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Sensory ability in creative writing houston the narwhal tooth organ system. Correspondence to: Martin T. Nweeia, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Department of Restorative Dentistry and essay of traffic Biomaterial Sciences, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA. E-mail: Martin_nweeia@hsdm.harvard.edu. Delta Dental of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 828, Stevens Point, WI Search for jobs houston, more papers by this author. Orthopaedic Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. Carlson School of and medicaid, Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN Search for more papers by creative, this author. Arctic Research Division, Fisheries and and medicaid Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for writing jobs, more papers by secret writing, this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author.
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for jobs houston, more papers by this author. Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by this author. Arctic Research Center, Institute of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej, Roskilde, Denmark Search for more papers by this author. National Institute of on importance of traffic education, Standards and Technology, ADAF Paffenbarger Research Center, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD Search for creative jobs, more papers by advisory, this author. Veterinary Services, Calgary Zoo, 1300 Zoo Rd. Creative Writing. NE, Calgary, AB, Canada Search for to thesis, more papers by this author. Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for creative, more papers by this author. Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. First published: 18 March 2014 Full publication history DOI: 10.1002/ar.22886 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 6 articles Check for updates.
Animal Care : Animal Protocol, 04384. Office of Research Subject Protection, Harvard Medical School. The erupted tusk of the television and ideologies narwhal exhibits sensory ability. The hypothesized sensory pathway begins with ocean water entering through cementum channels to a network of patent dentinal tubules extending from the dentinocementum junction to the inner pulpal wall. Circumpulpal sensory structures then signal pulpal nerves terminating near the houston base of the tusk. The maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve then transmits this sensory information to the brain. This sensory pathway was first described in published results of patent dentinal tubules, and evidence from dissection of tusk nerve connection via the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. New evidence presented here indicates that the to thesis patent dentinal tubules communicate with open channels through a porous cementum from the ocean environment. Writing Houston. The ability of pulpal tissue to and ideologies react to external stimuli is supported by creative writing houston, immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers in the pulp and gene expression of question to thesis, pulpal sensory nerve tissue. Final confirmation of writing houston, sensory ability is demonstrated by significant changes in heart rate when alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water are exposed to the external tusk surface.
Additional supporting information for question, function includes new observations of jobs, dentinal tubule networks evident in unerupted tusks, female erupted tusks, and vestigial teeth. New findings of on importance of traffic, sexual foraging divergence documented by creative writing houston, stable isotope and fatty acid results add to and ideologies the discussion of the functional significance of the narwhal tusk. The combined evidence suggests multiple tusk functions may have driven the tooth organ system's evolutionary development and persistence. Anat Rec, 297:599617, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The functional significance of the erupted narwhal tusk has been the subject of conjecture and writing houston theory since the essay writing writings of creative jobs, Albertus Magnus in 1495 (Magnus, 1495). It has been thought to serve as an acoustic probe (Best, 1981; Reeves and Mitchell, 1981), possibly associated with sound transmission (Ford and bicycle Fisher, 1978; Best, unpublished B.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1972); a thermal regulator (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977); a swimming rudder (Kingsley and Ramsay, 1988); a breathing organ; a spear for writing jobs, hunting or finding food (Vibe, 1950; Harrison and King, 1965; Ellis, 1980; Bruemmer, 1993); an aggressive weapon in interspecific fighting (Brown, 1868; Beddard, 1900; Lowe, 1906; Geist et al., 1960) or self-defense against predators (Buckland, 1882; Gray, 1889: Freuchen, 1935); and a tool used for breaking the ice (Scoresby, 1820; Tomlin, 1967), digging (Freuchen, 1935; Pederson, 1960; Newman, 1971), or resting on ice (Porsild, 1918). Many studies describe the tusk as a secondary sexual characteristic used in question to thesis aggressive encounters or intraspecific display (Lowe, 1906; Norman and Fraser, 1949; Miller, 1955; Silverman, 1979) associated with tusk fracture and head scarring (Porsild, 1922; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980), and to creative writing jobs houston establish social hierarchy amongst males (Scoresby, 1820; Hartwig, 1874; Mansfield et al., 1975; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980; Gerson and Hickie, 1985). Examining the narwhal tooth organ system through a multidisciplinary approach that combines studies of anatomy, morphology, histology, neurophysiology, genetics, and diet gives a more comprehensive view of its functional significance and highlights sensory ability as an added functional attribute. Narwhal teeth have unusual anatomical features. On Medicare. Among them are (1) a sinistral spiral morphology (Worm, 1655; Scoresby, 1823); (2) an writing extreme degree of tooth asymmetry in an essay males, with a single left tusk expression and embedded right tusk (Sonnini and writing Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (3) an extreme expression of sexual dimorphism, with the male having an erupted left canine tusk reaching 2.6 m and the female commonly with right and left embedded tusks, often less than 33 cm (Sonnini and thesis advisory committee Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (4) a unique form of creative writing jobs, tooth asymmetry in a double-tusked expression, since the morphology of the spiral remains sinistral for both left and on my bicycle right antemeres, and the left tusk is often slightly longer than the right (Worm, 1655; Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (5) a horizontal direction of eruption in writing houston both erupted and unerupted tusk forms (Linné et al., 1792: Egede and Wood, 1818); and (6) perforation of the tooth through the upper lip (Hampe, 1737; Brisson, 1756; Crantz, 1767; Donndorff, 1792).
Though narwhal teeth share many anatomical characteristics with other tusked animals including a lack of enamel (Ishiyama, 1987), the presence of cementum, dentin, pulpal tissue and their associated structures (Seltzer and Bender, 2002; Berkovitz et al., 2002), and on importance the presence of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve associated with tooth innervation (Nweeia et al., 2009), they have many distinguishing features. Among them are a cementum layer overlying over the erupted canine (Nweeia et al., 2012) tusk, a patent network of dentinal tubules through the full thickness of dentin (Nweeia et al., 2009; Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and writing jobs houston pulpal soft tissues, extending the full length of the tooth, diminishing only in diameter with age (Pederson, 1931; Dow and Hollenberg, 1977; Nweeia et al., 2009). Initial scanning electron micrographs of the on my erupted male narwhal tusk reveal patent dentinal tubules that extend the creative jobs full thickness of the dentin and correspond to lumina on the tusk surface. The tubules radiating outward from the dentin-pulpal wall are similar to those of humans and other mammals in and ideologies diameter, though the spacing is three to five times wider. Limited scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been completed for jobs houston, other odontocetes, but suggests dentinal tubules are well occluded within the erupted portion of the dentinal layer for most odontocetes (Boyde, 1980). In cases where the dentinal tubules are patent through the full dentinal layer, such as the sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), they are covered by question, an enamel layer (Loch et al., 2012). Dentinal tubules have been described for other marine mammals, including the rough-toothed dolphin ( Steno bredanensis ) (Miyazaki, 1977), pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ) (Myrick, 1980), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) (Hewer, 1964), hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata ) (Mohr, 1966) harbor porpoise ( Phoecoena phoecoena ) (Perrin and Myrick, 1980), short-beaked dolphin ( Delphinus delphis ) (Gurevich et al., 1980), bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ), and pilot whale ( Globicephala melaena ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and the walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ), hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibious ), and killer whale ( Orcinus orca ) (Locke, 2008). Open tubules are associated with sensory ability in mammals (Cuenin et al., 1991; Johnson and Brännström, 1974; Panapoulos et al., 1983), though normally expressed only in jobs pathologic conditions for most other mammals. Studies of essay on importance of traffic, nerve-associated tissue in creative writing jobs the pulp of on medicare, odontocete teeth are limited, though helpful in understanding function (Holland, 1994). Sensory innervation of writing houston, mammalian teeth includes small myelinated A fibers and a majority of unmyelinated C sensory fibers (Seltzer and thesis advisory committee Bender, 2002).
The A fibers are associated with dentin and writing the odontoblastic layer (Kimberly and on medicare and medicaid Byers, 1988; Ikeda et al., 1997), while the C fibers are more uniform, though more densely populated in creative writing houston peripulpal areas and along blood vessels (Wakisaka et al., 1987; Hildebrand et al., 1995). Both A and essays and medicaid C fibers contain the creative writing jobs neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP (Silverman and Kruger, 1987; Fristad et al., 1994). In addition, C fibers contain the neuropeptide substance P (Casasco et al., 1990; Wakisaka, 1990). The presence of sensory-associated genes in the pulp is an indicator for sensory function in secret essay writing mammalian teeth. Though there is a lack of genomic information for writing jobs, the narwhal, techniques are available to measure the gene expression profiles using a universal array platform to de novo sequencing that are informative to identify sensory-associated genes associated with the pulp (Velculescu et al., 1995; Unneberg, 2003; Roth et al., 2004). Other techniques using sequenced genomes of thesis television and ideologies, marine mammals similar to creative houston the narwhal as well as humans are also useful.
Evolutionary patterns of mammalian tooth anatomy and morphology are driven by essays on medicare and medicaid, diet (Anapol and Lee, 1994; Jernvall et al. 1996; Teaford and Ungar, 2000; Evans et al., 2007; Thewissen et al., 2007; Lucas et al., 2008). Thus, comparing the foraging habits of male and houston female narwhals can potentially provide useful information about the erupted male tusk. Previous dietary studies comparing male and female narwhals from the on medicare Baffin Bay population have found no difference in stomach contents between the creative jobs houston sexes (Finley and to thesis Gibb, 1982; Laidre and Heide-Jørgensen, 2005); however, smaller sample size of female narwhals has limited these analyses, and stomach contents can be biased since they only provide information on the most recent meal from a specific foraging area. Jobs. Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses provide long-term integrated dietary information to essays and medicaid investigate if dietary differences exist between male and writing jobs female narwhals in the Baffin Bay population. Both techniques investigate chemical signals in animal tissues which have incorporated isotopic and fatty acid values from essays and medicaid their prey over various time frames, depending on the tissue. The nitrogen stable isotope (δ 15 N) provides information on an organism's trophic level, while the carbon stable isotope (δ 13 C) provides information on the animal's spatial foraging location, benthic versus pelagic or inshore versus offshore (Peterson and Fry, 1987; Crawford et al., 2008; Newsome et al., 2010). Fatty acids are transferred relatively unmodified from prey tissues to predator tissues, and houston thus can also be used to determine and secret compare diet among groups of creative houston, organisms (Iverson et al., 2004). Both analyses have been successfully used to investigate diet in question to thesis marine mammals (Iverson et al., 2004; Newsome et al., 2010) including walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus ) (Dehn et al., 2007), bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus ), and gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales, and the narwhal's closest relative, the jobs beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) (Horstmann-Dehn et al., 2012). When the two analyses are used together and provide complementary results they can verify and question confirm dietary interpretations, as was done in writing jobs houston determining the primary prey for and ideologies, the beluga whale as arctic cod (Loseto et al., 2008, 2009) and for the bottlenose whale as Gonatus (Hooker et al., 2001).
Brännström's theory of creative jobs houston, dental sensitivity is the most widely accepted mammalian model to explain this sensory ability and thesis committee embl function for teeth. Changes to the interstitial fluid flow within dentinal tubules changes the conformation of creative writing, odontoblastic cells connected to a pulpal nerve plexus which sends signals of sensory perception to the brain (Brännström, 1966). This theory explains the known ability of thesis advisory committee embl, teeth to sense environmental stimuli, and creative writing supports the evolutionary descriptions of tooth precursors as sensory organs (Lumsden, 1987). Human and question other mammalian teeth are known to be capable of sensing external stimuli (Anderson, 1968; Haegerstam, 1976; Byers and Dong, 1983; Byers, 1984; Balam et al., 2005) such as temperature (Yamada et al., 1968; Jyväsjärvi and Kniffki, 1987; Ahn et al., 2012), pressure (Mengel et al., 1992), proprioception (Hassanali, 1997; Catania and creative houston Remple, 2002; Ozer et al., 2002), osmotic gradients, galvanic potential (Ramirez and Vanegas, 1989; Heyeraas et al., 1994), nocioception (Hu et al., 1978; Lisney, 1983; Narhi et al., 1984; Shigenaga et al., 1986; Byers et al., 1988; Iwata et al., 1998; Kawarada et al., 1999; Andrew and Matthews, 2000), and bicycle percussion (Ogawa et al., 2002; Watanabe et al., 2003). Sensory nerve fibers and associated nerve bundles are also found in the pulp of other toothed animals (Pischinger and creative writing jobs Stockinger, 1968; Weissengruber et al., 2005). This sensory ability serves many different functions, such as protecting teeth against environmental insults and responding to age-related and pathological conditions (Hildebrand et al., 1995). Because narwhals expose these open tubules during normal function, they are capable of sensing one or more of these variables. The erupted male narwhal tusk exhibits sensory ability based on physiologic response of thesis television, changing heart rate associated with tusk exposure to alternating solutions of fresh and salt water, and the presence of sensory nerve-associated structures. Writing Houston. A complete model of tusk sensory function, from stimulus introduction to brain perception, is the primary objective of this investigation. In vivo testing of this model to verify physiologic response to an introduced stimulus helps to thesis confirm sensory ability.
Demonstration of this model includes: (1) an anatomical description of open channels in a porous cementum layer covering the erupted tusk; (2) further and more complete imaging of a dentinal tubule network in various expressions of the creative houston narwhal tooth organ system, including the male erupted tusk, male and female unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth in secret essay both sexes; (3) evidence of sensory-associated cells and creative jobs houston tissue in the narwhal pulp and circumpulpal dentin; (4) detection of sensory-associated genes and secret essay writing antigens in the narwhal tusk pulp; (5) published findings of nerve connection at the base of the erupted tusk and continued connection to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to jobs the brain; and on importance of traffic education (6) new results associating physiologic heart response in response to sensory stimuli of alternating fresh and high-salt water solutions introduced to the tusk. An intact, erupted tusk (“A”) including pulp tissuetaken from a male narwhal in 2003, 48 km from Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, in the eastern portion of Eclipse Sound, 24 km southwest of creative jobs, Cape Graham Moore, Bylot Island [72N 36′ 53.1″, 75W 37′ 56.4]was sawn in the field into on importance of traffic education 54 consecutive cross-sections measuring 3550 mm in axial length. Creative Writing. Overall erupted tusk length was 218.4 cm, with diameter increasing from 14.8 mm at the tip to 57.4 mm at the base (Fig. 1A). Segments were fixed in 70% ethanol. Segment A-12 was processed to on importance of traffic education examine neuronal structures at the pulpal-dentin interface. The midpoint of creative, segment A-12 was located 45.7 cm from the tusk tip, with a 2.78 cm mean outer diameter and 0.87 cm mean pulp diameter. Segment A-12 was secondarily fixed in on importance of traffic 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified in EDTA, post-fixed in formalin, and creative jobs paraffin embedded. Ten-micron-thick sections were mounted on SuperFrost slides for immunohistochemistry. (1A, top ): Sections A-12 and A-42 used in an essay SEM dentinal tubule analysis and surface imaging of cementum, taken from an erupted male narwhal tusk; (1B, bottom ): Pulp sections used in immunohistochemistry analysis. An intact dental pulp was extracted from a narwhal tusk harvested near redundant text Kakiat Point, Arctic Bay, Baffin Island, in jobs 2003 [72N 40′ 51.2″, 86W 41′ 16.9″].
The pulp was fixed in 70% ethanol for 2 months, then suspended in essays and medicaid 10% neutral buffered formalin at jobs houston, 4C under 20 g of tension to maintain extension. Essays. Overall dimensions of the heavily vascularized dark red pulp were: length, 142.2 cm; diameters 0.3 cm (tip), 1.5 cm (mid), and 4.8 cm (base/apical tusk). The pulp base was bulbous and writing houston calcified. Ten-micron-thick paraffin sections were prepared from and ideologies four separate segments of the pulp (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and writing L, 90.8 cm). Segment L represented the pulp tissue at the approximate base of the thesis advisory erupted tusk that would be exposed to seawater (Fig. 1B). A fetus was also collected and head dissected into writing separate maxilla and question mandible sections and stored in RNAlater ® solution (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and kept in creative jobs houston ice until laboratory arrival. Tissue samples were brought under CITES Export Permits CA03FO1000005, CA05F01Q004, X0704-132/06, CA08F01Q0002, CA09F0W10001 and secret writing import permits 04US015415/9, 04US082589/9, 06US015415/9, US NMFS permits 932-1489-04 and 764-1703-00, and DFO transport permits A 02089, A 016505, 18469, 17378.
Examination of channels through a porous cementum layer and a dentinal tubule network patent through the full thickness of dentin was completed after sections were prepared. Samples for SEM were sectioned using a water-cooled diamond saw, and polished with a series of abrasives through 4000 grit with silicon carbide abrasive paper using a rotating metallography table. The surfaces were then cleaned to remove surface debris, using a mild HCl acid etch followed by rinsing in dilute sodium hypochlorite. The cleaned sections were then washed and dried in creative writing jobs houston a vacuum desiccator and gold-sputter coated for SEM observation. Samples for secret writing, cementum examination were prepared by taking cross-sections of tusk segment A-42 sawn at 0.9-mm thickness with a precision low-speed water-cooled saw. Surface imaging of cementum was performed at 50× objective magnification using a Keyence super resolution digital microscope model VHX-S90BE, equipped with a VH-Z20R/Z20W lens and variable illumination adapter VH-K20. Reagents for immunohistochemistry of neuronal markers included calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody (anti-CGRP, ab81887, abcam), 200kD neurofilament heavy antibody (ab17126, abcam), substance P antibody (#20064, Immunostar), and creative writing isolectin IB4-AlexaFluor 488 conjugate (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen). Television And Ideologies. While specific for the indicated antigens in one or more mammalian species, none of creative writing, these antibodies had previously been tested in narwhals, thereby precluding inference from on importance of traffic education negative findings. Sections were processed by microwave antigen retrieval for 15 min in creative writing houston citrate buffer solution, pH 6.0 (Antigen Unmasking Solution #H-3300 Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA).
Antibody localization involved peroxidase coupling and essay red color development with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (ABC kit and ImmPACT AEC Peroxidase Substrate kit, #SK-4206, Vector Laboratories). Primary antibodies were diluted 1/50 to 1/1000 for incubation and were omitted for negative control sections; all sections were counterstained with aqueous hematoxylin. Writing Jobs Houston. Slides were imaged by essay, light microscopy with a Nikon Eclipse 80i at creative, objective magnifications of 4× to 60× (oil). Since the narwhal has not been sequenced, a query of thesis, keywords “tooth” and “nerve” for the Tursiops truncatus genome was performed using the Ensembl database. Jobs. The genes NGFR, DLX2, TFAP2A, and GLI3were the only ones that resulted from the search. Primers were created for all four using the Roche Universal Primer Design software, though the QRT-PCR assay for GLI3 failed. And Ideologies. Another approach to identifying additional sensory genes was based on creative jobs the human genome: FAM134B and WNK1 (formerly HSN2) genes have been shown to be involved in hereditary sensory neuropathy type II, which has a pathology for the reduction or loss of the sensory perception of pain, temperature and thesis television touch (Kurth, 2010). Creative. These genes were cross-referenced to the Tursiops truncatus genome, and to our surprise, based on to thesis the Ensembl database search, there was a sequence similarity for these two genes.
The narwhal pulp tissue was stored in DNAgard (Biomatrica, San Diego, CA) and the control samples (muscle tissue around the jobs houston blow-hole and essays on medicare gingiva from the inner portion of the mandible) were placed in RNAlater solution following the respective company protocol within 15 min of access to houston a fetus collected at Kakiat Point, then all samples were stored at −20C until arrival at HC-LITT, where they were stored at −80C. Sections of thesis advisory, these pulp and control samples were obtained from multiple regions and weighed prior to writing homogenization. Thesis Advisory. The Covaris t-PREP™ and S220 Focused-ultrasonicator (Covaris, Woburn, MA) were used to creative writing jobs homogenize the pulp and control samples. Prior to Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ on the S220 instrument, 250 μL of Qiagen Buffer RLT (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) was added to the samples. After processing, 750 μL of TRIzol LS was added to extract the RNA from the samples using the committee embl standard three-step phenol/chloroform extraction method according to the manufacturer's instructions and prior to making cDNA. cDNA was synthesized from 1.5 µg of total RNA for each sample using Roche reverse transcriptase. All assays were prepared using standard conditions in a master mix solution without any effort at assay optimization. For each data point, there were three replicates. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed based on jobs houston the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively.
The Ensembl database (http://uswest.ensembl.org) was utilized to project transcripts involved in to thesis sensory nerve functions by creative writing, using the closest relative of the narwhal whose genome had been sequenced ( Tursiops truncatus http://uswest.ensembl.org/Tursiops_truncatus/Info/Index [Database version: 71.1]) (Hubbard et al., 2002; Flicek et al., 2012). The gene accession numbers were used in designing the primers for the housekeeping genes (Spinsanti et al., 2006). The Roche Universal ProbeLibrary probes and essays target-specific PCR primers were selected using the ProbeFinder Assay Design software (https://qpcr.probefinder.com/organism.jsp, “Other organism” selection) (Rozen and Skaletsky, 2002; Kuo et al., 2006). Please refer to Table 1 for primer sequences. The primers were used to confirm relative changes in mRNA levels by writing, QRT-PCR using the Roche 480 LightCycler. Reactions were performed in microliter reaction volumes for six genes, using 1 μL of cDNA under the following conditions: 95C for 10 min, followed by 45 cycles of advisory embl, 95C for creative writing houston, 10 s and 60C for 30 s (Kuo et al., 2006). Expression data for on my, the sensory genes were normalized relative to the housekeeping genes (Murphy et al., 2003; Khimani et al., 2005). Raw data were obtained and analyzed using the SBI software (System BioSciences, Mountain View, CA). Jobs Houston. The comparative C T method (ΔΔ C t) was chosen to further calculate the relative expressions between the different groups. Carbon (δ 13 C) and essay writing nitrogen (δ 15 N) stable isotope analyses were performed on male ( n = 91) and female ( n = 91) narwhal skin samples collected by Inuit hunters in the Canadian High Arctic from 1982 to 2009. Creative Writing. Narwhal skin subsections of approximately 0.5 g were freeze-dried, lipid-extracted, and analyzed at the University of Windsor for stable isotopes.
Burning of fossil fuels emits anthropogenic CO 2 that is on medicare depleted in 13 C, resulting in increasingly depleted C animal tissue signals over the industrial period: this pattern is known as the Suess effect (Sonnerup et al., 1999). Carbon values were corrected to account for houston, this depletion by calculating the atmospheric carbon value ( C atm ) in 1982 (the oldest sample included in embl the analysis) using δ 13 C atm = −6.429 to 0.0060 exp (0.0217[ t −1740]), where t is the year (Feng, 1998). Atmospheric δ 13 C atm was calculated for each year samples were collected, and the difference between that value and writing jobs the 1982 δ 13 C atm was subtracted from the measured δ 13 C to obtain a corrected carbon value. For the analysis of essays, fatty acids, blubber samples from female ( n = 56) and male ( n = 56) narwhals harvested near the creative writing jobs houston community of essay writing, Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada were used. Lipids were extracted from narwhal blubber samples for creative writing houston, fatty acid analysis using the modified Folch procedure (Folch et al., 1957; Budge et al., 2006) and converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). FAME were analyzed using the Agilent Technologies 7890A GC system. T-tests were used to test for differences in δ 13 C and δ 15 N between male and female narwhals.
Fatty acid values were converted to percentages, divided by the mean of the sample, and log-transformed (Kenkel, 2006). Secret Essay. A principal component analysis, which included 33 dietary fatty acids (Iverson et al., 2004), was followed by a multivariate ANOVA on creative jobs houston the first five principal components (cumulatively describing over 70% of the data) to determine if males and females differed significantly in their fatty acid values. All statistical analyses were conducted using JMP 7.0.1. Alternating high-salt (41 ppt) and to thesis fresh-water solutions were used as stimuli to test the physiologic response of the narwhal tusk to environmental sensory stimuli. Selection of the stimulus was based on the potential relevance and importance of writing jobs, salt ions to the narwhal's ocean environment. A tusk jacket was constructed from a 10.2 cm diameter by television, 45.0 cm length clear acrylic tube with a 0.64 cm wall thickness, which was cut in half longitudinally and creative jobs houston hinged on thesis committee embl one seam to facilitate immediate closure at the other seam.
At each end a 5.7 cm wide by 3.8 cm thick piece of open-celled foam was glued to the inner surface of the tube, with an overall diameter of 10.2 cm and an inner open diameter of 2.8 cm, to form a centering gasket around the tusk at the tube ends. Houston. A one-way hose valve was fastened to the center of the tusk jacket, and Versilic Formulation SPX-70 I.B. tubing connected the essays on medicare and medicaid jacket to an MSR 6-L Dromedary solution storage bag. Quick-connect valves allowed easy exchange of creative writing jobs houston, solution storage bags filled with fresh-water or high-salt solutions. The Midmark Holter IQ electrocardiograph (ECG) with a five-lead montage and eight-second data averaging was used for on medicare and medicaid, the six male narwhal samples tested in Tremblay Sound (TS) near the jobs base of the Alpha River outside Pond Inlet [72N 21′ 38″, 81W 05′ 59″], two each in years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Heart rate response was selected as a physiologic indicator, since sudden increases in salt ion concentrations would presumably be interpreted by narwhals as a sign that ice entrapment was threatening. Thus, during the introduction of high-salt solutions narwhal heart rate was expected to rise due to physiologic response to essays and medicaid rapid ice formation; conversely, heart rate was expected to fall during the introduction of fresh water, as this stimulus is associated with the waters of summer inlets where ice is melting and there are fresh-water run-offs. The narwhals were captured from land-based camps using an anchored net set perpendicular to the shore, and after capture brought to shore using standard techniques established for houston, tagging (Dietz et al., 2001, 2008). After the narwhals were stabilized, subdermal electrodes were inserted in a five-lead montage. Electrode leads for ECG data collection were Grass Technologies subdermal Model F-E7 right-angled, 10 mm, 30-gage monopolar needles with 244 cm lead wires. IQ Manager software with real-time signal collection was used with the Holter IQ. Eight-second interval averages were used in the final analysis.
Solutions of 41 ppt salt-water were made by essays and medicaid, adding Instant Ocean™ saltwater synthetic salt crystals to inlet brackish sea water (1822 ppt); salt concentration was confirmed using the writing houston Omega CDH-287 meter. Fresh-water solutions were gathered from nearby glacial run-off streams that were used as drinking water. Thesis Advisory Committee. McCormick red and green food coloring dyes were added (10 drops/gallon) to identify the creative writing jobs two different solutions, and to secret essay writing verify the jobs clearing of one solution in the tusk jacket and displacement by secret, the alternating solution. The two dye colors were interchanged between high-salt and fresh-water solutions to houston eliminate the possibility of of traffic education, food coloring sensitivity as another variable detected by the tusk, or color dispersion observed by the animal. The ECG was turned on after electrode attachment. After a few minutes of creative, heart monitoring, the tusk jacket was attached at or near the base of the tusk, and essay alternating solutions of high-salt and creative jobs fresh water were injected into thesis the tusk jacket. Temperature of these stored solutions was kept at ambient sea water level by keeping them in Dromedary™ bags submerged in nearby seawater. Time periods for creative houston, the solution injections were varied between animals to secret account for any effect on changes in heart rate response linked to capture time. Heart rate was monitored continuously during the solution exchange and dwell times until all experiments were completed. The Midmark Holter IQ™ instrument allowed real-time heart rate data to be stored and houston later segmented into 8-s averaging for the sample of on importance education, six male narwhals.
The data recording was electronically marked at creative houston, the beginning of each stimulus period to provide an accurate association of recorded heart rate to stimulus. The five-lead montage provided a manageable configuration of secret, electrodes for field use, and very few interruptions in data were experienced due to displacement of the subdermal electrodes. An ideal heart beat wave form was identified to creative writing correlate with data recording and analysis (Fig. 2). Animal health and embl safety is creative writing jobs houston always the primary concern, and essay writing all experiments cease and jobs houston the animal is released at the first sign of overt stress when indicated by the monitoring veterinarian. Fortunately, none of the animals exhibited problems requiring early release, and most experiments, tagging, and specimen collections were completed within 30 min.
Experiments and research were conducted under Canadian Department of Fisheries and thesis committee embl Oceans' Animal Care Committee permits FWI-ACC-20082009-007 and FWI-ACC-2008-2009-008 and Animal Use Protocol permits FWI-ACC-2009-024, FWI-ACC-2010-008, FWI-ACC-2011-016, and FWI-ACC-2012-009. Creative Writing. Research protocol was established in the United States under the Harvard Medical Area Standing Committee on Animals, Animal Experimentation Protocol 04384. The Hunters and essay writing Trappers Organization (HTO) in Pond Inlet, Nunavut voted to approve these research protocols in TS. A generalized least squares split-plot nested analysis was chosen to account for creative writing, the unbalanced experimental design where there was variation in the length of the and ideologies stimulus periods, and writing houston there was a reasonable likelihood that residuals would correlate between stimuli within each individual animal. Statistical analysis on the six animals captured at TS was done with whales and on my bicycle water treatments as the primary fixed factors and split-plots nested within whales and water treatments, to jobs houston determine parameter estimates and essays on medicare and medicaid the significance levels of the fixed factors and creative writing factor interactions, fitting the model: µ + W i + T j + (WT) ij k + ε ijkl + γ (ij). This model included both split-plot and random error to account for the unbalanced experimental design where treatment intervals were not equal in length or number.
The model also accounted for the assumption that residuals would be correlated within each individual animal. No attempt was made to on importance identify or exclude outliers in the data, although a few data points appeared to be potential outliers. Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) simultaneous confidence intervals were generated at 95% to evaluate the sizes of the creative differences among the whales' mean heart rates. A Student's t 95% confidence interval estimate was constructed to evaluate the size of the difference between treatment mean heart rates. Thesis Advisory Embl. Statistical analyses were conducted using JMP Pro 10.0.0. Results confirmed multiple indicators that support the hypothesis of a sensory pathway in the erupted narwhal tusk. Scanning electron micrographs of patent dentinal tubule networks provide evidence of the pathway for sensory conduction in multiple forms of narwhal tooth expression, including both male and female erupted tusks, unerupted tusks, and jobs houston vestigial teeth (Fig. On My. 3). Narwhal electrocardiogram wave components from writing TS sample Whale 3. P wave = atrial depolarization. PR interval = time interval between onset of atrial depolarization and onset of ventricular depolarization. QRS complex = depolarization of essay of traffic education, ventricles, consisting of the Q, R, and S waves.
QT interval = time interval between onset of ventricular depolarization and end of ventricular repolarization. RR interval = time interval between 2 QRS complexes. T wave = ventricular repolarization. ST segment plus = ventricular myocardial depolarization. U wave = relaxation of creative jobs, ventricles.
Organized and open channels were observed in tusk cross-sections, providing direct communication between the essays on medicare and medicaid outer cementum surface of the tusk and the dentin-cementum interface (Fig. 4). The average channel diameter is writing 31 ± 14 (S.D.) μm, and television the open areas comprise about 0.5% of the writing jobs houston cementum. Advisory. This sinusoidal channel network appears to surround bundles of Sharpey's fibers, and creative writing represents a possible pathway for question to thesis, sea water conduction through the cementum layer to the underlying dentin. Scanning electron micrographs at 1000× showing dentinal tubule orifices for ( A ) male unerupted tusk and ( B ) female erupted tusk and at creative writing houston, 500× showing polished dentin sections of ( C ) adult male tusk (inner third polished and etched), ( D ) adult female tusk and ( E ) unerupted tusk. (Orientation of micrographs B-D, pulpal surface to essays the left and outer surface to the right). Scale bars = 10 microns.
Putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and creative writing dentin were identified by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers. CGRP and substance P are neuropeptides expressed by neurons in dental pulp with important roles in physiology and pathology (Caviedes-Bucheli et al., 2006). CGRP+ fibers were found localized to peripheral pulp (Fig. 5), and while few were surrounded by connective tissue or adjacent to vessels, most were typically within 100 μm of the pulp margin. This outermost pulpal region borders the odontoblast layer. Antibody to 200 kD neurofilament heavy chain, another neuronal marker reported in human dental pulp (Henry et al., 2012), failed to localize to question to thesis any structures in narwhal pulp (not shown). Organized channels traverse the full thickness of narwhal cementum. Scale bars = 500 microns. Left panel: numerous channels (white arrows) averaging 31 ± 14 µm in creative jobs houston diameter are observed throughout the cementum layer in writing this cross-section of creative writing jobs houston, tusk specimen A-42 (see Fig. Essays On Medicare. 1). The sinusoidal channel shape results in a segmented appearance in the image plane.
The outer surface of the writing tusk (black arrow) is 6.3 mm from the cementum-dentin boundary at on medicare and medicaid, the right margin of this panel. Right panel: rotated image showing the cementum-dentin boundary where the fluid-filled dentinal tubules are in close proximity to the channels. Sharpey's fibers (S) that anchored the erupting tusk to alveolar bone during development appear as dark, hypomineralized collagen bundles. Substance P was clearly present in the peripheral pulp (Fig. 5). We observed extensive tracts of red substance P+ granules with diameters of 0.52 μm (Fig. 6, panels A, B, D). Substance P+ granules were found in creative writing jobs four pulp segments representing the major linear dimensions of the pulp from tip to base of the erupted tusk (C, 1.7 cm from to thesis pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and writing jobs L, 90.8 cm). In all pulp segments (where cross-sectional dimensions ranged from advisory embl 0.4 to 15 mm), the substance P+ neurons were largely restricted to the outermost 200 μm of circumpulpal tissue in closest proximity to the odontoblast cell bodies. Consistent staining of creative writing jobs, small discrete loci always at the pulp periphery and in and ideologies the exact same positions through consecutive serial sections help to confirm the accuracy and precision of the technique. Houston. The granule distribution and size is suggestive of parallel, oriented dendrites or peripheral processes of sensory neurons, which are similar to the boutons en passant (beads on question a string) morphology of substance P+ neurons in the CNS (Behan et al., 1993).
The substance P+ granules provide strong evidence of peripheral innervation with potential for creative writing jobs houston, nociceptive transmission of excitatory impulses to on my bicycle the CNS. Other roles could involve substance P-mediated regulation of pulpal blood flow and extravasation and other responses to inflammation. Substance P, a peptide product of the Tachykinin 1/TAC1 gene, acts on creative writing jobs houston its receptor NK1R (Tachykinin receptor 1/TACR1) expressed by neurons and endothelial cells. Substance P released from question to thesis pulpal sensory nerves during experimental tooth pain is implicated in creative writing houston nociceptive pain transmission (Avellán et al., 2008) as well as inflammatory responses to pain, including increased pulpal blood flow (Kim, 1990). CGRP immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers (white arrows) in peripheral zone of essay of traffic education, narwhal pulp adjacent to circumpulpal dentin. Panel APulp Segment F; panel BSegment L, upper left arrow is margin of large artery with smooth muscle wall; panel CSegment F; panel DSegment L. Control sections with primary antibody omitted showed no red reaction product. Creative Jobs Houston. Scale bars = 20 microns. We examined substance P expression in the layers of odontoblasts, predentin, and thesis advisory dentin immediately adjacent to the peripheral pulp tissue. Odontoblasts were not evident at the pulp surface (Figs. Creative Jobs. 4A and 6B) because they remained attached to secret writing the circumpulpal dentin when the intact pulp was forcibly withdrawn from the tusk.
Sections from Segment A-12 of a tusk containing its pulp faithfully preserved this interface (Fig. 6DF). There is evidence of substance P+ nerve fiber adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies, and further evidence of creative writing jobs houston, substance P+ fibers in secret essay close proximity to odontoblastic processes in the zone of writing houston, dentinal tubules (Fig. 6EF). This anatomical association supports the possibility of thesis, odontoblast-initiated sensory transmission in writing houston the narwhal tusk. Substance P immunostaining (red color) of an essay on my bicycle, putative nerve fibers in jobs narwhal pulp and dentin. Panel A, pulp segment L showing abundant red SP+ granules at education, pulp periphery (arrow); panel B, segment I showing linear arrays of SP+ granules near pulp periphery (arrows); panel C, segment C showing small cluster (arrow) of red SP+ granules at pulp periphery; panel D, segment I showing SP+ nerve fiber (arrow) adjacent to creative writing jobs houston large artery with smooth muscle wall (sm); panel E, tusk segment A12 showing SP+ nerve (n) in peripheral pulp adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies (o) and dentin (d) with characteristic dentinal tubules (t); panel F, tusk segment A12 showing linear arrays of SP+ granules (arrows) in odontoblast (o) layer of dentin approximately 200 microns from the peripheral pulp. Scale bars = 100 microns (A, B, D, E) and 10 microns (C, F). Top : Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to muscle tissue. Bottom: Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to mandibular soft tissue.
All the to thesis genes were normalized using the housekeeping genes (GAPDH, RPL4, RPS18, and creative YWHAZ). The gene expression profiles for sensory genes were calculated based on fold-change. DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, and TFAP2A genes were highly expressed in the pulpal tissue when compared to both muscle and mandibular soft tissues (Fig. 7). When compared with pulpal tissue, the fold-change ranged from on medicare and medicaid 1.64 (for FAM134B) to 21.03 (for DLX2), and three of the genes that had a fold-change greater than 16.5 when compared to muscle were highly expressed. Since the mandibular soft tissue might contain sensory nerves the gene expression profiles were not as significant, and these genes had fold-changes greater than 2.5. The gene expression profile of creative jobs, WNK1 was marginally higher in pulpal tissue compared to muscle tissue, and slightly down-regulated when compared to mandibular soft tissue (Hubbard et al., 2002; Kurth, 2010; Flicek et al., 2012). On the other hand, NGF was the only gene that was down-regulated compared with both muscle and mandibular soft tissue; thus, the expression was higher in both muscle and mandibular soft tissue than in the pulp. Carbon and essay writing nitrogen stable isotope values and dietary fatty acid percentages are both biomarkers that provide an indication of diet. Biomarkers were significantly different between male and creative jobs houston female narwhals from the Baffin Bay (High Arctic) population, suggesting the sexes may have different foraging habits.
Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data were normally distributed, as described by normal quantile plots, and variances were homogenous (Levene's test: Carbon, F 1, 432 = 0.433, P = 0. Essay Writing. 51; Nitrogen, F 1, 432 = 0.28, P = 0.60). Male narwhals ( n = 278) had significantly higher δ 13 C ( t -test: t = 4.82, P 0.0001) and δ 15 N ( t -test: t = 3.5, P = 0.0004) values compared to female narwhals ( n = 156). A multivariate ANOVA on the first five fatty acid principal components found there was also a significant difference between male and female narwhals (MANOVA: F 5, 106 = 2.42, P = 0.041, n = 56). This significant difference between stable isotope and fatty acid values for male and female narwhals supported divergent sexual foraging habits.
A plot of the actual versus predicted heart rates indicated that there may have been a few observations that were outliers, but these observations were not eliminated from the data set of creative, six male narwhals from question to thesis TS (Table 2) since they had little impact on the overall analysis. A summary of fit of the actual and writing predicted heart rates resulted in an R 2 value of secret writing, 0.87. A test of the fixed effects indicated that the difference among the jobs houston whales was statistically significant ( P 0.0001) and that the treatment difference (high-salt versus fresh-water exposure) was significant ( P = 0.0008); however, there was no significant two-way interaction between the whales and treatment ( P = 0.36). A plot of the residuals showed a random pattern around zero, indicating that the assumption of equal variances was likely met. The Tukey HSD set of confidence intervals of the on my bicycle differences (Table 3, bottom) indicated that there was no difference in the estimated mean heart rates between whales 1 and 2, whales 1 and houston 3, and essays whales 2, 5 and 6 at the 95% confidence level. Whale 4 was significantly different from creative jobs houston all others. The least squares means differences in Student's t test of the salt and fresh-water treatment conditions (Table 3, top) resulted in an overall mean estimated heart rate of 60.42 bpm for the 41 ppt salt-water stimulus and essay on importance education an estimated 52.56 bpm for the fresh-water stimulus (Table 4), and these were significantly different ( P = 0.0008). Creative Writing Jobs Houston. The estimated difference between the two means, with 95% confidence, was 7.86 bpm. The least squares means analysis of the essay education whale-treatment interaction had a P -value of 0.36, indicating that all such confidence intervals of mean differences would overlap. These results demonstrated a significant and creative writing repeatable difference in heart rate, with higher heart rate being associated with the 41 ppt salt-water exposure and lower heart rate with the writing fresh-water exposure (Fig. 8).
This change in heart rate occurred in all six animals, though there were differences in the heart rates measured between the different animals. Writing Jobs Houston. The magnitude of on importance of traffic education, change for the salt stimulus mean was between 3.7 and 12.0 beats per minute. Mean heart rate measured for each of the creative writing houston six male narwhals while the tusk is on my bicycle stimulated with either 41 ppt salt water or fresh water. Sensory model of the erupted male narwhal tusk showing, from bottom left, the introduction of water gradients penetrating cementum channels connected to patent dentinal tubules through the full thickness of the dentinal layer, connecting to odontoblastic processes and cells at the base of the tubules and at the periphery of the writing jobs houston pulp, which stimulate nerve tissue connecting the base of tusk tissue to writing the maxillary branch of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. Also pictured at the bottom right are pulp peripheral nerve-associated substance P and CGRP. Human and jobs houston other mammalian teeth have sensory function and exhibit a highly adapted ability to an essay on my bicycle sense variables including temperature, ion concentration gradients, physical pressure during loading, and proprioceptive position. It is therefore reasonable to expect that this function of dentition is also found in the narwhal.
Anatomic form and physiologic field results are consistent with Brännström's hydrodynamic theory of teeth, the most widely accepted theory of creative jobs, sensory and pain perception associated with exposed dentinal tubules (Brännström, 1966, 1967). The theory hypothesizes that interstitial fluid within these tubules can be influenced by variables of temperature, pressure, hydration status, and electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Solutions introduced at the tusk surface have the effect of an essay on my bicycle, penetrating a porous cementum outer layer through a series of open and organized channels that create fluid flow within the dentinal tubules, outward during the exposure to jobs houston high-salt solutions and inward after exposure to fresh water. Mechanical effects on odontoblastic processes within these tubules, and close associations of odontoblasts with nerve endings in essay on importance the outer layer of writing jobs, pulpal tissue (Fig. An Essay On My. 9), are involved in the initiation of jobs houston, sensory perception.
Direct exposure to the environment of the patent dentinal tubule network in narwhals is unusual. On Importance Of Traffic Education. In contrast, the beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas )the closest relative to the narwhalexhibits the more characteristic occluded dentinal tubules within the dentin layer, preventing any fluid conduction from the enamel-covered tooth surface to the ocean environment (Sergeant, 1959 and 1973). Primer sequences used in QRT-PCR experiments lists the Roche Universal Probe number and corresponding forward, reverse and amplicon sequences for the Universal Probe Library reactions. Creative Writing Houston. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed using the an essay bicycle Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively. Tubules are present in all mammalian dentin and serve to creative writing supply the physiologic fluids that maintain the integrity of collagen that forms the collagen fibril network within dentin (Pashley, 1996; Kinney et al., 2003). It is well known that in secret essay writing human root-canal-treated teeth, where the pulpal tissue has been removed and thus the internal supply of physiologic fluid, the dentin becomes more brittle and creative writing loses elasticity over time (Jameson et al., 1993; Papa et al., 1994). This same physiologic function of maintaining collagen toughness within narwhal dentin would be even more critical at the high bending stresses experienced within a tusk. Tensile stresses are greatest near the base and on the surface of a cantilevered beam, such as a narwhal tusk. Tissues with very high fracture toughness, such as the highly fibrous and collagenous dentin of the essays tusk, are best designed to respond to these stresses without fracturing. This tubular tusk structure of toughened dentin is a wonderful example of evolutionary engineering, where environmental demands have resulted in optimized organ design.
This explains the high density of tubules observed and the fact that narwhal tusks maintain a pulpal vascular network for nearly their entire length. Creative Jobs Houston. The unique feature of narwhal tusk dentin, however, is the frequent and normal communication of these tubules with the exposed surface of the tusk. In other mammalian teeth, surface layers of enamel or cementum occlude tubules, and bicycle occluded tubules frequently occur within the dentin layer, so that exposure of tubules only occurs as a result of damage or pathology. Jobs. The narwhal tusk has no surface enamel layer (Ishiyama, 1987), and the cementum observed on the surface is highly porous with a network of secret writing, open and organized channels surrounding abundant Sharpey's fiber bundles of hypomineralized collagen, thus providing the patent communication needed to sense surface stimuli. Dissection and imaging of male and female narwhal heads reveal connection of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve from the brain to the tusk. This connection is supported by intracranial dissections, tusk alveolar examination, and visible pathways of nerve conduction observed by dissection and jobs houston radiographic imaging (Tyler, 2006; Nweeia et al., 2009). Narwhal pulp has been reported to have features similar to other mammals (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977).
Nerve-associated tissue discovered in narwhal pulpal tissue (Figs. 4 and 5) also provides evidence that the advisory embl Brännström hydrodynamic theory of sensory function could apply to the narwhal tusk. Transmission of dental sensory or nociceptive (pain) signals to houston the CNS involves Aδ and C-type fibers. Rapid, sharp pain is associated with Aδ fibers, while dull, radiating pain typically involves C-type fibers, depending on of traffic the type of stimulus. The Aδ fibers account for houston, the sensitivity of dentin, whereas C-type fibers are activated only question to thesis, if external stimuli reach the pulp proper (Narhi et al., 1992).
Hydrodynamic sensory perception in the narwhal tusk is supported by creative writing houston, our findings of extensive innervation and expression of substance P, a known nociceptive neurotransmitter, in the peripheral region of the essay of traffic pulp. The close apposition of odontoblasts and substance P+ fibers is consistent with odontoblast-dependent sensory transmission initiated by fluid flow in creative writing jobs houston dentinal tubules. Recent reports of mechano-sensitive ion channels such as TRPV14 and TREK-1 in thesis odontoblast membranes, and PC1 and PC2 associated with the odontoblast primary cilia (Magloire et al., 2009, 2010), provide possible additional mechanisms for odontoblast-mediated sensory transmission. Significant presence and detection of a set of sensory-related genes in jobs the pulp (including DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, TFAP2A, and NGF), either highly expressed or less expressed relative to control samples of muscle and mandibular soft tissue, suggest a genetic basis for sensory function. The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Stable isotope values in large mammal tissues can reflect the previous year's diet (Sponheimer et al., 2006), whereas fatty acids in blubber have turnover rates on the order of 1.53 months (Nordstrom et al., 2008). The majority of our samples were collected in on medicare July and August.
Thus, fatty acid signatures would reflect dietary habits during the late spring to early summer period, which may be after the breeding season in either mid-April (Best and Fisher, 1974) or May-June (Heide-Jørgensen and Garde, 2011). Fatty acid values varied between males and females, although much less strongly than stable isotopes, which may suggest males and creative writing females are foraging more similarly during the mating season or that both sexes limit feeding at this time. While more evidence is committee certainly needed, there remains the possibility that tusk sensory function could play a role in locating food sources. Physiologic data from six live-captured male narwhals suggest statistically significant sensory perception to writing houston high-salt and fresh-water solutions (Fig. 7). On My Bicycle. It is interesting to note that Whale 1 presented with one-third of its tusk broken off. Results indicate this tusk damage compromised the ability to creative jobs houston distinguish between high-salt and secret essay writing freshwater solutions. Whale 2 also presented with a broken tusk, but only a minor 23 cm loss of length, and thus sensation of salinity was only slightly compromised when compared to writing jobs Whales 36. An established sensory pathway has thus been discovered from the external ocean environment through porous cementum, penetrating patent tubules conducting fluid shifts to sensory cells in the pulp, and transfer to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve which connects to the base of the bicycle brain.
This anatomic model (Fig. 9), combined with field experiments showing sensitivity to high salinity gradients and associated increases in creative jobs houston physiological heart rate response, show that the narwhal tusk organ has sensory ability. This is an organ with the ability to sense characteristics of an essay on my, its external environment. More common associations of tooth sensitivity to their environment are linked to protection. Teeth sense stimuli that signal a threat to their function or integrity and the animal responds in a normal “fight or flight” reaction to avoid or neutralize the stimulus. Such stimuli are often episodic, appearing when the threat is present and not as a normal part of the tooth's environment. The narwhal is the only example documented where teeth are shown to have the ability to constantly sense environmental stimuli that would not necessarily be considered a threat.
Unusual tusk microanatomy provides a unique means of assessing the whale's environment by what appears to be their normal and commonly employed mechanism. The dentinal tubule network in writing jobs the embedded (unerupted) tusk antemere opens the possibility that it may serve as a “reference tusk,” bathed in essay on importance of traffic education physiological fluid and used as a set point for sensing “high” versus “low” salinity by the erupted “sensory tusk.” Tested sensitivities to high-salt and jobs fresh-water solutions suggest that these dentinal tubules may also sense changes in on my bicycle temperature, pressure, hydration status, and/or electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Further examination may likely reveal other variables that can be sensed and interpreted, according to Brännström's hydrodynamic theory, by this extraordinary tooth organ system. Future experiments that test additional stimuli would provide a better understanding of the broader capability of this sensory organ system. The current evidence suggests that the tusk may have a multitude of writing, specific and perhaps interacting functions. Its microanatomy and sensory ability compellingly point to function as a sensory organ system.
Although erupted tusks may present in essay on importance of traffic both sexes, they are mostly found in males and thus are more likely associated with sexual selection. Writing Jobs Houston. The microanatomy of the female tusk reveals a similar dentinal tubule network. However, their gross morphology of a more dense proportion of an essay on my, hard tissue with a very limited pulpal canal suggests that they may not have the houston same sensory ability. Other gross morphological differences in on my bicycle erupted female tusks, which are present in houston approximately 15% of the population (Roberge and Dunn, 1990), have also been documented (Clark, 1871; Pederson, 1931). No field experiments were conducted on females with tusks, as none were part of the question sample caught during this investigation. The use of teeth in intrasexual selection or “male-to-male rivalry” and competition amongst odontocetes has been documented in writing the literature, and secret essay writing may have relevance to narwhal tusk function.
New evidence of sensory ability suggests that intersexual selection or “mate choice” should be considered as a mechanism for writing jobs, sexual selection. Several hypotheses can be suggested for “mate choice” based on the sensory ability of the erupted male tusk. The first is that the essay on importance tusk might detect waters where females in estrus may be gathered or attracted. A second is that the tusk could also detect waters where females are foraging, as observed from fatty acid and stable isotope results. As an expression of fitness, a third hypothesis is that some males may be better able to find sources of creative writing jobs houston, foods needed for newborn calves. The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Essay On Importance. Tusk sensory ability as a retained function from an evolutionary precursor is a fourth hypothesis; a fifth is jobs houston that the tusk is a currently evolving sensory organ. Secret Essay Writing. Differences in creative writing jobs tooth position and morphology suggest other functions such as species recognition, as they do in and medicaid other odontocetes (MacLeod, 2000). Since behaviors linked to mating are difficult to collect throughout the year, and creative writing jobs a significant time period from essays on medicare and medicaid late October to March can be forbidding due to weather and ocean conditions including moving pack ice within Baffin Bay in the early spring (Mansfield et al., 1975), observations of narwhal behavior will continue to be difficult to gather.
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Gronland 77:343506 (original in German). Writing. Fish Res Bd Can Transl Ser 1206: 412 417 . Bicycle. Perrin WF , Myrick AC, Jr. , Editors. 1980 . Writing Jobs Houston. Age Determination of thesis and ideologies, toothed whales and sirenians. International Whaling Commission, Report of the Workshop, p. 34 35 . Peterson BJ , Fry B . 1987 . Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies . Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18 : 293 320 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2560 Pischinger A , Stockinger L . 1968 . Jobs. Die Nerven der menschlichen Zahnpulpa . Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie. 89 : 44 61 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of question to thesis, Science® Times Cited: 16 Porsild MP . 1918 . On “Savssats”: a crowding of arctic animals at holes in the sea ice . The Geographical Review, Vol. VI, No. Creative Writing Jobs Houston. 3 (September) . Porsild MP . 1922 . Scattered observations on an essay the narwhal . J Mammal 3 : No. 1 , p 8 . CrossRef Ramirez F , Vanegas H . 1989 . Tooth pulp stimulation advances both medullary off-cell pause and tail flick . Neurosci Lett 100 : 1 3 , 153156.
CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 32 Reeves RR , Mitchell E . 1981 . Creative Writing Houston. The whale behind the tusk . Nat Hist 90 : 50 57 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 6 Roberge MM , Dunn JB . 1990 . Assessment of the subsistence harvest and thesis television and ideologies biology of narwhal (Monodon monoceros L.) from creative houston Admiralty Inlet, Baffin Island, Northwest Territories (Canada) 1983 and 198689. Canada Technical Reports of an essay on my bicycle, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, O (1947), 1 32 . Roth ME , Feng L , McConnell KJ , Schaffer PJ , Guerra CE , Affourtit JP , et al. Creative Jobs. 2004 . Nat Biotechnol 22 : 418 426 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 27 Rozen S , Skaletsky HJ . 2000 . Primer3 on the www for advisory committee, general users and for biologist programmers . In: S. Writing Jobs Houston. Krawetz and S. Misener , editors. Bioinformatics methods and to thesis protocols: methods in molecular biology . Totowa, NJ : Humana Press. p 365 386 . Scoresby W, Jr . 1820 . An account of the Arctic regions, with a history and description of the northern whale-fishery . Volumes 12. London: Archibald Constable and Co . Scoresby W . 1823 . Journal of a voyage to the northern whale-fishery: including researches and discoveries on the eastern coast of West Greenland, made in the summer of 1822, in the ship Baffin of Liverpool. Printed for Archibald Constable and Co., Edinburgh, and Hurst, Robinson and Co. Cheapside, London. Jobs. Seltzer S , Bender JB . 2002 . Dental Pulp. Hargreaves KM , Goodis HE , editors.
Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc., Illinois. Sergeant DE . 1959 . Age determination in odontocete whales from dentinal growth layers . Norsk Hvalfangst Tid. 6 : 275 277 . On My. Sergeant DE . 1973 . Biology of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Western Hudson Bay . J Fish Res Board Can 30 : 1070 1071 . CrossRef Silverman HB . Creative Writing. 1979 . Thesis Television And Ideologies. Social organization and behavior of the creative jobs narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . in Lancaster Sound, Pond Inlet, and Tremblay Sound, Northwest Territories. Thesis Committee. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal. Silverman HB and Dunbar MJ . 1980 . Aggressive tusk use by the Narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature 284 : 57 . Creative Writing Houston. CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 43 | ADS Silverman J , Kruger L . 1987 . An interpretation of dental innervation based on the pattern of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive thin sensory axons . Somatosensory Motor Res 5 : 157 175 . To Thesis. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of writing jobs, Science® Times Cited: 143 Sonnini DMCNS , Buffon L . 1804 . Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des cétacés.
Paris. Thesis Television And Ideologies. (Note: pages 227253 are section of creative writing jobs houston, interest). Spinsanti G , Panti C , Lazzeri E , Marsili L , Casini S , Frati F , Fossi CM . 2006 . Selection of essays on medicare and medicaid, reference genes for creative writing jobs, quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba ) skin biopsies . BMC Mol Biol 7 : 32 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of question, Science® Times Cited: 51 Sponheimer M , Passey BH , de Ruiter DJ , Guatelli-Steinberg D , Cerling TE , Lee-Thorp JA . 2006 . Creative Jobs. Turnover of stable carbon isotopes in the muscle, liver, and breath CO 2 of alpacas ( Lama pacos ) . Rapid Commun Mass Spect 20 : 1395 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 47 Teaford MF , Ungar PS . 2000 . Diet and thesis television the evolution of the earliest human ancestors . Proc Natl Acad Sci 97 : 13506 13511 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 149 | ADS Thewissen JGM , Cooper LN , Clementz MT , Bajpai S , Tiwari BN . Writing Jobs. 2007 . To Thesis. Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of India . Jobs. Nature 450 : 1190 1195 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 86 | ADS Tomlin AG . Television And Ideologies. 1967 . Mammals of the U.S.S.R. Volume 9. Cetacea. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translation. Creative Houston. Tyler EM . 2006 . Visualization of the dental anatomy of the narwhal Monodon monoceros . Essays And Medicaid. A thesis submitted to creative houston the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine . p 36 . Unneberg P . 2003 . An Essay. Transcript identification by analysis of creative jobs houston, short sequence tags influence of tag length, restriction site and transcript database . Nucleic Acid Res 31 : 2217 2226 . Essays On Medicare And Medicaid. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 Velculescu VE , Zhang L , Vogelstein B , Kinzler KW . 1995 . Serial analysis of gene expression. Science ( New York, NY ) 270 : 484 487 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 2877 Vibe C . 1950 . The marine mammals and marine fauna in creative writing the Thule District (N.W. Greenland) with observations on ice conditions in 1939, 1940, and 1941 . Meddelelser om Grønland , 150 : 117 . Wakisaka S , Ichikawa H , Hishikawa S , Matsuo S , Takano Y , Akai M . 1987 . The distribution and secret origin of caltionin gene-related peptide containing nerve fibers in the feline dental pulp . Histochemistry 86 : 585 589 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 73 Wakisaka S . 1990 . Neuropeptides in creative jobs houston the dental pulp: distribution, origins and correlation . J Endod 16 : 67 69 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 37 Watanabe M , Tanaka E , Suemune S , Satoda T , Maeda N , Uchida T , Tanne K . 2003 . Expression of c-Fos protein in the trigeminal nuclear complex resulting from quantified force application to the rat molar . Essay. J Oral Rehab 30 : 1128 1137 . Creative Writing Jobs. Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of to thesis, Science® Times Cited: 11 Weissengruber GE , Egerbacher M , Forstenpointner G . Creative. 2005 . Thesis Advisory Embl. Structure and innervation of the writing jobs houston tusk pulp in the African elephant . Essay. J Anat 206 : 387 393 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Worm O . 1655 . Museum Wormianum. Writing Jobs. Seu, Historia rerum rariorum, tam naturalium, quam artificialium, tam domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quae Hafniae Danorum in aedibus authoris servantur. Adornata ab Olao Worm. Lugduni Batavorum, Apud Johannem elsevirium, Acad.
Typograph. Committee Embl. Yamada M , Suzuta K , Higuchi H . 1968 . Sensitivity of the tooth to creative writing thermal stimulation . Japan J Physiol 18 : 310 325 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 9. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Robert W. Boessenecker , Danielle Fraser , Morgan Churchill , Jonathan H. On Importance Education. Geisler , A toothless dwarf dolphin (Odontoceti: Xenorophidae) points to explosive feeding diversification of modern whales (Neoceti), Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 2017 , 284 , 1861, 20170531 CrossRef 2 E.K. Sawyer , D.K.
Sarko , Evolution of creative writing jobs, Nervous Systems, 2017 , 437 CrossRef 3 W. David Lambert , Eurybelodon shoshanii, an unusual new shovel-tusked gomphothere (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from the thesis and ideologies late Miocene of Oregon, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology , 2016 , 36 , 3, e1091352 CrossRef 4 Ecology of North America, 2015 , 259 CrossRef 5 Annalisa Berta , James L. Sumich , Kit M. Kovacs , Marine Mammals, 2015 , 397 CrossRef 6 Kathryn Grandfield , Netta Lev-Tov Chattah , Sabra Djomehri , Naomi Eidelmann , Frederick C Eichmiller , Samuel Webb , P James Schuck , Martin Nweeia , Sunita P Ho , The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) cementumdentin junction: A functionally graded biointerphase, Proceedings of the creative writing houston Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine , 2014 , 228 , 8, 754 CrossRef. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Power Management S3 Tricks and Tips. This document is intended to jobs houston explain how S3 (suspend/resume) works and of traffic has some tricks and tips to help debug and diagnose S3 issues. S3 is the ACPI sleep state that is houston known as sleep or suspend to RAM. An Essay On My! It essentially turns off most power of the system but keeps memory powered. When the user hits the sleep key, this generates a hardware interrupt which is caught and handled by the embedded controller (EC). ACPI defines two approaches to handle power buttons - fixed hardware or generic hardware. In the fixed hardware scheme, EC triggers a low-pulse to the PWRBTN# pin and Southbridge (SB) sets PWRBTN_STS bit in PM1_STS register to indicate to the operating system that a power button event occurs. In the generic hardware scheme, EC triggers a change to a GPIO pin to generate a general-purpose event to creative writing BIOS, and BIOS issues a Notify(PWRB, 0x80) to the operating system.
You can observe which GPE is triggered by examining the files in /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts and see which one increments when the event occurs. The kernel handles the advisory, GPE and based on which GPE gets triggered it then executes the writing, appropriate handler in the ACPI DSDT table (the DSDT, Differentiated System Description Table, contains AML bytecode that is executed in the kernel context by the kernel's ACPI driver. For example, if GPE 0x1e is triggered then AML bytecode method _GPE._L1E() or _GPE._E1E() is executed depending on it being Level or Edge triggered (the method name has a L or E prefix corresponds to Level or Edge triggered events). Typically the method just creates a Notify() event which gets passed over to user space via the /proc/acpi/event interface and handled by acpid and ultimately this calls /etc/acpi/sleep.sh which in turn calls pm-suspend. Note: Level-triggered or edge-triggered depends on the design and the configuration of the SB, and firmware (BIOS) must implement it correctly. The pm-suspend script prepares the machine for suspend, typically this involves unloading broken modules that don't suspend well and then finally writing the text mem to /sys/power/state. Writing to /sys/power/state initiates the kernel side of the suspend. First it suspends all user space tasks (freezing them). Essay Education! Next the kernel traverses the device tree and for each driver it calls the registered suspend method. It is the responsibility of each driver to ensure the correct state is saved to allow the hardware to creative writing jobs resume correctly and this is where a lot of bugs can occur. The kernel then executes the ACPI methods _PTS() (Prepare to secret essay writing sleep) and/or _GTS() (Going to Sleep) which are again in then DSDT.
This byte code generally does platform specific magic, such as writing magic values to the embedded controller and writing houston even calling System Management Mode (SMM) code in the BIOS via the use of System Management Interrupts (SMI). The kernel has no knowledge of of traffic what is happening while these methods are executing - the byte code controlling the BIOS and Embedded Controller interactions are out of the kernel's control. Obviously if the AML byte code or BIOS code being executed in SMI is buggy it can cause S3 issues and there is little can be done to creative writing houston easily fix this in essay of traffic, the kernel. When the methods return control back to the kernel the system is almost ready to suspend. The kernel writes the address of the resume wakeup code into a data structure and the address is written into the Firmware Waking Vector (as specified by the Fixed ACPI Description Table (FADT)). The kernel fetches the addresses of the PM1a/PM1b control registers from the FADT and writes the sleep type (SLP_TYP) and sleep enable (SLP_EN) bits to the registers and this triggers the sleep. The kernel will sit in a wait loop until it gets put to sleep by the pending action of creative jobs houston writing to the PM control registers. After kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN, it is common a SMI is generated by SB (called Sleep SMI as it is invoked after the kernel considers that the and ideologies, system is in S3). Note that it is up to houston the BIOS to save specific BIOS and Embedded Controller state.
This is essays and medicaid normally done in writing jobs, the _PTS/_GTS Method calls and in Sleep SMI. Sometimes this is were weird BIOS or EC state issues cause suspend/resume to fail. A break down of the calls in the kernel is as follows: Eventually the on importance education, user wants to jobs houston wake their machine up from S3 suspend. The user presses a power button which wakes up the CPU and it jumps to a known BIOS start address. Essays On Medicare! The BIOS does some setup to get the memory controller, restore some device states, and then reads the ACPI status register to tell it if it was in a suspended state. The BIOS then jumps to the wakeup address saved in the Firmware Waking Vector. Creative Writing Houston! The kernel resume code pointed to secret essay by the Firmware Waking Vector is some real mode x86 code that sets the CPU back into normal kernel protected mode and then restores CPU register state and pops back down the call suspend call chain to do the resume. At this point the kernel calls the ACPI _WAK() method, it then resumes drivers, unfreezes threads and user space processes and we return back to point where mem was just written to /sys/power/state. To user space, nothing has really changed, apart from a jump forward in time by the clock. The first bit of jobs houston magic to be aware of is in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S.
this directly maps to the wakeup_header defined in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.h: during suspend, header-pmode_entry is set to wakeup_pmode_return() in function acpi_save_state_mem() and kernel state is saved into a wakeup header which is a real mode copy (to acpi_realmode) of a chunk of thesis television code and data in creative jobs, wakeup_code_start..wakeup_code_end. acpi_wakeup_address points to the real mode code + data and acpi_sleep_prepare() uses this to essays on medicare set the waking vector before suspending. To understand resume, we need to examine the creative writing houston, final phase of question to thesis suspend. Assembler function do_suspend_lowlevel in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S performs the final phase of creative writing houston suspend, it basically does the following: saves cpu state + registers calls acpi_enter_sleep_state() which ultimately ends end suspending and CPU halts. If this fails, the registers + cpu state are restored and we return from do_suspend_lowlevel(). The wakeup from S3 works as follows: BIOS (realmode) inspects the ACPI waking vector and jumps out of BIOS real mode into on my, wakeup_code() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. Recall that this code is creative jobs houston a copy in secret essay, real mode memory - this code then ljmpl's to wakeup_pmode_return(). wakeup_pmode_return() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S restores registers, the gdt, idt and ltd (hence comes out of real mode), and restores the stack pointer does a final sanity check to see if a saved magic value is as expected and writing jobs houston if all is OK resturns back to pop the stack and return from do_suspend_lowlevel() as if nothing has happened. As you can now see, suspending and resuming is rather non-trivial.
The following sections explain how where to look for S3 bugs: We rely on drivers behaving correctly in essay writing, their suspend/resume methods, if state is not saved/restored correctly then broken drivers can break in subtle and creative jobs houston mysterious ways. Drivers may oops during suspend or resume, which causes headache for debugging since these normally happen while the console is suspended. Thesis! The first thing to try is to boot the kernel with kernel parameter: no_console_suspend. Next switch to creative houston VT1 and suspend/resume using Ctrl-Alt-F1 or: login on secret writing, VT1 and suspend using: Repeat several times to see if you can capture a kernel oops. Use a digial camera to writing jobs photo graph the advisory committee, oops message or if it scrolls too quickly off the screen limit the kernel oops message by hacking dump_stack() (arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c) to dump out less off a stack trace. If you know the bug exists in a driver but you cannot get an oops and you have no console then things get tricky. The PC does can only save state in the real time clock (RTC) over reboots, so we have to houston result to saving a hashed state of the device suspend details in the RTC. We use the /sys/power/pm_trace interface to enable PM debugging as follows:
If resume fails, quickly reboot the machine as you have. 3 minutes before the updates to the RTC corrupt the saved hashed state. Once rebooted, look for the Magic numbers: text in essays on medicare, the kernel log, use dmesg, and look for something like: You may even get lucky and get a device being mentioned as the problematic driver, e.g.: Device numbers sometimes are show, use lspci to track down the creative writing houston, problematic device. The next trick is to remove the module and repeat the suspend/resume to see if this was the problem driver or not.
If a driver is secret not suspending/resuming correctly one workaround is to houston then add the name of the modules to the MODULES= list in /etc/default/acpi-support. However, the thesis embl, best approach is to find out why the driver is breaking suspend/resume and writing jobs houston fixing it. However, /sys/power/pm_trace is known to be a little temperamental and may yield false positives. An alternative approach is to remove all modules and do a suspend/resume cycle. If this works, then start loading modules one by one until you find one that causes the an essay on my bicycle, hang. As you may now be aware, we are very reliant on creative writing jobs houston, the BIOS + ACPI for suspend/resume and more often than not these cause the bugs. The issues fall into to thesis, several categories: In this scenario, the kernel passes control over to BIOS, and creative writing jobs we BIOS never returns control back to the kernel. Essay! This can occur when the ACPI _PTS() or _GTS() methods call into the BIOS via SMIs - these are rare, but possible. In this case, one needs to enable ACPI AML code execution tracing and see if these methods are being executed at the time of the hang.
One may also want to creative writing houston check whether the system hangs after kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN. If so, BIOS may hang in Sleep SMI. More likely though BIOS either never jumps back to on my the Firmware Waking Vector or it jumps to creative the wrong location, or has really screwed up the processor state and returns to the kernel via the Firmware Waking Vector but does not execute in the kernel correctly. At this point one should sanity check to see if the BIOS actually made it back into the kernel. Question To Thesis! One of a handful tricks can be used: 1. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to flash the LEDs on to indicate the BIOS jumped back to the kernel. Example code below: unfortunately a lot of the newer machines don't seem to even have the luxury of a keyboard LED, so you may need to try the following strategies: 2. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to dump state in port $80 and use a port $80 debug card. You need to boot with io_delay=udelay or io_delay=0xed so not to clobber port $80 on writing jobs, port I/O delay operations. 3. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to zap the on medicare, CMOS settings on resume.
When the machine hangs, reboot. Your BIOS may beep and complain about the writing jobs houston, CMOS being cleared, and/or you may need to go into the BIOS set up to essays on medicare and medicaid re-set the BIOS config back to a sane state. If this happens you at least know that the creative, BIOS transitioned from a S3 wakeup and television jumped back into creative, the kernel. We are very reliant on ACPI to do things right, sometimes it just does not. A few things worth checking are: Method _PTS(). This ACPI Method needs to exist and is required to transition the machine to the suspend state correctly. Unfortunately we rely in the ACPI AML code and the underlying BIOS code (if used) to do the right thing.
Method _GTS(). Question! This ACPI Method is creative not required, but needs to work correctly if it does exist. Like _PTS() it is platform specific and may interact with the an essay on my bicycle, BIOS/Emebedded Controller in a closed and proprietary way. PM1a/b register settings from FADT. These are tweaked to set the PM power type and suspend enable at S3 suspend time, so if the addresses are incorrect the kernel may be just twiddling the wrong registers. These can be dumped out creative jobs houston using one of the following: and the edit FACP.dsl and check that the PM1A/PM1B event and essay control blocks look sane. You need to consult the chipset specific data sheet to sanity check these register addresses. Pressing the suspend hot key should in theory trigger a suspend. The easiest thing to check is writing that the ACPI events are being passed down to acpid to kick off the suspend.
Use the following to spy on ACPI events: If this fails, then next thing to check is for any GPEs occurring. If you don't observe any GPEs then there could be a problem with the key waking up the Embedded Controller and secret writing the Embedded Controller poking the Southbridge which in turn causes the GPE. To observe the GPEs, use: then press the creative jobs, button and see if any of the GPE event counters increment. If not, you have a button + Embedded Controller issue. Finally, if acpi_events to occur then make sure pm_suspend is an essay bicycle being run. Writing Houston! This is a shell script, so you can add in debug and write it to thesis advisory committee a log file to observe if it's being called.
If it's not, then there is a problem with acpid calling the sleep script which calls pm-suspend. If pm-suspend is being called, then the final issue is most probably the kernel attempting to creative writing suspend by fails because of broken ACPI Methods such as _PTS(). These need to be debugged by enabling the ACPI driver debug and observing the AML byte code being executed for these methods. The following power management kernel messages are a little terse and it's instructive to know what they really mean: Usually means dpm_suspend_noirq failed because some devices did not power down. dpm_prepare() failed to prepare all non-sys devices for a system PM transition. The device should be listed in television and ideologies, the error message. sysdev_suspend failed because some system devices did not power down. It has been known for machines to sit in resume for 300+ seconds before finally completing resume.
Normally this means that during resume the kernel is reconfiguring some hardware, for writing houston example, the PCI configuration spaces and needs to do a short delay. Thesis Television And Ideologies! Sometimes the CPU can pop into a very low C state and the HPET cannot wake it up - the timer interrupt gets lost. For example, the writing jobs, AMD C1E idle wait can sometimes produce long delays on resume. Thesis! This is a known issue with the failed delivery of creative jobs interrupts while in deep C states. If you have a BIOS option to disable C1E then first disable this and question to thesis retry. Alternatively, re-test with the kernel parameter idle=mwait - this will disable the more power optimal C1E idle, so it's not energy star friendly. If this is successfully then you should look at more optimal workarounds such as disabling the local APIC or disabling the APIC completely, so boot with nolapic or nolapic_timer kernel parameters. Finally, it may be worth exploring the kernel HPET parameters to see if this helps stop or work around the delay.
Kernel/Reference/S3 ( alexhung 2011-09-15 10:12:23) The material on this wiki is available under a free license, see Copyright / License for writing jobs details.
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12 citations proverbes sur le tango et la danse. Writing. 1 - Le tango, c#39;est l#39;expression verticale d#39;un désir horizontal. Advisory. 2 - 10 minutes pour apprendre une figure, dix ans pour apprendre à marcher. Creative Writing Jobs. Nota bene - Auteurs inconnus ou anonymes, citations transmises par le bouche à oreille dans nos milongas françaises; la milonga étant le nom qu#39;on donne au bal du tango argentin) Beaux proverbes autour de la danse et de la marche. On Importance. 7 - Rien ne sert de courir, il faut partir à point (Jean de la Fontaine) Citations d#39;auteurs, de personnages publics et personnalités célèbres, extraits choisis et pertinents de grandes oeuvres, voici mes pages et articles littéraires : Des citations, quoi de neuf? - récréation - répliques drôles, sentences coquines - des réflexions de blonde, carrément au féminin - sexo-citations , de la sexualité et des amours entre le sexe fort et le beau sexe - l#39;amour sous toutes les coutures dans la chanson française: La Nouvelle Créature Tanguera. Jobs Houston. élection Miss Ocytocine 2017. On Importance Of Traffic Education. Citations, éléments biographiques et autres annotations autour d#39;un prénom: Frédéric Mistral, Friedrich Nietzsche, Fred Astaire, Freddie Mercury: De beaux passages, des intrigues, des complots, de l#39;amour et des mystères dans les pages précieuses d#39;une femme de lettres et du bal qui reçoit dans son boudoir philologique: Je suis blonde, donc je pense - les nouvelles lectures d#39;une lolita tanguera amusante et délurée (Simone de Beauvoir, Eckhart Tolle, l#39;Evangile de Jean): des hormones et un mari. Creative Jobs Houston. Quelques définitions à propos du tango argentin, L#39;organisation corporelle dynamique (notion de bio-mécanique) L#39;organisation corporelle (schéma dynamique du corps) consiste à prendre conscience des qualités physiques et naturelles de son corps : ré-alignement vertical de ses centres de gravité (bassin, ceinture scapulaire, tête), principe actif et puissant de la jambe d#39;appui, qui assure la connexion avec la terre et le partenaire, les qualités de souplesse, d#39;équilibre, d#39;agilité, et enfin le travail des muscles internes qui font de notre colonne vertébrale un arbre de vie qui s#39;enracine dans l#39;expérience vivifiante de la danse à deux. Advisory Embl. Danser c#39;est avant tout marcher.
Marcher en couple, découvrir que chacun, le cavalier ou la personne qui guide (leader dancer) comme la danseuse ou la personne qui est guidée (follower dancer), est parfaitement autonome et gère son équilibre, ainsi que sa propre force motrice. Creative Houston. La connexion, le guidage, l#39;abrazo (embrace en anglais, l#39;étreinte, l#39;enlacement du couple de danse), deviennent alors un jeu de découverte dans la passion de la danse sociale. Nous apprenons à faire bon usage de notre jambe d#39;appui comme de notre jambe libre (pierna libre), en adaptant la sortie de jambe selon l#39;énergie de la connexion au sol et à sa/son partenaire de tango. On My. Pourquoi faire compliqué quand la magie vient de la marche? Les figures de danse sont comme des incidents : elles sont apparues à la suite de pertes d#39;équilibre, de manque de connexion, pendant l#39;expérimentation ou le bal, et l#39;on s#39;en sert aujourd#39;hui comme outils d#39;apprentissage et moyens de rendre spectaculaire un art qui pourtant célèbre la simplicité et la magie d#39;une marche en musique et à deux, le tango étant une danse d#39;improvisation. Creative Writing Jobs Houston. qui ne s#39;improvise pas! D#39;abord l#39;écoute de la musique. Advisory Committee Embl. Avec le corps. Creative Writing Jobs. La marche permet d#39;explorer les bases rythmiques ( compas en argentin) d#39;un tango, d#39;une valse argentine, d#39;une milonga (genre musical issu du candombe, qui prend des tournures parfois de habanera ou de fox trot), ou d#39;un canyengue, et cela est tout aussi valable quand on bicycle danse le boogie, le fox trot, la salsa cubaine ou la valse viennoise, par exemple, où derrière le pas de base, il nous faut garder à l#39;esprit cette notion essentielle de la marche, marche primitive, et de faire descendre dans le ventre, les pieds, toute notre intention, notre affirmation, notre joie et notre spiritualité vivante: le pas de base est un piétinement, l#39;art de se tenir debout, de s#39;enraciner tel un arbre, tout en célébrant l#39;élégance ( elegancia en argentin) de nous mouvoir, de déployer les ailes de notre coeur, comme l#39;oiseau libre dans son ciel. La musique nous permet ce double élan alors de nous enfoncer dans la terre, de reprendre contact avec Gaïa, et de nous redresser, de nous élever parmi les cimes les plus hautes de nos espérances. Creative Jobs Houston. L#39;interprétation musicale viendra en permettant à chaque danseur et danseuse d#39;exprimer sa personnalité: dans un bal bondé, on question to thesis privilégie une danse plus intimiste, avec des petits pas (caminada), dans un abrazo serré (abrazo cerrado, voire cerrado exagerado). Creative Writing Houston. Lorsque la milonga est fluide, que le bal tourne fidèlement sur la cadence d#39;un tango, d#39;une valse argentine ou d#39;une milonga, alors on an essay on my bicycle allonge le pas.
Avec de l#39;espace, le couple a le loisir de faire des figures - je préfère dire: des mouvements et enchaînements de mouvements plus élaborés, plus expressifs, sans forcément être spectaculaires, qui ouvrent l#39;abrazo: on creative writing houston parlera alors de tango ouvert, ou tango nuevo (neotango), ou simplement de tango libre. On Importance Of Traffic Education. Danser le tango nuevo est généralement associé au fait de danser sur de l#39;électro-tango, de la musique alternative, ou même de la musique classique, voire encore sur Astor Piazzolla dont l#39;oeuvre musicale était d#39;ailleurs classée nuevo tango. Houston. Mais rien n#39;empêche de se mettre dans un abrazo ouvert sur un Di Sarli, un D#39;Arienzo, un tango de l#39;âge d#39;or (années 30-40). Thesis. En conclusion: ne pas confondre le tango nuevo en tant que musique et le tango nuevo en tant que danse. Houston. Remarque: les débutants apprennent d#39;abord en ouvert!
L#39;abrazo semi-ouvert (dit encore tango Compas y elegancia, école Villa Urquiza, pour exemple notoire) existe, il serait plutôt le juste milieu des deux extrêmes, bien que la majorité des danseurs de tango semblerait se prononcer plus favorablement pour l#39;étreinte tendre, l#39;enlacement collé-serré, coeur à coeur, ou comme on to thesis dit encore: pecho-pecho ! C#39;est peut-être ici que se trouve notre thérapie et notre addiction au tango: le câlin du milonguero! Avignon, septembre 2013. Creative Writing Jobs. mecanismes d'une connexion limpide et d'un guidage precis.
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Case Study: A Patient With Type 2 Diabetes Working With an Advanced Practice Pharmacist to Address Interacting Comorbidities. Advanced practice pharmacists in the field of creative writing jobs, diabetes work collaboratively with patients’ medical providers, often in primary care settings or in close proximity to the providers’ practices. They help to integrate the writing, pharmaceutical, medical, education/ counseling, and direct patient care activities necessary to meet patients’ individual self-management and diabetes care needs. Patient education and creative, self-management behavioral change are underpinnings of pharmaceutical care, and television, not only as they directly relate to the use of writing houston, medications. Pharmacists, especially those who are certified diabetes educators (CDEs), frequently provide diabetes patients with education not only on medications, but also on the overall disease state, nutrition, physical activity, decision-making skills, psychosocial adaptation, complication prevention, goal setting, barrier resolution, and secret, cost issues.
In addition to these substantial education responsibilities, advanced practice pharmacists who are Board Certified–Advanced Diabetes Managers (BC-ADMs) play an creative jobs houston, expanded role that encompasses disease state management. This includes performing clinical assessments and to thesis, limited physical examinations; recognizing the need for additional care; making referrals as needed; ordering and interpreting specific laboratory tests; integrating their pharmacy patient care plans into patients’ total medical care plans; and entering notes on patient charts or carrying out writing jobs houston, other forms of secret writing, written communication with patients’ medical care providers. Depending on state regulations and physician-based protocols, some advanced practice pharmacists can prescribe and adjust medications independently or after consultation with prescribing clinicians. The clinical activities of BC-ADM pharmacists are not carried out independent of referring, collaborative practitioners. Rather, they are complementary to and serve to enhance the creative houston, diagnostic, complex physical assessment, and management skills of medical providers. The following case study illustrates the pharmacotherapeutic challenges of question to thesis, diabetes with other comorbidities, which can lead to creative writing jobs potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. Although it does not offer detailed solutions to such problems, this case does describe the essay writing, process of patient care and problem resolution as approached by advanced practice pharmacists. B.L. is creative writing a 58-year-old white woman who has been referred to on medicare and medicaid the pharmacist clinician for creative pharmacotherapy assessment and diabetes management. Her multiple medical conditions include type 2 diabetes diagnosed in 1995, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, coronary artery disease, persistent peripheral edema, and longstanding musculoskeletal pain secondary to a motor vehicle accident. Her medical history includes atrial fibrillation with cardioversion, anemia, knee replacement, and multiple emergency room (ER) admissions for on medicare and medicaid asthma.
B.L.’s diabetes is currently being treated with a premixed preparation of 75% insulin lispro protamine suspension with 25% insulin lispro preparation (Humalog 75/25), 33 units before breakfast and 23 units before supper. Creative Writing Jobs Houston! She says she occasionally “takes a little more” insulin when she notes high blood glucose readings, but she has not been instructed on to thesis, the use of an creative writing jobs houston, insulin adjustment algorithm. Her other routine medications include the fluticasone metered dose inhaler (Flovent MDI), two puffs twice a day; salmeterol MDI (Serevent MDI), two puffs twice a day; naproxen (Naprosyn), 375 mg twice a day; enteric-coated aspirin, 325 mg daily; rosiglitazone (Avandia), 4 mg daily; furosemide (Lasix), 80 mg every morning; diltiazem (Cardizem CD), 180 mg daily (per cardiologist consult); lanoxin (Digoxin), 0.25 mg daily (per cardiologist consult); potassium chloride, 20 mEq daily; and fluvastatin (Lescol), 20 mg at to thesis bedtime. Medications she has been prescribed to creative jobs take “as needed” include sublingual nitroglycerin for chest pain (has not been needed in the past month); furosemide, additional 40 mg later in the day if needed for swelling (on most days the essays on medicare and medicaid, additional dose is needed); and albuterol MDI (Proventil, Ventolin), two to four puffs every 4–6 hours for shortness of jobs, breath. She denies use of nicotine, alcohol, or recreational drugs; has no known drug allergies; and is up to date on her immunizations. B.L.’s chief complaint now is thesis advisory committee increasing exacerbations of asthma and the need for prednisone tapers. She reports that during her last round of prednisone therapy, her blood glucose readings increased to the range of 300–400 mg/dl despite large decreases in creative jobs her carbohydrate intake. She reports that she increases the frequency of her fluticasone MDI, salmeterol MDI, and albuterol MDI to thesis and ideologies four to writing houston five times/day when she has a flare-up. However, her husband has been out of on importance, work for creative writing houston more than a year, and their only source of income is essay on importance education her Social Security check. Therefore, she has been unable to jobs houston purchase the fluticasone or salmeterol and so has only been taking prednisone and albuterol for recent acute asthma exacerbations. B.L. reports eating three meals a day with a snack between supper and bedtime.
Her largest meal is supper. She states that she counts her carbohydrate servings at each meal and embl, is “watching what she eats.” She has not been able to exercise routinely for several weeks because of bad weather and jobs houston, her asthma. The memory printout from thesis and ideologies her blood glucose meter for creative houston the past 30 days shows a total of 53 tests with a mean blood glucose of 241 mg/dl (SD 74). With a premeal glucose target set at 70–140 mg/dl, there were no readings below target, 8% within target, and 91% above target. By comparison, her results from the same month 1 year ago averaged 112 mg/dl, with a high of 146 mg/dl and a low of 78 mg/dl. B.L. is well-appearing but obese and is in no acute distress. A limited physical exam reveals: Weight: 302 lb; height 5?1?
Blood pressure: 130/78 mmHg using a large adult cuff. Pulse 88 bpm; respirations 22 per minute. Lungs: clear to auscultation bilaterally without wheezing, rales, or rhonchi. Lower extremities +1 pitting edema bilaterally; pulses good. B.L. reports that on the days her feet swell the most, she is active and in an upright position throughout the on importance of traffic education, day.
Swelling worsens throughout the day, but by writing, the next morning they are “skinny again.” She states that she makes the television, decision to take an extra furosemide tablet if her swelling is excessive and painful around lunch time; taking the creative writing jobs houston, diuretic later in the day prevents her from sleeping because of nocturnal urination. For the sake of brevity, only abnormal or relevant labs within the past year are listed below. Hemoglobin A 1c (A1C) measured 6 months ago: 7.0% (normal range: 5.9%; target: 7%) Creatinine: 0.7 mg/dl (normal range: 0.7–1.4 mg/dl) Blood urea nitrogen: 16 mg/dl (normal range: 7–21 mg/dl) Sodium: 140 mEq/l (normal range: 135–145 mEq/l)
Potassium: 3.4 mg/dl (normal range: 3.5–5.3 mg/dl) Calcium: 8.2 mg/dl (normal range: 8.3–10.2 mg/dl) • Total cholesterol: 211 mg/dl (normal range 200 mg/dl) • HDL cholesterol: 52 mg/dl (normal range: 35–86 mg/dl; target: 55 mg/dl, female) • LDL cholesterol (calculated): 128 mg/dl (normal range: 130 mg/dl; target: 100 mg/dl) Initial LDL was 164 mg/dl. • Triglycerides: 154 mg/dl (normal range: 150 mg/dl; target: 150 mg/dl) Liver function panel: within normal limits. Urinary albumin: 30 ?g/mg (normal range: 30 ?g/mg) Poorly controlled, severe, persistent asthma.
Diabetes; control recently worsened by and medicaid, asthma exacerbations and creative writing jobs, treatment. Dyslipidemia, elevated LDL cholesterol despite statin therapy. Persistent lower-extremity edema despite diuretic therapy. Hypokalemia, most likely drug-induced. Hypertension JNC-VI Risk Group C, blood pressure within target and television, stable. Coronary artery disease, stable. Chronic pain secondary to creative writing jobs houston previous injury, stable. Status post–atrial fibrillation with cardioversion. Status post–knee replacement. Financial constraints affecting medication behaviors. Insufficient patient education regarding purposes and role of specific medications.
Wellness, preventive, and routine monitoring issues: calcium/vitamin D supplement, magnesium supplement, depression screening, osteoporosis screening, dosage for daily aspirin. Strand et al.1 proposed a systematic method for thesis television evaluation of and intervention for creative writing houston a patient’s pharmacotherapy, using a process called the Pharmacist’s Work-Up of essays and medicaid, Drug Therapy (PWDT). The PWDT has been modified by writing houston, subsequent authors,2–4 but the process remains grounded in the following five questions: What are reasonable outcomes for this patient? Based on current guidelines and thesis advisory, literature, pharmacology, and pathophysiology, what therapeutic endpoints would be needed to achieve these outcomes? Are there potential medication-related problems that prevent these endpoints from being achieved? What patient self-care behaviors and medication changes are needed to address the medication-related problems? What patient education interventions are needed to enhance achievement of these changes?
What monitoring parameters are needed to verify achievement of goals and detect side effects and writing jobs, toxicity, and how often should these parameters be monitored? Clinical outcomes are distinctly different from therapeutic or interventional endpoints. The former refers to the impact of treatment on patients’ overall medical status and quality of life and should emphasize patient-oriented evidence that matters (POEMs) rather than disease-oriented evidence (DOEs). Therapeutic endpoints include the anticipated and desired clinical effects from essay of traffic drug therapy that are expected, ultimately, to creative jobs achieve the desired outcome(s). As such, therapeutic endpoints are used as surrogate markers for achievement of outcomes. Commonly, more than one endpoint will be needed to achieve an outcome.
For example, near-normal glycemic control and normalization of essays on medicare, blood pressure (endpoints) would be necessary to significantly reduce the risk of writing houston, end-stage renal disease (outcome). Therapeutic endpoints should be specific, measurable, and essay on importance education, achievable within a short period of time. Achievement of jobs houston, clinical outcomes usually cannot be determined except by long-term observation or retrospective analysis. Outcomes and endpoints for any given patient should be determined collaboratively between patient and provider before selecting or initiating pharmacotherapy or nonpharmacological interventions. Taking the time to identify these components up front (and periodically revise them later on) helps ensure that subsequent medications or strategies are appropriately directed. It further ensures a common vision and commitment for ongoing patient care and self-management among the care team (including the patient), thus maximizing the potential for optimal disease control and patient satisfaction. The outcomes and endpoints for on importance of traffic education a patient such as B.L. are numerous and creative, obviously would not be addressed or attained in a single session. Therefore, after desired outcomes and endpoints are determined, they should be prioritized according to medical urgency and patient preference. Implementation and goal setting related to these priorities can then be undertaken, thus establishing a treatment plan for the eventual attainment of the full list.
During ongoing and follow-up visits, this care plan should be reviewed and modified as indicated by essay of traffic education, changes in patient status, preferences, and jobs houston, medical findings. Examples of desired outcomes and endpoints for B.L. are given in Tables 1 and 2. Essays On Medicare And Medicaid! For the sake of brevity, these tables are not intended to be inclusive. Medication-Related Problems and Proposed Interventions. With agreement between patient and clinician concerning desired outcomes and endpoints, the next logical step is to evaluate whether the current treatment plan is likely to achieve those goals, or, if treatment is to be initiated, which therapies or interventions should be selected. According to Strand et al.,1 a medication-related problem is any aspect of a patient’s drug therapy that is interfering with a desired, positive patient (therapeutic) outcome or endpoint.
The PWDT proposes a systematic and comprehensive method to identify, resolve, or prevent medication-related problems based on creative houston, the following major categories: No indication for a current drug. Indication for a drug (or device or intervention) but none prescribed. Wrong drug regimen (or device or intervention) prescribed/more efficacious choice possible. Too much of the advisory committee, correct drug. Too little of the correct drug. Adverse drug reaction/drug allergy. Drug-drug, drug-disease, drug-food interactions. Patient not receiving a prescribed drug. Routine monitoring (labs, screenings, exams) missing.
Other problems, such as potential for houston overlap of adverse effects. Once problems are identified, resolutions must be developed, prioritized, and implemented. Thesis Television! Patient or caregiver input is especially helpful at creative houston this stage because the individual can describe subjective as well as objective data, expectations or concerns that may be affecting drug therapy, and deficits in thesis television and ideologies drug knowledge, understanding, or administration. Resolutions may result from creative numerous strategies, including dose alteration, addition or discontinuation of on medicare, medication, adjunct medications, regimen adjustment, complementary therapies, instruction on medication administration or devices, disease or medication education, development of “cues” as compliance reminders (e.g., pill boxes), and houston, identification of ways to avoid, detect, or manage side effects or toxicities. Needless to say, the involvement of patients and family or caregivers is critical for successful implementation of an essay bicycle, most resolution strategies and for optimal disease management. Because of the extent of B.L.’s medication-related problems and potential interventions (Tables 3 and creative, 4), it was agreed to tackle first her asthma exacerbations and an essay, high blood glucose levels. To this end, B.L. was counseled about the role of maintenance asthma medications versus rescue drugs. The root of houston, her confusion between these agents was easy to understand—because the prednisone and fluticasone were both called steroids, it seemed likely that the tablets were a cheaper and easier way to take the medicine.
Likewise, since albuterol and salmeterol were both called bronchodilators, it seemed that the albuterol was the cheaper way to take the secret essay writing, medicine. Having grasped the concept of asthma prevention, she was willing to convert to a product combining fluticasone and creative writing jobs, salmeterol (Advair Diskus) for maintenance/prevention and to reserve the albuterol for thesis quick relief of acute symptoms. Free samples of the new product were dispensed, and B.L. was enrolled in the manufacturer’s indigent drug program for subsequent supplies. She was further instructed on the use of a peak flow meter and advised to monitor her readings and jobs, symptoms. At the next visit, these data will be used to determine her maximal expiratory effort (“personal best”) and to construct an asthma action plan. B.L.’s insulin was changed to a basal-based regimen utilizing bedtime glargine (Lantus) insulin and premeal lispro (Humalog) insulin. Education was provided on on importance, this dosing concept. She and the pharmacist discussed how this regimen can give greater flexibility in dosing, especially for responding to changes in diet, exercise, and disease exacerbations or medications. She was also given an initial supplementary adjustment algorithm (sliding scale) to correct for any temporary elevation of blood glucose.
She agreed to test four times daily and to writing record her blood glucose results, carbohydrate intake, and insulin doses. At the next visit, these data will be used to modify the adjustment algorithm and to construct a prospective algorithm for matching premeal bolus insulin to the anticipated carbohydrate intake (insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio). The final interventions for this visit were to increase the dose of an essay, potassium chloride and change the fluvastatin to atorvastatin (Lipitor) to creative writing further reduce B.L.’s LDL cholesterol. An Essay Bicycle! Medication education for atorvastatin was provided, and patient questions were answered. Other medication-related problems and writing jobs houston, interventions identified for television B.L. are listed and briefly discussed in Tables 3 and 4. For the sake of brevity, these lists are not inclusive nor are all pharmacotherapy issues discussed.
Monitoring for Effectiveness, Side Effects, and creative writing jobs, Toxicity. The last step in the PWDT process is to essay develop a plan to evaluate the patient’s progress in creative writing jobs attaining desired outcomes, therapeutic endpoints, and behavior changes; to assess effectiveness of pharmacotherapy; and to to thesis identify side effects, drug interactions, or toxicity issues that need to writing houston be addressed. The monitoring/follow-up component is the most tedious aspect of the PWDT. For each medication or intervention, key parameters must be identified as markers for effectiveness, for side effects, for drug interactions, and for toxicity. In addition, the on medicare and medicaid, time frame and process for assessing those parameters must be determined. Finally, the desired range for creative writing houston the parameter must be listed or a “decision point” must be identified to signal that additional action will be required. It should be noted that only a limited number of parameters are selected for a given patient. For example, it is not necessary to question to thesis list and monitor for every possible side effect with equal intensity and frequency. Selection of the monitoring parameters is based on the positive effects (efficacy) that are most important to the care of that patient, as well as the creative writing houston, adverse effects (side effects, toxicity, or drug interactions) that are most important to avoid for the safety of secret essay, that patient or to which that patient is houston most prone. Because the monitoring component is usually extensive, examples listed for B.L. in Table 5 have been limited to to thesis three of the medication or regimen changes that were made at the first pharmacist visit: switching from fluvastatin to atorvastatin; switching from two shots of premixed 75/25 lispro to bedtime glargine with premeal lispro; and substituting the combination inhaler product for her fluticasone and salmeterol MDI prescriptions.
Because atorvastatin and writing houston, fluvastatin differ chemically, the monitoring parameters for this change are similar to those for initiation of a new medication. Monitoring for the new insulin regimen (basal insulin with premeal bolus) focuses primarily on on medicare and medicaid, glycemic control patterns and hypoglycemic episodes. Writing Jobs Houston! Because B.L. has previously used the two ingredients of her new inhaler product (fluticasone and salmeterol) without adverse effect, monitoring of question, her new asthma therapy is focused on effectiveness, tolerance of creative writing, inhalation of its dry powder formula, and use of the administration device. Diabetes patients with multiple co-morbidities have concerns about all of their problems, not just the essay of traffic, diabetes; therefore, BC-ADM pharmacists must comprehensively explore all the ramifications of creative houston, comorbidities as well as patients’ feelings, expectations, and concerns for total health. B.L. is a good example of this; even though her referral was for “diabetes management,” her greatest concern at this visit was her asthma exacerbations. As can be seen in this case, each coexisting disease or coprescribed drug has a domino effect, affecting other diseases or drugs and ultimately affecting quality of life. With input from B.L., the pharmacist clinician was able to essays develop a PWDT that addresses her diabetes as well as her other health care needs.
B.L. was able to jobs leave the health center with a few achievable self-care goals and medication changes that address her acute concerns and with the knowledge and confidence that, at each subsequent visit, additional progress will be made toward her personalized health status goals. Examples of B.L.’s Desired Outcomes. Examples of B.L.’s Therapeutic Endpoints. Examples of B.L.’s Medication-Related Problems. Examples of B.L.’s Interventions (Prioritized and to be Implemented Accordingly)
Examples of B.L.’s Monitoring Plans. Peggy Yarborough, PharmD, MS, BC-ADM, CDE, FAPP, FASHP, NAP, is on my a professor at writing jobs Campbell University School of thesis advisory, Pharmacy in Buies Creek, N.C., and a pharmacist clinician at creative writing jobs Wilson Community Health Center in Wilson, N.C. For information concerning POEMs and DOEs: a multitude of literature on on medicare, this topic is available through Internet sources. Search for “patient oriented evidence that matters” using a medical topic browser. 2017 by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Spectrum Print ISSN: 1040-9165, Online ISSN: 1944-7353 .
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Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen. The play ‘A Doll’s house’ is a three act play written by Henrik Ibsen. The play is significant for its critical attitude toward 19th century marriage norms. It aroused great controversy at creative writing jobs houston, the time, as it concludes with the question to thesis, protagonist, Nora, leaving her husband and creative jobs houston, children because she wants to discover herself. Ibsen was inspired by the belief that “a woman cannot be herself in modern society,” since it is “an exclusively male society, with laws made by men and with prosecutors and judges who assess feminine conduct from essay a masculine standpoint. Henrik Ibsen, considered by writing jobs houston, many to question to thesis, be the father of modern prose drama, was born in creative writing jobs houston Skien, Norway, on March 20, 1828. On My? He was the second of six children.
Ibsen’s father was a prominent merchant, but he went bankrupt when Ibsen was eight years old, so Ibsen spent much of his early life living in poverty. From 1851 to 1864, he worked in theaters in Bergen and in what is now Oslo (then called Christiania). Creative Jobs Houston? At age twenty-one, Ibsen wrote his first play, a five-act tragedy called Catiline. Like much of his early work, Catiline was written in verse. In 1858, Ibsen married Suzannah Thoreson, and eventually had one son with her. Ibsen felt that, rather than merely live together, husband and wife should live as equals, free to become their own human beings. This belief can be seen clearly in A Doll’s House. In A Doll’s House, Ibsen paints a bleak picture of the sacrificial role held by women of all economic classes in his society. In general, the writing, play’s female characters exemplify Nora’s assertion (spoken to Torvald in Act Three) that even though men refuse to sacrifice their integrity, ‘hundreds of thousands of women have.’ At the beginning of A Doll’s House, Nora seems completely happy. She responds affectionately to Torvald’s teasing, speaks with excitement about the writing houston, extra money his new job will provide, and takes pleasure in on my the company of her children and friends.
She does not seem to mind her doll-like existence, in which she is coddled, pampered, and patronized. Protagonist, Nora, seems like a bit of a ditz. When her husband, Torvald, calls her things like his “little squirrel,” his “little lark,” and, worst of all, a “featherhead,” she doesn’t seem to jobs, mind (1.5-1.16). Bicycle? In fact she seems to enjoy and even play into it. When Torvald first calls her a spendthrift, we’re inclined to agree. So far, we’ve seen her give the porter an overly generous tip, come in with tons of Christmas presents, and shrug at writing, the idea of incurring debt.
Soon, though, we see that Nora has a lot more going on than we first imagined . On the other hand the other female in the play, Christine is a tough, world-wise woman. This lady has been through a lot. She tells Krogstad, “I have learned to act prudently Life, and question, hard, bitter necessity have taught me that”. In this paper I want to show that at time women used to sacrifice everthing for creative writing, their husbands. Still then they were not considered to secret writing, know the aspect of the world. As like nora , she did everything she can for her husband that she can. SACRIFICE BY NORA. As the play progresses, Nora reveals that she is not just a ‘silly girl,’ as Torvald calls her. Writing? That she understands the business details related to the debt she incurred taking out a loan to preserve Torvald’s health indicates that she is intelligent and possesses capacities beyond mere wifehood.
Her description of her years of secret labor undertaken to pay off her debt shows her fierce determination and ambition. Additionally, the fact that she was willing to break the law in order to essay writing, ensure Torvald’s health shows her courage. Krogstad’s blackmail and the trauma that follows do not change Nora’s nature; they open her eyes to her unfulfilled and underappreciated potential. ‘I have been performing tricks for you, Torvald,’ she says during her climactic confrontation with him. Nora comes to realize that in addition to her literal dancing and singing tricks, she has been putting on a show throughout her marriage. She has pretended to be someone she is not in order to fulfill the role that Torvald, her father, and society at large have expected of her. Though Nora is economically advantaged in comparison to the play’s other female characters, she nevertheless leads a difficult life because society dictates that Torvald be the jobs, marriage’s dominant partner. Torvald issues decrees and to thesis, condescends to Nora, and Nora must hide her loan from him because she knows Torvald could never accept the idea that his wife (or any other woman) had helped save his life. Furthermore, she must work in secret to pay off her loan because it is illegal for a woman to creative houston, obtain a loan without her husband’s permission. By motivating Nora’s deception, the attitudes of Torvald’and society’leave Nora vulnerable to Krogstad’s blackmail. De Beauvoir argues that throughout history, woman has been viewed as a ‘hindrance or a prison’.
Nora’s abandonment of her children can also be interpreted as an act of self- sacrifice. Despite Nora’s great love for her children’manifested by her interaction with them and her great fear of corrupting them’she chooses to leave them. Nora truly believes that the nanny will be a better mother and that leaving her children is in essays and medicaid their best interest. Nora’s understanding of the meaning of freedom evolves over the course of the play. In the first act, she believes that she will be totally ‘free’ as soon as she has repaid her debt, because she will have the opportunity to devote herself fully to her domestic responsibilities. After Krogstad blackmails her, however, she reconsiders her conception of writing houston freedom and question to thesis, questions whether she is happy in writing jobs houston Torvald’s house, subjected to on my bicycle, his orders and edicts. By the end of the play, Nora seeks a new kind of freedom. She wishes to be relieved of her familial obligations in order to pursue her own ambitions, beliefs, and creative jobs houston, identity.
Mrs. Advisory Committee Embl? Christine linde , In her younger days, she had to sacrifice love for the sake of her family. Writing Jobs? Rather than marrying the essay of traffic, dashing young Nils Krogstad, she married a businessman, Mr. Linde, so that she could support her sick mother and her two younger brothers. In order to creative jobs, sever herself from her beloved Nils, she wrote him a nasty note saying that she didn’t love him anymore. (A little harsh, Christine.) Now her brothers are all grown up and her mother is dead.
Her husband has passed away, too. Essays On Medicare? Mr. Linde’s business went kaput after he died and she’s had to work a lot of crumby jobs. Still, Christine is creative writing finally free. It’s true that Christine is to thesis free from the responsibilities of family, but she absolutely hates it. She’s not happy again until she reunites with Nils, telling him “I want to be a mother to writing houston, someone, and your children need a mother.
We two need each other”. It might be seen as tragic: women are so programmed by thesis committee embl, society, that the only thing they know how to do is be a homemaker. Creative Jobs? On the an essay bicycle, other hand, it’s not like Christine is making this decision from a place of writing jobs ignorance. Essays? Unlike Nora, Christine is well aware of what life is like without men. Creative? The major difference between Christine’s new relationship and that of the on importance of traffic education, Helmers seems to be that Christine and Krogstad are entering into creative it as equals.
Perhaps, the union of Nils and Christine is on medicare and medicaid Ibsen’s example of “the most wonderful thing of all,” which Nora defines as “a real wedlock” A Doll’s House ends with the slamming of a door. Nora turns her back on her husband and kids, and takes off into the snow to make her own way in the world. It’s a pretty bold decision, to say the writing jobs houston, least. Thesis And Ideologies? Some might even call it foolish. She doesn’t have a job. Not a whole lot of writing marketable skills. No home. No prospects of committee any kind.
By making this choice, she’s ostracizing herself from the creative writing houston, society she’s always been a part of. Most “respectable” people just aren’t going to hang out with her. The comfortable life she’s leading will be totally destroyed. So, why does she do such a thing? Nora makes he reason for thesis television, her decision pretty clear in her last argument with Torvald.
Before she makes her grand exit, he scathingly criticizes her, saying that by deserting her husband and children she is forsaking her “most sacred duties” . Nora doesn’t see it this way. Writing Houston? She tells him that the duties that are most sacred to her now are the “duties to [herself]” Furthermore, it can be debated that the male-female relationship in A Doll’s House is secret essay based on creative jobs houston a Master-Slave ideology which Friedrich Hegel, the great Enlightenment theorist, started. Essays? The relationship between Torvald and Helmer evolves according to creative jobs houston, a Master-Slave relationship. Hegel argues that the consciousness of one’s self as a self cannot be achieved except through confrontation with another.
Both Nora and her husband Torvald recognized their dependency on each other and essay on importance education, that self-consciousness led to Nora’s awakening in the end. Thus, Nora’s character self was made through the dialectical special interrelationship between her and her husband on one side and between her and the patriarchal society on the other. Hegel says that the self ‘through supersession, receives back its own self, because, by superseding its otherness, it again becomes equal to itself; but secondly, it equally gives the other self-consciousness back again to itself, for creative jobs, it saw itself in the other, but superseded this being of itself in essay education the other and thus lets the other again go free.’ First Nora acknowledges Torvald as her master and creative writing houston, she dutifully assumes her role as the an essay, slave who is dependent on her master. After the confrontation, Nora realizes the master’s dependency on writing her which leads her to supersede him and be free of an essay him. After reading ‘A Doll’s House’ by creative houston, Hendrik Ibsen. I can conclude that there is both a parallel and a contrast structure in the characters of Mrs. Linde and on my, Nora. A contrasting difference in the characters, are shown not in houston the characters themselves, but the role that they play in their marriages. These women have different relationships with their husbands.
Torvald and an essay on my bicycle, Nora have a relationship where there is no equality. To Torvald Nora is an object. Hence, she plays the submissive role in a society where the lady plays the passive role. Her most important obligation is to please Torvald, making her role similar to a slave. He too considers himself superior to her. As for Kristine and Krogstad their relationship is creative jobs houston much more open to us. It is apparent that if Kristine and Krogstad were to engage in an argument, it is more likely that that they would come to a compromise. A strong sign that Mrs. Linde brings us a better understanding of Nora is their parallel in characters. Both are willing to sacrifice themselves for values dear to their lives.
This act of aiding significant loved ones gives us a better understanding of question Nora. It gives us an image of who the jobs houston, character Nora really is. Mrs. Linde shows her loyalty to her family when she did not think that she ‘had the right’ to essays on medicare, refuse her husband’s marriage proposal. After taking into consideration her sick mother, her brothers, and Krogstad having money. Creative Jobs Houston? She married for the welfare of her family. Which means that in essay on importance of traffic education this society family is creative jobs top priority. To the women is essays and medicaid this era, loyalty to their loved ones is writing houston highly expected.
Then, we have Nora, who on the same token saves her husband (Torvald’s) life, which portrays again, the trend of women sacrificing for their families. Thesis Television? They both (Mrs. Linde and writing, Nora) express their feelings of pride and on my, fulfillment in helping their significant others by sacrificing themselves. Nora’s character is made more obvious to us by Mrs. Linde’s actions. Houston? Not only did Nora open her mouth about essays saving her husband’s life, but she did it with the utmost pride. Claiming to have raised all the money herself she soaks in her self-importance. In Act 1, Nora seems to thrive on the pride she gets from jobs houston borrowing the money.
I suppose that she is feeling useful for a change. It seems also, that Mrs. Linde comes off as superior to Nora because she feels that Nora has never done hard work in her life. Thesis Television? Mrs. Linde is referring to houston, the sacrifice she has made. She makes a remark about Nora still being a child. As if to say that she was inexperienced. She is half-right. At the end of the play Nora agrees that is it ‘true’, She does not know much about the world and secret, that if she is to creative writing, learn, then she will have to experience that for herself. This remark tells us that Nora is capable of to thesis choosing herself over her husband. And that she has to be herself before she can be a wife or mom for that matter.
Norma Helmer is the best illustration of the illusioned woman who lives in a society where the male oppresses the jobs, female and thesis embl, reduces to a mere doll or plaything. Nora Helmer is that doll living in her fake doll house, which reinforces the fragile idea of a stable family living under a patriarchal and traditional roof. One can argue that Nora Helmer and the other female figures portrayed in A Doll’s House are the creative jobs houston, best models of the ‘second sex’ or. the ‘other’ that the an essay on my, French revolutionary writer Simone de Beauvoir discussed in her essay, The Second Sex. It seems like Nora has gone through a kind of personal awakening. She’s come to creative writing jobs, the conclusion that she’s not a fully realized person. She has to spend some time figuring out who she is as an individual or she’ll never be anything more than someone’s doll.
This would be impossible under the smothering presence of Torvald. Yet, the doll house is shattered as well as Nora’s illusion. The doll finally recognizes that her role has been nothing but the ‘Other’. She is aware that it is she who agreed to the definition of the ‘One’ and the’ Other’. It’s a moment of profound awakening when Nora realizes that her husband values his reputation and job more than he values his love for her.
Torvalds’s resentment and accusations after knowing about essay what she had done comes as a blessing in disguise. We hear Torvald telling her, ‘For all these years, for writing jobs houston, eight years now, you’ve been my pride and joy, and now I find you’re a hypocrite and a liar, and worse, worse than that’a criminal! The whole thing is an secret writing abyss of ugliness! You ought to be ashamed.’ Simone de Beauvoir says that if the creative writing jobs houston, woman seems to question, be the inessential which never becomes the essential, it is because she herself fails to bring about the change. But here we tell De Beauvoir that Nora is willing to bring about the change. The harsh reality smacks her in the face; a wave of disillusionment wakes her up. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and writing houston, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in your email box, in thesis as little as 3 hours. This English Literature essay was submitted to us by a student in writing order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/english-literature/essay-a-dolls-house-by-henrik-ibsen/ [03-10-17].
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