, when it were Reason; but are impatient of Privateness, even in age and sickness, which require the shadow: like old Townsmen: that will still be sitting at typography essay questions, their street door, though therby they offer Age to Scorn . . . and to this, and say it is bad because it is loose, plausible, and commonplace: With courteous and precise cynicism on paying assignments his lips, he thought of quiet virginal chambers, of waters singing under the moon, of terraces where taintless music sobbed into essay questions, the open night, of pure maternal mistresses with protecting arms and vigilant eyes, of fields slumbering in the sunlight, of leagues of ocean heaving under warm tremulous heavens, of hot ports, gorgeous and perfumed. . Supplement. . . It goes on, but already we are bemused with sound and typography neither feel nor hear. The comparison makes us suspect that the art of writing has for backbone some fierce attachment to an idea. To Do Assignments. It is on the back of an idea, something believed in essay with conviction or seen with precision and thus compelling words to its shape, that the diverse company which includes Lamb and Bacon, and Mr. Solve The Math Problem. Beerbohm and Hudson, and Vernon Lee and Mr. Conrad, and Leslie Stephen and Butler and Walter Pater reaches the farther shore. Typography Essay Questions. Very various talents have helped or hindered the passage of the idea into words. Some scrape through painfully; others fly with every wind favouring.
But Mr. Belloc and Mr. Lucas and Mr. Squire are not fiercely attached to how to solve the math anything in typography essay questions itself. They share the contemporary dilemma--that lack of an obstinate conviction which lifts ephemeral sounds through the misty sphere of anybody's language to the land where there is a perpetual marriage, a perpetual union.
Vague as all definitions are, a good essay must have this permanent quality about it; it must draw its curtain round us, but it must be a curtain that shuts us in, not out.
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essay on ww1 facts About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on typography, military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.
Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Mph Essay Tips. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Essay Questions. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on supplement essay 2011, Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on typography, France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the paying same evening. Essay Questions. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August.
France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and to do assignments, ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the questions powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. Abortion Essay Cited Page. The French hoped to recover the essay questions provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had.
This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of abortion essay cited page their fears and typography, submit to the tyranny of people events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and typography, humiliated. To Do Assignments. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. Typography. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of supplement essay 2011 German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.
In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in essay questions pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Problem. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in essay questions the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war.
It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and history thesis abstract, world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the essay greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of mph essay tips India helped bring the British into typography essay questions conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Mph Essay Tips. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on essay questions, Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to how to an end half a millennium of European domination and typography, ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in abortion essay works France and Belgium the typography essay questions French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by mph essay tips the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Essay. Here the war became characterized by problem increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.
Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and questions, heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an pitzer supplement 2011 enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in questions Lorraine, suffered an essay almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Essay Questions. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the how to the math ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to typography questions entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and paying people to do assignments, British forces near the essay questions small Flemish market town of essay page Ypres in typography essay November.
By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of mph essay tips 1914 did not result in typography essay questions a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the works strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of essay tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in abstract 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.
German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.
For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of essay Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in people sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to typography essay questions achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of paying assignments Amiens and typography, later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.
By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. Abstract. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in typography essay questions July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow.
For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Paying People. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on typography essay questions, the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in abortion essay works 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916.
By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against questions Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in argumentative outline college the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of questions Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the pitzer supplement 2011 astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of typography Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.
In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to essay outline college dislodge the essay Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of mph essay tips purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and questions, split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.
In the Balkans the argumentative college Serbs fought the Austrians and typography essay questions, Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of solve servicemen killed of essay any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to supplement operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the typography malarial plains into mph essay tips the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of typography questions 1918. In the history Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the essay war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. Abortion Works Cited Page. V. F. Townshend advanced to typography essay Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of paying assignments locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and typography essay questions, the North Sea.
The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. Pitzer Supplement Essay. The British naval blockade of typography essay Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. To Do. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in essay questions peacetime.
Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of thesis compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Questions. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the supplement 2011 war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine.
It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on essay questions, complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the mph essay tips lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.
This had been studied by typography questions European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and to do, France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. Typography. They were also instrumental. Outline College. In 1914 the essay Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to mph essay tips fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to essay achieve victory through knock-out blows.
Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in thesis abstract his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to typography essay questions its interests and abstract, those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by essay questions attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and college, was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in typography questions the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.
The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and college, defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for questions, error, no allowance for supplement, the inevitable friction of typography questions war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument.
It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. Supplement 2011. It was able to typography essay recruit men of talent and mph essay tips, dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and typography essay questions, well led. It had the political power to command the resources of pitzer essay 2011 Germany's powerful industrial economy.
Germany's position at essay questions the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of to do communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of typography questions German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. Mph Essay Tips. The power of the typography essay questions German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from people to do, two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.
The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the essay substance. Assignments. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of essay outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at mph essay tips least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out typography essay questions even after their Continental allies had been defeated. How To Solve The Math. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future.
The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into typography the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and pitzer supplement 2011, credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the questions 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.
From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and how to the math problem, manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of typography questions northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to argumentative essay outline evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to typography questions 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to paying people to do the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the typography questions war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the abstract war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Typography Essay Questions. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight.
The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to outline help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the essay Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the mph essay tips British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the typography essay questions war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of history thesis State for War on 5 August 1914. Questions. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.
He immediately sought to assignments raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to questions arms. How To The Math Problem. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the essay questions long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. The Math. It was imperative not only essay, that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the argumentative essay outline college French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.
But the typography obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to paying take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from typography, December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. Argumentative Outline College. They looked to questions use it elsewhere, against history Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and essay questions, understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of argumentative college 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.
Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. Typography. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.
This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of people assignments their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in questions 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to pitzer supplement essay demand greater sacrifices from questions, their civilian populations. Improvements in thesis abstract agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and questions, larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of mph essay tips railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.
Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of typography military firepower. Mph Essay Tips. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.
The consequences of it were not. The experience of the typography Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the assignments opening battles of the war were closer in questions conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.
Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into to do assignments battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of questions strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.
The principal instrument of education was artillery. Thesis. And the mode of typography questions instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Mph Essay Tips. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to typography be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. How To Problem. They dug them in order to survive. Typography Questions. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and paying, reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the questions ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect.
Artillery and thesis, infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. Essay. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and mph essay tips, paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to typography essay questions its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for outline, the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and typography, concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Essay Works. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an questions entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and how to problem, during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and essay, gun batteries were targeted.
Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to mph essay tips disrupt the enemy's command and control system and typography essay questions, keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to paying bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only typography, with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and pitzer supplement 2011, ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by typography a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of pitzer 2011 victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches.
The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on essay, machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in mph essay tips depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.
The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an typography enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to mph essay tips inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to essay questions make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to abortion disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and typography essay questions, control systems, were ordered to mph essay tips bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.
The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and typography questions, British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the solve problem momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in typography essay 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in to do assignments the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on typography essay, the ability of the armes' host societies to argumentative outline produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in typography essay questions turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and thesis, the quality of their civilian morale.
It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of essay America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states.
The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to paying people those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the questions new world had come in to redress the balance of the paying people to do old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the typography work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the how to problem skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed.
Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. Questions. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in mph essay tips German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.
The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Typography Questions. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Pitzer. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. Typography Essay. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and how to the math problem, financial power allowed them to command the typography questions agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by cited page 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is essay questions sometimes claimed. There were advances for essay outline, the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.
And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and typography questions, the Middle East. Four great empires, the mph essay tips Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Typography Questions. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of pitzer essay 2011 a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the typography essay questions pale of European diplomacy for a generation.
Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. Paying To Do Assignments. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Typography. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in pitzer imperial territory and imperial obligation.
But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to typography essay go their own way. The stirrings of mph essay tips revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. Typography Essay Questions. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and mph essay tips, a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an essay armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and pitzer 2011, 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization.
It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Typography Essay Questions. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.